%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 25 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930061731+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930061731+01'00') /Title (In the Watches of the Night: Life in the Nocturnal City, 1820-1930) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4278 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(In the Watches of the Night: Life in the Nocturnal City, 1820-1930)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1872 the Reverend T. DeWitt Talmage composed an essay entitled ?After midnight? in which he put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward the notion that night-time in the city passes through four distinct phases or ?watches? \(pp. 55?6\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Night was not one entity that lasted from dusk until dawn, instead it moved in three hour periods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commencing at 6pm. This was the end of the working day for business establishments, a time characterised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the turning out of workmen and clerks onto the streets. As clocking off time merged into the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(watch the city dedicated itself to leisure amusements, whether wholesome or otherwise. Those who pursued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these late into the night found themselves in ?after midnight?, a time when most of those still awake were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoying the city?s seedier offerings or using the cover of darkness to break the law. Finally at around 3am )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revelries died down and working homes begun stirring ready for the day ahead. Each watch represents a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spatial function for the city?s spaces and each invoked a different set of connotations for the urban inhabitant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a corresponding level of morality. It is the social activity and perception of these watches, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent to which DeWitt Talmage was right to compartmentalise the urban night, that interests Peter Baldwin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and forms the subject matter of )] TJ ET BT 186.656 116.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In the Watches of the Night.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In the Watches of the Night )] TJ ET BT 168.008 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores the physical development of the city?s night-time infrastructure, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviours of those who used it and the anxieties of those who feared the insalubrious behaviours it gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cover to. Baldwin?s work traces the experience of night in pre-industrial north-east American cities, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1351)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 15 November, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Baldwin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780226036021)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(304pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Chicago Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago, IL)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanna Marchant)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7824 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the streets were perilously dark and left to young men on drinking sprees, prostitutes, criminals, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(watchmen, to that of the booming, electrified cities of the dynamic 1920s, where artificial light enabled a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(night-time work force to operate, where mass entertainment flourished and where young men continued to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lay claim to the night. The expansion of night activity provoked social conflicts, created new customs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power inequalities, forming what Baldwin terms a ?complicated new space?. This space had its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schedule, its own rules of access and its own codes of behaviour \(p. 13\). Yet, technological progress did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn night into day. Baldwin attributes this to a persistent moral controversy which shrouded the city after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sunset, something that was largely the product of danger, street crime, and the highly gendered nature of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space. Night-time in the pre-industrial city was variously a place of debauchery, fear, violence, crime, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excitement, mystery and escapism and this had changed little by the first decades of the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baldwin?s work follows on from that of D. Nasaw, Wolfgang Schivelbusch and Joachim Schlr.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 498.620 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 498.620 640.515 m 512.612 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 512.612 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creating a social geography of light Baldwin?s research shares certain characteristics with that of Lynda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nead and Richard Dennis, both of whom explore the impact of lighting on the night-time experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, and in Dennis? case also New York.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 251.636 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 251.636 597.747 m 265.628 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 265.628 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These authors examine the inconsistent presence of street )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lighting, the varying quality of which ?articulated social difference?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 363.284 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 363.284 583.491 m 377.276 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 377.276 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Baldwin?s work sets itself apart by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressing the social geography of lighting within a much broader context of technological change, and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural impact on the experience of night. In this analysis the author questions the agency of technology as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driver of historical change. He makes it clear that the use of a new invention is rarely determined by its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inventor and its application to everyday life largely depends on the social position and knowledge of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who have access to it \(p. 3\). This is an important point of consideration for anyone interested in urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernisation and this book offers us a good example of how to handle the dialogue between society and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technology. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In the Watches of the Night )] TJ ET BT 168.008 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tells the story of urban night though a series of well devised chronological and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thematic chapters. Analysis begins with ?Making night hideous?, a chapter which focuses on the advent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gas street lighting and the social geography of light and darkness. Here a connection is made between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unequal advances made by gas lighting and the growing division of the industrial city along functional and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class lines. This discussion also addresses the perceived ability of light to make urban streets safer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something Baldwin deals with in conjunction with the rise of a professional police force that, between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid and late 19th century, had to respond to a new geography of nocturnal crime as a result of zoned night-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time activity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following on from this discussion the next three chapters address changing attitudes towards and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities for leisure after dark. These trace both middle- and working-class perceptions of the moral and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immoral leisure activities on offer in the city and present the night-time street as a site of conflict and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential corruption. Male dominance of the city after dark is stressed here, particularly with regard to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?third watch? which, Baldwin asserts, was characterised by social activities largely indistinguishable from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those which young men had indulged in in the pre-industrial city. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The subsequent chapters, ?Nightmen? and ?Incessance?, turn attention to night-time work. Here Baldwin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores the impact of privy cleaners, food traders, transport workers, and newspaper producers and sellers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the public spaces. This is where we are introduced to the children who made the night-time streets theirs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly newsboys whose knowledge of the city gave them the confidence to assert a right to ?adult? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nocturnal spaces. Changing shift patterns also had a profound impact in the way people engaged with and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used the night-time city. Incessant round-the-clock factory production claimed the night hours of an array of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male workers and Baldwin examines their experience of a disrupted day and night schedule. Night shifts put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more people on the streets and in public transport after dark and the following chapter, ?Mashers, owl cars, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and night hawks?, analyses this in relationship to the use of urban spaces by women. Narratives of sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(danger assume a prominent place in this dialogue, emphasising the unequal access men and women had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the streets and street-cars after dark.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the 1880s American cities began introducing electric lighting and ?Night life in the electric city? is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an attempt to discern the effect of this more effervescent light on the urban night. Baldwin positions the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 498.6197 640.8295 512.6117 652.7095 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 251.6357 598.0615 265.6277 609.9415 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 363.2837 583.8055 377.2757 595.6855 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 6272 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of this new technology firmly within broader social and economic changes which were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bringing about their own dramatic shifts in the cultural use of the night-time city. From the late 19th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the 1920s cheap mass entertainment was on the rise and this brought about a new set of moral concerns. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No longer was the night-time clearly divided into four phases and this surrounded modern entertainments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a moral ambiguity ? they were far from respectable yet could hardly be condemned in the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashion as the gambling hall or brothel.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Attempts to navigate this changing engagement with the night are the subject of the final chapter, in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baldwin examines campaigns and legislation for the regulation of children and women?s access to the night-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time city. Attention is drawn to the different attitudes held by middle class and working class families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the urban night, attempts which often found expression in how far parents permitted their children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to experience the city after dark. The regulation of female access came in the form of labour laws which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited opportunities for night-time work. Baldwin finishes by stressing how policies of regulation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforced the old nocturnal culture of the pre-industrial city. In discouraging the presence of women and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children, frequently in terms of the moral danger they faced there, the urban night remained a male-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated space. Rather than reforming male engagement with the city and making it a safer place to be, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(night streets were given over to those whose activity was potentially a physical and moral threat to more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vulnerable members of the urban community.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In the Watches of the Night )] TJ ET BT 168.008 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes a valuable contribution to urban history, not only through the detailed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich research which it presents, but also through its ability to encourage new ways of thinking about how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past inhabitants experienced their cities. Additionally there is a lot of potential to extend Baldwin?s ideas to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a broader array of case studies and to post-1920 time periods, thereby deepening further our understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this often neglected aspect of urban living. )] TJ ET BT 254.312 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In the Watches of the Night )] TJ ET BT 388.304 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a highly accessible work that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will interest a wide range of readers from those who want to know about gendered spaces, to those keen to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find out more about childhood in the 19th century, to those who study crime and deviance, to urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians who are curious about the socio-cultural recasting of city spaces.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 395.427 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 364.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. Schivelbusch, )] TJ ET BT 151.340 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disenchanted Night: The Industrialisation of Light in the Nineteenth Century )] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Berkeley, CA, 1988\); D. Nasaw, ?Cities of light, landscapes of pleasure?, in D. Ward and O. Zunz, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Landscape of Modernity: Essay on New York City, 1900?1940 )] TJ ET BT 388.340 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Baltimore, MD, 1992\); J. Schlr, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nights in the Big City: Paris, Berlin and London )] TJ ET BT 300.704 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 379.028 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 379.028 320.643 m 433.016 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. Nead, )] TJ ET BT 108.668 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Babylon: People, Streets and Images in Nineteenth Century London)] TJ ET BT 483.308 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(New Haven, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(CT, 2000\), pp. 83?148; R. 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