%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818083136+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818083136+01'00') /Title (Town and Countryside in the Age of the Black Death: Essays in Honour of John Hatcher) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3909 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Town and Countryside in the Age of the Black Death: Essays in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Honour of John Hatcher)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This collection of essays forms an excellent Festschrift for Professor John Hatcher, whose eclectic range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research is displayed by the volume?s division into three parts: the first explores the medieval demographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system; the second charts the changing relationship between lords and peasants; and the third highlights the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fortunes of trade and industry after the Black Death. As Mark Bailey notes in his introduction, the Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Death ?stands unchallenged as the greatest disaster in documented human history?\(p. xx\). This Festschrift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showcases the pioneering work John Hatcher has conducted over his distinguished career, revisiting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of his empirical studies of monastic mortality, his early work on the Duchy of Cornwall, and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive study of the coal industry. As such, this volume brings together a range of important, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential and innovative essays and is particularly aided by a generous word length which allows many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the contributors to provide a critical literature review of previous work making this an invaluable volume for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students and academics alike. This is further aided by short bibliographies of cited works provided at the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of each chapter. However, given the overall length of the volume and the diverse range of subjects explored, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the volume would have benefited from a unifying subject index. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1353)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 6 December, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Bailey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. H. Rigby)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9782503535173)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(120.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(420pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brepols)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Turnhout)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alex Brown)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7288 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first of three chapters focusing upon demography, Ole Benedictow explores the historical controversy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding the concept of a ?high pressure? medieval demographic system, which was qualitatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different from the ?low pressure? early modern equivalent. In the former, mortality was the key determinant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of population size at around four or five per cent and a life expectancy of between 20 and 25 years, with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high marriage rate resulting in high levels of fertility. In the latter, mortality rates were around three to three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a half per cent, life expectancy was between 30 and 35 years, and the usual age at first marriage was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 24 and 26 years. Benedictow argues that a ?key factor in this transition was the great change in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of infectious diseases which began at the end of the fifteenth century?, which saw the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction of preventive measures to combat the spread of diseases and the gradual reduction in mortality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels, paving the way for the gradual transition to the early modern demographic system \(p. 33\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a particularly insightful survey of medieval demographic history, Richard M. Smith discusses Postan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original suggestions of population decline; Gottfried, Glennie and Goldberg?s work on wills; and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pioneering work conducted by John Hatcher concerning the death rates and life expectancies of monks. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From this discussion Smith shows that there is a consensus developing which emphasises a decrease in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life expectancies of monks from the 1450s until the 1520s. He then uses a sample of Inquisitions Post )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mortem from the 14th century to show that Russell may have under-estimated life expectancy by as much as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25 per cent. This further reinforces the idea of a drop in life expectancies in the second half of the 15th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century and Smith concludes that there is increasing evidence for the presence of a mortality cycle from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1450s which saw life expectancy decline and instability in death rates worsen. This presents an intriguing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conundrum: if England was experiencing increased mortality in the second half of the 15th century, how are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we to explain the improvement in rents and the collection of arrears experienced by many landowners in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same period which are suggestive of renewed pressure on landed resources?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maryanne Kowaleski focuses upon the demography of maritime communities in late medieval England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploring the many similarities between such communities and their early-modern counterparts. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the medieval evidence is often lacking, she is able to suggest that there was a high amount of maritime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupations such as fishing, shipping and piracy and that there is evidence for high male mortality and male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absences, with a high percentage of single people and large numbers of households headed by women. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that there were a number of ?striking similarities? in the demographic features of medieval and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later coastal communities and that the nature of maritime communities produced continuity rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast between the late medieval and early modern periods \(p. 112\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a collection of chapters focusing upon the changing relationship between landlords and peasants, Bruce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. S. Campbell considers the causes and consequences of changes in grain yields, exploring changes in tree-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ring data, global temperatures, and sea level pressure. He suggests that there were six distinctive sub-periods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the chronology of yields: disastrous harvests of 1349?51/2; persistently poor harvests until 1369?75; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatic improvement from 1376 until the mid-1390s; worsening harvests into the 1420s; heightened yield )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variability of the 1430s and 1440s; and following a respite in the 1450s, the return of dismal harvests in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final decades of the century. His chapter contains invaluable figures and tables concerning much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific evidence for the beginning of a cooler and stormier Little Ice Age, including an indexed appendix )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing grain yields per seed. Ultimately, Campbell argues that ?many of the most abiding economic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social features? of the years following the Black Death ?sprang in part from the low, varying, and uncertain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yield of grain? \(p. 162\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Stephenson explores the capital formation, investment and risk awareness of medieval landowners. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He shows that the authors of agricultural treatises were aware of risks, ranging from the human risk of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embezzlement by untrustworthy officials to the natural vagaries of the weather, and suggested ways to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counteract them. Stephenson argues that Postan and Hilton underestimated capital investment, which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finds was more in the region of 17 per cent than the five per cent they suggested. This was a figure nearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(double that of ?improving? 18th-century landlords, although at least part of this discrepancy is because these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later landowners were purely rentiers and thus their only capital investment took the form of the repair and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of buildings. As Stephenson acknowledges, alongside buildings, purchasing livestock was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5817 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?perhaps the main outlet for the expansion of capital stock in medieval society? \(p. 188\). Thus his only post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Black Death case study of Downton manor shows that investment levels dropped to 9.2 per cent from 1431 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the land was leased out in its entirety; a figure remarkably similar to the 9.3 per cent for Norfolk and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suffolk estates in the late 18th century. His essay does, however, call for a reassessment of the investment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels of landowners as well as a renewed appreciation of their risk awareness with his suggestion that risk-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking increased during ?difficult economic circumstances? compared to relatively buoyant periods \(p. 208\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a particularly interesting and detailed chapter, David Stone questions the orthodoxy that there was more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuity than change in the aftermath of the Black Death by focusing upon the immediate and short-term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences of the pestilence. Thus, we see how communities prepared for the impending arrival of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Black Death, purchasing extra locks to secure the bake-house doors and restricting movement around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estate between autumn 1348 and spring 1349. He argues that the Black Death had significant ?economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reverberations? which saw the opening of ?Pandora?s Box?: patterns of consumption had begun to change; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wage-arrangements were riddled with subterfuge; and the expectations of labourers and landowners were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing \(p. 241\). It seems likely that if pestilence had not returned and the population recovered to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous levels then medieval lords could have fashioned a makeshift lid for ?Pandora?s Box?, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately Stone?s essay succeeds in showing that the immediate consequences of the Black Death should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not be underestimated and that ?continuity in administration should not be mistaken for a return to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normality? \(p. 229\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erin McGibbon Smith explores the various methodological problems of using manorial court rolls, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticising past work which has either focused upon the analysis of a narrow range of themes from the total )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business of the court, or has sought out multiple series of good court rolls without ensuringit isexamining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records from the same time. This has numerous disadvantages, not least the fact that the lords' officials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused on some offences and not others, and thus as Smith argues, the ??window? provided by rolls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed in size, shape and opacity over time? \(p. 252\). She uses seven categories of court business to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrate changes across the Black Death: the lord?s rights; inter-peasant litigation; community nuisance; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials and court function; crime and misbehaviour; land; and the market. One of the most significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes in her categories concerns that of ?crime and misbehaviour? which shows a distinct peak in violent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crime in 1335?45, bringing into question Ambrose Raftis? widely accepted argument that a decline in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?village community? took place after the onset of the Black Death.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Phillipp Schofield revisits Hatcher?s early work on the Duchy of Cornwall using the archives of the Earls of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arundell to explore regional trends in Cornwall. He argues that a combination of economic factors better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain the general success and stability of the Arundell estates in the second half of the 15th century rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the sub-regional patterns which Hatcher emphasised, and that ?explanations for robustness must also be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detected in the local economy beyond the estate itself? \(p. 293\). Schofield?s chapter is particularly important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in exploring the inter-relationship between late medieval seigneurial economies and the non-manorial sector. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He also discusses the relative lack of innovation on the Arundell estate, andstatesthatwhere there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change it was largely ?consistent with past practice? \(p. 291\). Despite this, the Earlswere willing to ?let )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holdings both for differing terms, at lower rents, and to permit accumulation?, thus emphasising that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may well have been rentiers but this ?did not mean that they were inert as landlords? \(p. 292\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6615 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Munro?s chapter focuses upon the period from 1370 until 1420 which saw the widespread leasing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demesne land across medieval England. Unlike many of the other contributors, Munro focuses upon the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of monetary and fiscal factors in producing the momentous changes in the economy of this period rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relying upon demographic explanations of change. His chapter provides a lucid summary of the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements of this argument, ranging from the problem of the ?time-lag? between the Black Death and changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in socio-economic trends in the 1370s, and the problem of ?wage-stickiness?. He argues that a combination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of price-scissors, problems of capital and personal indebtedness led lords ?to convert villein tenancies into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaseholds, with fewer or no servile obligations? as the enforcement costs of serfdom became too expensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 337\). This reliance on broad fiscal and monetary factors to explain change has numerous advantages and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlights some of the pitfalls of demographic determinism, but also runs the risk of reducing the events at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smithfield and Mile End to little more than a footnote in the history of medieval England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final three chapters explore trade and industry after the Black Death. James Davis explores the trade in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food and drink in one small town \(Clare, Suffolk\) in order to examine the immediate and longer-term impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Black Death. He considers the wide range of factors influencing trade in market towns, ranging from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demography and inter-related aspects of supply and demand, to standards of living, seigneurial reactions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lower-class aspirations. Davis concludes that the enforcement of the assizes of ale was as ?much the product )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of social and political interests as of economic factors?, and that the arrival of a new lord brought with it a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in direction with the townsfolk gaining ?de facto control of the market and court? \(p. 370\). Overall, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis shows how there was a sharp expansion in opportunities and regulation soon after the Black Death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lasting into the 1370s; changes between the 1380s and 1410s as the level of amercements fell away; and by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 15th century, there were low levels of amercements and ?seemingly less interference in everyday market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life? \(p. 395\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John S. Lee highlights the current lack of knowledge concerning fairs between the mid 14th and mid 16th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries compared to either the preceding or succeeding periods. He shows that the number of grants for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new fairs did not decline as much as for new markets in the 15th century, although unfortunately, as Lee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses, the sources often do not indicate the success or longevity of many of these fairs. In particular, Lee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlights the wide range of goods traded at fairs, from wool and cloth, to livestock and fish, to household )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and consumer goods, as well as emphasising the role fairs played as gatherings for entertainment, social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities and gathering news. He also emphasises the way in which fairs were important in meeting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing consumer demands of everyday people after the Black Death, who were increasingly experiencing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise in living standards. His essay highlights the importance of fairs, suggesting that ?their continuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prominence at least merits consideration in any reassessment of the debate over late medieval ?urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline?? \(p. 428\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a fitting final chapter of the volume, Richard H. Britnell explores the coal industry of the Bishops of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Durham. He pays considerable attention to the people engaged in the coal trade, showing that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrepreneurship was ?broadly based, involving Newcastle merchants, episcopal administrators, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical bodies of all sizes, gentry families, other lay landowners of varied status, and skilled local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenants? \(p. 467\). His chapter shows the fundamental differences between inland and coastal coal mines, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the inland mines at Railey showing surprising buoyancy during the entirety of the 15th century. Of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular interest is his suggestion that these sales were dependent ?upon the local household demand? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenants even in the depth of the mid 15th-century recession, which by the early 16th century could account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for as much as 17,500 tons being sold to ?various people coming to the said mine? across just two years \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(449\). Britnell?s essay thus provides a platform for future research into the consumption patterns of Durham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenants in the 15th century: how and why did local tenants incorporate coal into their everyday lives during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the depth of the mid-century recession?)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1658 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Mark Bailey concluded his introduction: ?debate will continue to rage over the exact consequences of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Black Death? \(p. xxxvi\). This collection of essays is a noteworthy and welcome contribution to this debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and forms a fitting Festschrift for such a pioneering figure in the study of the economic and social history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors were happy to read the positive review and do not wish to reply.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sehepunkte)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.sehepunkte.de/2013/09/21709.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 659.283 m 261.020 659.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 264.020 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 655.951 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 638.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 638.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1353)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 636.777 m 328.316 636.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 611.800 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 597.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/43198)] TJ ET BT 34.016 583.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.sehepunkte.de/2013/09/21709.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 659.5975 261.0197 671.4775 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.sehepunkte.de/2013/09/21709.html) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 637.0915 328.3157 648.9715 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1353) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000594 00000 n 0000000676 00000 n 0000004637 00000 n 0000004746 00000 n 0000004856 00000 n 0000004965 00000 n 0000008526 00000 n 0000008654 00000 n 0000008738 00000 n 0000008803 00000 n 0000016144 00000 n 0000016209 00000 n 0000022079 00000 n 0000022144 00000 n 0000028812 00000 n 0000028903 00000 n 0000030614 00000 n 0000030741 00000 n 0000030836 00000 n 0000030964 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31060 %%EOF