%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 18 0 R 23 0 R 28 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 55 0 R ] /Count 10 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722180346+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722180346+01'00') /Title (The French Book Trade in Enlightenment Europe, 1769-1794) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4873 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The French Book Trade in Enlightenment Europe, 1769-1794)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Burrows proclaims the database that he and a team of researchers from the University of Leeds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published last June as ?a wonder to behold?, and indeed it is wonderful. Entitled )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 422.636 301.835 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The French Book Trade in )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 422.636 300.615 m 552.956 300.615 l S BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment Europe, 1769?1794. Mapping the Trade of the Socit typographique de Neuchtel)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 286.359 m 507.644 286.359 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 510.644 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 525.980 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(draws on account books of the )] TJ ET BT 183.320 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Socit typographique de Neuchtel \(STN\))] TJ ET BT 388.628 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to show where and when books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were sold across the entire European continent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By clicking through drop-down menus, the user can trace the dissemination of individual works and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compare the relative importance of genres and authors. Graphs show variations in sales over time, and maps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrate patterns of geographical diffusion. A beautifully designed network of links makes it possible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(check the identity of the books themselves, often including their place and date of publication. Statistical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tables provide information about best-sellers on many levels ? throughout Europe, in particular countries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and town-by-town. A user can click happily through all this material, following leads and developing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hypotheses to be tested by further research. )] TJ ET BT 244.628 147.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The French Book Trade in Enlightenment Europe \(FBTEE\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represents four years of intense team work. It is a prodigious accomplishment and a joy to use.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The pleasure is compounded by admiration for the rigor of the work and for its potential relevance to some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important historical questions. Do you want to calculate the impact of Voltaire and Rousseau? To measure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the diffusion of works about the American Revolution? To analyze the literary diet of readers in Sweden, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy, Russia or France on the eve of 1789? Click around in the )] TJ ET BT 338.636 63.995 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(FBTEE)] TJ ET BT 374.636 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Its authors do not interpret their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(findings for you. \(They plan to do so in follow-up studies.\) They simply make them available ? in rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1355)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 6 December, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Burrows)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Curran)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vincent Hiribarren)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sarah Kattau)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry Merivale)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Leeds)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leeds)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Darnton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 422.6357 300.7555 552.9557 312.6355 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://chop.leeds.ac.uk/stn/) >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 286.4995 507.6437 298.3795 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://chop.leeds.ac.uk/stn/) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 21 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8174 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profusion, online, and free of charge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(FBTEE)] TJ ET BT 91.676 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s finest feature is its maps. Color-coded and carefully demarcated according to different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries, they make it possible to enjoy a broad overview of trade patterns and to zoom in to individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sites, where one can assess the relative importance of factors such as trade routes, political barriers, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural institutions. The design and engineering, done by Vincent Hiribarren, builds on a tradition that goes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back many years to the ?laboratoire cartographique? of the Ecole des hautes tudes en sciences sociales, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it belongs to the current flourishing of the digital humanities ? that is, the study of cultural data that can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aggregated on a large scale, broken down into pertinent units, recombined to bring out hidden relations, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed visually, thanks to the latest advances in information technology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 644.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(FBTEE)] TJ ET BT 91.676 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( also involved a vast amount of artisanal labor in the archives. Burrows?s main collaborator, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Curran, spent many months transcribing titles from the STN?s account books and identifying them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His work constitutes an important contribution to bibliography, both by connecting manuscript references to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actual publications \(a daunting task\) and by making well-informed inferences about particular editions. To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combine traditional research of this kind with sophisticated computational analysis is an impressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement ? all the more so considering the scale of the study: 413,000 sales of 4,000 different editions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books to 2,895 clients scattered across Europe. The computers generated enough data points to fill the map )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Europe with black dots. Can we therefore enjoy an unobstructed view of the French book trade in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment Europe?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burrows and his collaborators clearly think so, although they refrain from attaching general arguments to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their statistics. Their web site generously makes their research available to others while they prepare to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporate it in further works of their own. Having studied the STN?s accounts myself, I can confirm that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Burrows team made excellent use of them. The richest account books, called )] TJ ET BT 422.936 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(brouillards)] TJ ET BT 476.948 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 482.948 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(journaux)] TJ ET BT 526.280 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mains courantes)] TJ ET BT 113.012 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, cover the period from 1769 to 1787. They have gaps, but inventory records, known as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(rencontres)] TJ ET BT 85.340 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, can be used to plug many of the holes. Further data can be derived from the )] TJ ET BT 456.932 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(livres de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(commissions)] TJ ET BT 95.348 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, wonderful ledgers that record orders and shipments on facing pages, although they do not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information about all of the activity that Burrows and his collaborators call ?events? ? e.g. the acquisition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works by the STN.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 124.676 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 124.676 388.419 m 138.668 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unfortunately, the documentation thins after 1787. Despite the existence of one )] TJ ET BT 418.952 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(journal)] TJ ET BT 454.292 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which includes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entries from 1790 to 1797, there is not enough information to construct a significant pattern of trade from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outbreak of the Revolution until December 31, 1794, the terminal point of the )] TJ ET BT 410.312 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(FBTEE)] TJ ET BT 446.312 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( study. The statistics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the 1780s also pose problems, because the STN?s business was vulnerable to political and economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors. Strong measures taken by the French government virtually closed the French market to Swiss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishers in June 1783. The STN then fell back on its non-French trade, but for a variety of reasons it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffered a partial bankruptcy \(suspension of payments\) in 1784. After reorganizing and refinancing its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business, it cut back severely on production and concentrated on selling off the enormous backlog of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inventory. It commissioned a sales agent named Durand to travel through Italy and central Europe in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1787?8, flogging its wares at greatly reduced prices. The record of his transactions provides some indication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of books that reached distant markets, but many of those books were known in the trade as ?drogues? or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?gardes-magasin? ? that is, works that had piled up and remained unsold for many years in the warehouse. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, the )] TJ ET BT 104.996 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(FBTEE)] TJ ET BT 140.996 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( team identified only a minority of the books that Durand sold ? 40 per cent of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sales he arranged during his tour of Austro-Hungarian territory. By 1789 the STN had ceased printing books, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its business amounted to little more than an effort to run down its inventory. Burrows and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaborators found no sales for 1789 and only a trickle for the next five years; so they did not come up with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough data to measure the book trade all the way to 1795. Even at its height in the 1770s, the STN cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be considered the ?Amazon? of the 18th century, as Burrows claims. But it seems churlish to object to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inadequacies in data accumulated with so much care and effort. Even if one limits the )] TJ ET BT 447.932 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(FBTEE)] TJ ET BT 483.932 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( statistics to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period that runs from June 1769 to June 1783, when they are most revealing, they offer a wonderfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich vein of information about the book trade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What to make of them? Judging from videos and some preliminary articles linked to the web site, Burrows )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj [18 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 124.6757 388.7335 138.6677 400.6135 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 8141 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his collaborators worried about one principal problem, the representativeness of the STN?s business, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they concluded that it could indeed be taken as representative of the book trade in general ? to a certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent. Unfortunately, that extent cannot be determined, because no comparable archives exist. The )] TJ ET BT 513.572 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(FBTEE)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(team had to limit themselves to one source, the account books of the STN. But they combed through it so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoroughly and subjected their methods to so much self-criticism that their findings command respect. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took my own work as a starting point and subjected it, too, to some healthy criticism. In the interest of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoting a dialogue, I would like to discuss some key issues where our arguments run parallel and diverge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Forbidden Best-Sellers of Pre-Revolutionary France)] TJ ET BT 321.308 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, I argued that the STN?s function as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wholesaler in addition to that of a publisher meant that it disposed of a ?floating stock? available to all of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allies among the publishing houses that surrounded France in a fertile crescent that extended from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amsterdam and Brussels through the Rhineland and Switzerland into Avignon, which was then papal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territory. Those publishers furnished France and all of Europe with cheap, pirated editions of books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in France and with books that could not pass the French censorship. Although they competed, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often cooperated. The STN made formal alliances with the Socit typographique de Lausanne and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Socit typographique de Berne to produce joint pirated editions, and it developed confidential relations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with many other publishers. When it printed a book, it often traded a large proportion of the edition for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice of works available from the stock of friendly fellow publishers. It also worked out deals to tap their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stock when one of its clients ordered a book that it did not keep in its warehouse. As a result, it could sell a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great many of the works in current circulation, and its sales pattern suggested trends in the book trade as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole. The )] TJ ET BT 91.004 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(FBTEE)] TJ ET BT 127.004 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( group accepted this argument, but they asserted that it applies only to Swiss houses, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since publishers in the Low Countries and the Rhineland could have developed a very different floating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stock among themselves. I agree, and I should not have implied that the STN?s network of alliances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended far beyond Swiss territory, although it traded intensely with publishers and wholesalers like Pierre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gosse Junior of The Hague, Clment Plomteux of Lige, and J.-L. Boubers of Brussels.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My own attempt to wrestle with the problem of representativeness actually took a different direction. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the STN occasionally sold books to individuals, those sales were so scattered and exceptional that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one cannot trace consumption beyond the level of booksellers. In rare cases, notably the marketing of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encyclopdie)] TJ ET BT 98.660 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, there is enough information to sketch a sociology of readers.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 395.276 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 395.276 386.163 m 409.268 386.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 409.268 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But the STN marketed nearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all of its large and varied stock to other booksellers, both wholesalers and retailers. Unfortunately, many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its clients ordered only a few books and then ceased to trade with the STN, because they found the transport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(costs too heavy, the service too slow, and the price too high, or because they could get more favorable terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from other suppliers, who operated from a closer location on the shipping routes. As a consequence, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(STN?s account books are full of transactions from dealers who placed only one or two orders ? often ?pour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essai?, as they put it in their letters ? and then stopped. Many customers ordered only one book, such as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encyclopdie)] TJ ET BT 98.660 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a best-seller that the STN published as a partner in an international consortium, and never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordered another. Other customers drew most of their stock from other suppliers, and turned to the STN only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when it offered some unusual ?nouveaut? \(a trade term that meant a new publication, often of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptional kind, such as a pamphlet about current events\). Sales of such small quantities to such occasional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(customers cannot furnish a statistical profile of their trade, and they cannot be aggregated to form an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accurate picture of the book trade in general. Unlike the )] TJ ET BT 304.940 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(FBTEE)] TJ ET BT 340.940 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( team, I decided that I could produce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative statistics only from booksellers who placed a large number of orders over a considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stretch of time. Therefore, I restricted my study to steady customers of the STN, whose businesses could also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be assessed qualitatively by reading their correspondence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I also limited my statistical sampling to France and to the illegal trade within the French market. Those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limitations are, I agree, unfortunate. After a great deal of work in documents outside as well as inside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(STN archives, I was able to distinguish which books were treated as unambiguously illegal by the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities; but I could not measure their importance in relation to the book trade as a whole. The STN dealt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so heavily in illegal works that its relations with its principal clients in France can serve as an index to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France?s illegal book trade. But it did not stock and could not procure all the books in existence in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market for French literature from 1769 to 1789. Much as I wanted to argue for the representativeness of its )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 395.2757 386.4775 409.2677 398.3575 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 6770 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archives, I concluded that the papers of one publisher could not be taken as a measure of publishing in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general. I claimed only to provide a reliable analysis of a particular sector of the trade, but by doing so I was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to draw on other sources ? police raids on book stores, confiscations in the Paris customs, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references in specialized catalogues of forbidden books ? in order to assess the STN?s business against other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicators of the diffusion of forbidden books. By trimming my research strategy in this fashion, I believe I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came up with valid, if limited, results.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That strategy, however, looked inadequate to the )] TJ ET BT 270.968 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(FBTEE)] TJ ET BT 306.968 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( group for another reason: I measured the demand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for books as indicated by orders from booksellers rather than their supply as demonstrated by records of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sales in the STN?s accounts. To be sure, a sales transaction has a satisfyingly definitive character: money, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only in the form of a promissory note or a bill of exchange due to expire in 12 or 18 months, is exchanged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a commodity. One can treat a sale as an indication that a physical book reached a particular place at a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain time. True, the STN?s customers often shipped back books that they did not want ? not because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?returns? were permitted in the 18th-century trade, as Burrows and his collaborators claim, but because the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(copies were so defective that the STN?s customers refused to accept them, or because, as often happened, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the STN slipped into its shipments ?nouveauts? that had not been ordered in the hope that its clients would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(buy them. The only case I have found when the STN permitted a bookseller to return unsold copies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned Johann Conrad Deinet of Frankfurt. After tortuous negotiations related to his practice of ordering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too many books and paying for too few of them, the STN permitted him to sell its works ?en commission? ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is, to pay for those he sold and to return the rest.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 286.652 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 286.652 526.467 m 300.644 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 300.644 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Such arrangements were extremely rare. Nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like the modern practice of returns existed in the French book trade ? or, I believe, in the early modern book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade anywhere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aside from the question of returns, the principal difficulty in assessing sales has to do with customers who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not represent a stopping point in the diffusion process but relayed books to other locations that cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determined. A large proportion of the STN?s clients were fellow wholesalers whose distribution systems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were as great or greater than its own. Its most important client in the Low Countries, Pierre Gosse Junior of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Hague, sold most of his books in France and England, yet his sales appear on the )] TJ ET BT 446.960 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(FBTEE)] TJ ET BT 482.960 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( map at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(location of The Hague. The key client of the STN in German-speaking Switzerland was the Socit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typographique de Berne, which disposed of the books it received from the STN primarily at the Frankfurt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Leipzig book fairs, where they were loaded on barges and wagons for distribution throughout central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and northern Europe. The dissemination of those books cannot be mapped from the STB?s account, and this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem is especially important in the case of publisher-wholesalers with whom the STN dealt by means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(swapping sheets.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The exchange trade was so important for the Neuchtelois that they isolated it under a special rubric in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account books ? )] TJ ET BT 114.332 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(comptes de changes)] TJ ET BT 210.308 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as opposed to )] TJ ET BT 281.636 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(comptes d?argent)] TJ ET BT 367.292 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. They exchanged books heavily with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealers in Avignon, a great center of pirate publishing, and Lyons as well as Geneva and Lausanne, the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sites of their exchange trade. In tracing sales, Burrows and his collaborators came up with valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information: 39 per cent of the STN?s business went to Switzerland, as opposed to 37 per cent in France and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24 per cent in the rest of Europe. But those figures do not prove that the STN?s commerce was primarily a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Swiss affair. They indicate, on the contrary, that the STN?s books circulated widely to destinations that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be known, because they passed through intermediaries who sold them to other dealers who cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified. Despite their look of )] TJ ET BT 188.000 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pointilliste)] TJ ET BT 239.348 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( precision, therefore, the maps in the data base provide only a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very approximate picture of the dissemination of literature.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 286.6517 526.7815 300.6437 538.6615 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 8062 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Could not the same objection be directed against an argument based on demand rather than supply? Yes, if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the demand were measured according to orders placed by large wholesalers like Heubach in Lausanne, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gabriel Grasset in Geneva, and Jean-Jacques Flick in Basel. But I restricted my statistical analysis to French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealers who supplied local and regional customers and whose business can be assessed qualitatively by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(letters they wrote and the letters that were written about them, both by local informers and by sales reps \()] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(commis voyageurs)] TJ ET BT 122.996 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) of the STN. If the dealers placed only one or two orders with the STN, I excluded them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from my statistical samples, because one cannot see a general pattern by connecting the dots formed by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small number of data points.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(True, the STN often failed to fill the orders that it received. The )] TJ ET BT 342.956 658.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(livres de commission)] TJ ET BT 443.612 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reveal that supply did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not always match demand, although the two coincided quite well on the whole. Therefore statistics based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orders \(expressed both in the booksellers? letters and in the )] TJ ET BT 321.296 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(livres de commission)] TJ ET BT 421.952 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) do not give a precise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture of diffusion. They express demand. But literary demand is a significant measure of taste and interest. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The STN?s sales were restricted to books it had in stock or could procure from other publishers. The orders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from its customers included whatever they wanted. Admittedly, many booksellers limited their orders to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(titles they found in the STN?s catalogues and prospectuses. But many more included references to works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that had come to their attention from their commercial correspondence, ?annonces? in periodicals, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rumors passed through the professional grapevine.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Information was a crucial element in the book trade, but booksellers often got it wrong. In reading their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orders, one has to allow for very approximate spelling ? e.g. the innocent-sounding )] TJ ET BT 435.284 503.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Portraits des Chartreux)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordered by Veuve Baritel of Lyons, who actually wanted the pornographic )] TJ ET BT 394.604 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histoire de dom B?.., portier des )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chartreux)] TJ ET BT 83.348 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In very rare cases they may have heard about works that were rumored to be in the pipeline but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were never published ? for example, )] TJ ET BT 211.628 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les moines aprs les chiens)] TJ ET BT 344.948 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a supposed sequel to )] TJ ET BT 452.936 461.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le chien aprs les )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(moines)] TJ ET BT 68.012 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Amsterdam, 1784\) which I have not been able to locate. Such aberrations notwithstanding, I believe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that my statistics represent the demand in France for forbidden books in general, despite some of the bias )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherent in the trade of the STN.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I fear that statistics based on sales are not equally representative. Aside from the problem of aberrations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning dealers who bought too few books for their purchases to be taken as a profile of their trade, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a further difficulty, which concerns the STN?s ability to supply its customers. Like other publisher-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wholesalers, it distinguished two kinds of books in its stock: )] TJ ET BT 326.360 349.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(livres de fonds)] TJ ET BT 396.356 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(its own editions and a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works that it acquired in large quantity from allied houses\) and )] TJ ET BT 338.972 335.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(livres d?assortiment)] TJ ET BT 436.640 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(small numbers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works, usually acquired by exchanges\). The latter often gave out. As complaints from customers testify, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(STN might sell a half dozen copies of a work in its )] TJ ET BT 281.324 306.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(assortiment)] TJ ET BT 337.328 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( stock and then be unable to satisfy the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demand for dozens more. Just as the STN sold books that dealers had not ordered, it failed to sell books that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they did order. Better, I believe, to study demand, as limited to steady customers of the STN, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supply, as scattered among all the clients who appeared, however fleetingly, in the STN?s record of its sales.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The attraction of the statistics produced by the )] TJ ET BT 259.316 237.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(FBTEE)] TJ ET BT 295.316 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( group is not so much that they concern sales as that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they cover such a vast territory. To be sure, other historians have mined the STN archives for information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the diffusion of French literature outside France. Germany has been studied by Jeffrey Freedman, Italy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Renato Pasta and Anne Machet, Poland by Marie Bguin-Knoepfler, the Austrian Netherlands by Jeroom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vercruysse, Russia by Eric Berthoud, and the Iberian peninsula by Franois Lopez. The role of the STN in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Switzerland itself can be appreciated from the work of Charly Guyot, Jacques Rychner, Michel Schlup, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Silvio Corsini, Georges Andrey, Eddy Bauer, Olivier Burri, Clorinda Donato, and Jean-Daniel Candaux. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What Burrows and his collaborators have added to this literature is statistics aggregated in such a way as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(map the diffusion of everything the STN sold.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To illustrate the diffusion of a single work, the web site presents a map showing the sales of S. A. A. D. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tissot?s )] TJ ET BT 76.352 82.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Onanisme)] TJ ET BT 125.012 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a treatise on the supposedly dangerous effects of masturbation, which fascinated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(horrified many readers in the 18th century. Spain and Portugal are represented by six copies sold in Lisbon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Poland by seven sold in Warsaw, and the Netherlands by six sold in Amsterdam. Can such small numbers )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 5988 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent the diffusion of a popular book throughout an entire country? Did readers in Stockholm \(28 copies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sold\) have more interest in sexual practices than those in Copenhagen \(two sales\)? And was there no interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at all in great cities that bought no copies from the STN: London, Rome, Leipzig, Frankfurt, Madrid, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vienna, and Prague? To measure the diffusion of this book, one would have to dispose of larger statistics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on the sales of other publishers and wholesalers, but unfortunately they do not exist.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The search for more significant statistics can take the user to the website?s list of the ten best-selling books, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which aggregates figures from all of Europe for the entire period 1769?94:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Planta gagnant sa vie en honnte homme)] TJ ET BT 231.992 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 16,787 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tableau de Paris)] TJ ET BT 116.684 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 14,076 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Destruction de la Ligue)] TJ ET BT 147.680 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 10,188 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mmoire apologtique des Genevois)] TJ ET BT 209.648 593.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 8,428 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 567.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Abrg de l?histoire sainte et du catchisme)] TJ ET BT 246.656 567.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 6,815 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gographie par Ostervald)] TJ ET BT 161.336 541.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 6,397 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bible)] TJ ET BT 59.348 515.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 5,323 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 488.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contrat conjugal)] TJ ET BT 116.360 488.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 4,164 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 462.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mon bonnet de nuit)] TJ ET BT 127.676 462.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 4,043 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 436.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collection complte des ?uvres de Madame Riccoboni)] TJ ET BT 295.304 436.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 3,843 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 410.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work that stands out at the top of the list is a 72-page pamphlet that the STN printed for Thodore Rilliet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 369.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de Saussure, who was involved in a scandalous court case in Geneva. It can be considered a ?vanity? edition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 355.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(apparently the STN also produced a second edition that was shipped to Rilliet?s family and eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroyed\), and it seems unlikely that readers outside of Switzerland ever heard of it. The next two books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were by Louis Sbastien Mercier, who was indeed a popular author, but his works occupied a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 312.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disproportionately important place in the STN?s stock, because it printed and reprinted them many times. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 298.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 55.676 298.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(FBTEE)] TJ ET BT 91.676 298.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( team could not identify the fourth most important best-seller, but the account books show that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was actually a pamphlet entitled )] TJ ET BT 191.660 284.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pices importantes la dernire rvolution de Genve)] TJ ET BT 453.944 284.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which the STN )] TJ ET BT 34.016 269.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed for some Genevan radicals during the mini-revolution in Geneva of 1782. The fifth book was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(STN edition of an apologetic Protestant work by Jean-Frdric Ostervald, an ancestor of the STN?s director, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 241.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frdric-Samuel Ostervald. Jean-Frdric also produced an important, annotated edition of the Bible, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the STN reprinted and sold widely to Protestants. This ?Bible d?Ostervald? probably accounted for most of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 212.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sales lumped together as ?Bible? in the seventh place of the list. The work in the sixth place was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably an STN edition of the schoolbook that Frdric-Samuel Ostervald published in 1757 under the title )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cours lmentaire de gographie ancienne et moderne et de sphre)] TJ ET BT 358.952 184.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Best-seller number eight was a rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscure but interesting legal treatise on the annulment of marriages by Jacques Le Scne-Desmaisons. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 155.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also an STN edition, as were the last two works, one by Mercier and the other by the popular author of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 141.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentimental novels, Marie-Jeanne Laboras de Mzires known as Mme Riccoboni. Considering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preponderance of STN editions and the parochially Swiss subjects of many of the books, the best-seller list )] TJ ET BT 34.016 112.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not serve very well to identify the tastes for all French books everywhere in Europe. It does not contain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 98.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any works by well-known )] TJ ET BT 161.996 98.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(philosophes)] TJ ET BT 219.332 98.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a strange result for research intended to reveal cultural patterns in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Enlightenment Europe?.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 6422 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The list of best-sellers for Paris, the capital of the Enlightenment, looks equally odd:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 731.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contrat conjugal)] TJ ET BT 116.360 731.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 4,141 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 705.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tableau de la monarchie franaise)] TJ ET BT 202.004 705.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 2,000 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 679.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Description des arts et mtiers)] TJ ET BT 181.340 679.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 1,616 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Testament politique de l?Angleterre)] TJ ET BT 207.008 653.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 1,558 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 626.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vrit \(de la\))] TJ ET BT 98.000 626.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 1,544 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 600.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Philosophe du Port-au-Bled)] TJ ET BT 169.340 600.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 1,276 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 574.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Observations sur la littrature en France)] TJ ET BT 232.340 574.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 1,255 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mmoire apologtique des Genevois)] TJ ET BT 209.648 548.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 1,200 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thorie des lois criminelles)] TJ ET BT 167.012 521.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 1,062 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inceste avou un mari)] TJ ET BT 149.324 495.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 1,050 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 469.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This list contains many of the same titles as those on the best-seller list for all of Europe. )] TJ ET BT 462.980 443.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Planta gagnant sa )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vie en honnte homme)] TJ ET BT 140.984 428.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is absent, but it is replaced by )] TJ ET BT 289.304 428.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inceste avou un mari)] TJ ET BT 404.612 428.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a similar work on the Genevan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 414.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court case that the STN also produced for Rilliet de Saussure. All of the books on the list were printed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 400.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(STN, and several can be considered ?vanity? editions. Four of them ? )] TJ ET BT 370.616 400.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Testament politique de l?Angleterre)] TJ ET BT 543.608 400.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 386.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De la Vrit)] TJ ET BT 92.672 386.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 98.672 386.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Observations sur la littrature en France)] TJ ET BT 296.996 386.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 323.324 386.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thorie des lois criminelles)] TJ ET BT 456.320 386.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commissioned by Jacques-Pierre Brissot, who had great trouble disposing of them and paid only a fraction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 357.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his printing bill. The second book on the list, )] TJ ET BT 265.352 357.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tableau de la monarchie franaise)] TJ ET BT 433.340 357.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, was printed by the STN )] TJ ET BT 34.016 343.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Louis Valentin de Goesman, an adventurer best known for his polemics with Beaumarchais. It was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 329.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first volume of a multi-volume defense of Bourbon absolutism, which Goesman never completed. Whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he sold any copies of that volume seems doubtful. He planned to incorporate it in other multi-volume works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 300.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he attempted unsuccessfully to sell to other publishers under four different titles. His correspondence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 286.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the STN, which merits a study in itself, provides a wonderful case of literary skullduggery, but the sales )] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributed to him in the account books cannot be taken as evidence about the diffusion of political works. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 257.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third work on the best-seller list was the STN?s most important enterprise, a 19-volume reprint of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 243.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Description des arts et mtiers)] TJ ET BT 181.340 243.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( published for the French Acadmie des sciences by Moutard, a powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 229.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parisian bookseller. Although the STN augmented its edition with new material compiled by Ostervald?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(son-in-law Jean-Elie Bertrand, Moutard managed to get it banned from France as a pirated work. After long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 200.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiations, the STN reached a settlement with him, and therefore most of its edition was eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 186.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shipped to Paris. The remaining two works on the list, Le Scne Desmaison?s )] TJ ET BT 410.312 186.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contrat conjugal)] TJ ET BT 492.656 186.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mercier?s )] TJ ET BT 84.992 172.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Philosophe du Port-au-Bled)] TJ ET BT 220.316 172.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( may have sold fairly widely in Paris, but it seems odd that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parisian best-sellers did not include any works by popular authors such as Raynal and Linguet, not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 143.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention Voltaire and Rousseau.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 117.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite many attempts to establish relations with relatively marginal Parisian booksellers such as Pyre, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cugnet, Monory, Costard, and Saillant, the STN was never able to sell many of its books in Paris. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parisians generally refused to do business with a publisher whom they viewed as a pirate, and the powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 74.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealers who dominated the Parisian guild mobilized the police to defend their market from intruders. In fact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 60.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the one bookseller who handled a fairly large number of STN books, Pierre Desauges, a marginal retailer )] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 6114 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(located near the Palais de Justice, probably operated as a spy for the police and helped engineer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confiscations of its shipments. The STN retailed some of its books directly through its own agents, notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quandet de Lachenal, but it never cracked the Parisian market, and its uneven sales cannot be taken as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typical of diffusion in Europe?s most important city.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Data drawn from its trade in other cities are more revealing, particularly in cases where dealers placed large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and regular orders. Charles Guillaume Muller of Saint Petersburg, J. J. Weitbrecht of Saint Petersburg, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian Rdiger of Moscow bought hundreds of books, usually once a year to replenish their stock before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Baltic froze. Statistics of their purchases suggest the character of the French literature that reached )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia, occasionally even by wagon over frozen roads. It seems to have been largely pedagogical. Of the ten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works bought most often by the dealers in St. Petersburg, three were school books and four could not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified. Of the top ten in shipments to Moscow, eight were schoolbooks or books for children ? valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information but disappointing for anyone interested in the diffusion of the Enlightenment. At the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extreme of the map, the ten works bought most often by booksellers in Lisbon were mainly medical. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included three treatises by Tissot, along with two Latin texts and two plays but no works that can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with the Enlightenment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The user interested in the Enlightenment can consult the list of authors whose works sold best throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe. There at last one comes upon Voltaire. He occupies third place among the top ten, just behind Rilliet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de Saussure and just above Brissot and Ostervald. Rousseau does not make it onto the list, nor do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montesquieu, Diderot, Raynal, Mably, Condillac, or any other famous )] TJ ET BT 374.648 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(philosophes)] TJ ET BT 431.984 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, including non-French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors such as Adam Smith, Hume, Beccaria, Lessing, and Kant. It would be misleading, however, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclude that they did not reach readers, because the list favors authors of books published by the STN. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in all the other ranking lists, it contains built-in distortions, which result from a decision to aggregate all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sales together and to treat them in the same manner ? that is, to lump STN editions and ?vanity? editions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published by the STN with books that the STN acquired in smaller numbers from other publishers. )] TJ ET BT 510.980 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Livres de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fonds)] TJ ET BT 60.020 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( should not be given the same statistical weight as )] TJ ET BT 302.672 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(livres d?assortiment)] TJ ET BT 400.340 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When faced with the counter-intuitive results of their research, the )] TJ ET BT 355.604 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(FBTEE)] TJ ET BT 391.604 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( team made diligent efforts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correct them; and to their credit, they built a corrective mechanism into the structure of the web site. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Therefore, if you want to identify the top ten best-sellers in all of Europe without including works produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the STN, you can select ?option? on the toolbar; click ?edition type? on the drop-down menu; deselect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?STN editions?, ?STN commissioned editions,? and ?STN editions published in cooperation with others;? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(click ?update preferences;? and go back to ?rank? on the toolbar. You can then study a best-seller list purged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the bias caused by STN editions. It looks much less erratic:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mmoire apologtique des Genevois)] TJ ET BT 209.648 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 8,428 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Psaumes)] TJ ET BT 76.676 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 2,888 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collection complte des ?uvres de M. Dorat)] TJ ET BT 246.320 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 2,201 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?An deux mille quatre cent quarante)] TJ ET BT 216.332 187.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 2,006 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Unidentified Durand tour works]: 1,905 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 134.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le Nouveau Testament)] TJ ET BT 144.008 134.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 1,631 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 108.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anecdotes sur Mme la comtesse du Barry)] TJ ET BT 233.312 108.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 1,489 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Magasin des enfans)] TJ ET BT 129.344 82.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 1,381copies)] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R ] /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 8143 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lectures pour les enfans)] TJ ET BT 151.676 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 1,378 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?uvres de Rousseau)] TJ ET BT 129.332 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: 1,312 copies)] TJ ET BT 34.016 731.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 705.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of these, two must be eliminated ? the top best-seller, because it was actually )] TJ ET BT 408.620 705.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pices importantes la )] TJ ET BT 34.016 691.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dernire revolution de Genve)] TJ ET BT 180.308 691.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, an STN edition, and the works in fifth place, which cannot be identified. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Psalter and the New Testament were editions intended for Protestants, and they suggest the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 662.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Huguenot network for the STN, although they cannot be taken as evidence for the diffusion of French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books in general. It is interesting to find two children?s books, )] TJ ET BT 336.992 648.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Magasin des enfans)] TJ ET BT 432.320 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 455.648 648.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lectures pour les )] TJ ET BT 34.016 634.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(enfans)] TJ ET BT 65.348 634.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, on the best-seller list, although they, too, represent a niche rather than the general market. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 620.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remaining five works probably corresponded pretty well to the taste for French literature throughout Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? and, I would add, to demand as well as to supply. Claude-Joseph Dorat, an enemy of the )] TJ ET BT 469.280 605.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(philosophes)] TJ ET BT 526.616 605.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known for his frothy poems and plays, all of them forgotten today. His popular novel, )] TJ ET BT 448.640 591.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les Malheurs de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(l?inconstance)] TJ ET BT 100.676 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is a good example of the light literature that sold well at the end of the Ancien Rgime. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mercier?s utopian novel, )] TJ ET BT 156.656 563.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(L?An deux mille quatre cent quarante)] TJ ET BT 338.972 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Pidansat de Mairobert?s scandalous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography of Mme du Barry, )] TJ ET BT 175.328 548.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anecdotes secrtes sur Mme la comtesse du Barry)] TJ ET BT 416.276 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( certainly were best-sellers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So were Rousseau?s works, which the STN sold in editions that varied from only a few volumes to a 31-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume set. One )] TJ ET BT 115.340 520.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(philosophe)] TJ ET BT 168.008 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( therefore made it to the best-seller list, although the list itself contains too many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peculiarities to be representative of the literary diet that was actually consumed by readers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In short, ?Enlightenment Europe? as seen by the statistics of the )] TJ ET BT 343.976 479.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(FBTEE)] TJ ET BT 379.976 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a Europe without much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Enlightenment. Perhaps that view is valid. Most literary history is written from the perspective of a corpus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classics that are taken to be typical of their time, and the history of books provides a way to correct the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anachronism built into that approach. It may be, therefore, that the works of Dorat, Mercier, and Pidansat de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mairobert had more readers than those of Voltaire, but it is impossible to know by consulting the )] TJ ET BT 502.640 422.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(FBTEE)] TJ ET BT 538.640 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistics fail to resolve the difficulties in studying the diffusion of literature, but they are full of fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information, especially for researchers who want to explore niches, such as the market for Protestant works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and children?s books. The )] TJ ET BT 162.992 380.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(FBTEE)] TJ ET BT 198.992 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( team waded through a vast collection of difficult documents. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged in the end with some results that challenge standard views of literary history, and they are to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congratulated for making their findings available free of charge on a beautifully designed web site for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone to consult in order to agree, disagree, and carry the inquiry further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 271.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 271.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See John Jeanprtre, ?Histoire de la Socit typographique de Neuchtel, 1769?1798,)] TJ ET BT 480.260 271.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Muse )] TJ ET BT 64.016 257.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(neuchtelois)] TJ ET BT 124.676 257.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1949\), 70?9, 115?20, and 148?53 and Jacques Rychner, ?Les Archives de la Socit )] TJ ET BT 64.016 243.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typographique de Neuchtel?,)] TJ ET BT 210.644 243.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Muse neuchtelois)] TJ ET BT 305.624 243.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1963\), 1?24.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 372.944 243.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 372.944 241.875 m 426.932 241.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 229.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 229.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See my )] TJ ET BT 102.680 229.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Business of Enlightenment. A Publishing History of the )] TJ ET BT 394.352 229.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Encyclopdie 1775-1800 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 214.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, MA, 1979\), chapter six.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 241.988 214.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 241.988 213.363 m 295.976 213.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 200.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 200.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See the excellent study, based in large part on the STN archives, by Jeffrey Freedman, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 186.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Books Without Borders in Enlightenment Europe. French Cosmopolitanism and German Literary )] TJ ET BT 64.016 171.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Markets)] TJ ET BT 103.340 171.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Philadelphia, PA, 2012\), pp. 92?113.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 287.996 171.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 287.996 170.595 m 341.984 170.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 145.733 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 131.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Digital Humanities)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 117.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://journalofdigitalhumanities.org/1-3/review-of-french-book-trade-in-enlightenment-europe-project-by-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 115.827 m 548.912 115.827 l S BT 34.016 102.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sean-takats/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 101.571 m 90.668 101.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 93.668 102.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 98.239 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 80.459 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 80.459 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1355)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 79.065 m 328.316 79.065 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 54.088 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 372.9437 242.1895 426.9317 254.0695 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 241.9877 213.6775 295.9757 225.5575 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 287.9957 170.9095 341.9837 182.7895 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 116.1415 548.9117 128.0215 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://journalofdigitalhumanities.org/1-3/review-of-french-book-trade-in-enlightenment-europe-project-by-sean-takats/) >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 101.8855 90.6677 113.7655 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://journalofdigitalhumanities.org/1-3/review-of-french-book-trade-in-enlightenment-europe-project-by-sean-takats/) >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 79.3795 328.3157 91.2595 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1355) >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 56 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Length 442 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/43205)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://chop.leeds.ac.uk/stn/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://journalofdigitalhumanities.org/1-3/review-of-french-book-trade-in-enlightenment-europe-project-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by-sean-takats/)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 57 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000385 00000 n 0000000422 00000 n 0000000602 00000 n 0000000698 00000 n 0000005623 00000 n 0000005732 00000 n 0000005842 00000 n 0000005951 00000 n 0000009512 00000 n 0000009640 00000 n 0000009724 00000 n 0000009852 00000 n 0000009932 00000 n 0000010059 00000 n 0000010139 00000 n 0000010223 00000 n 0000018450 00000 n 0000018480 00000 n 0000018608 00000 n 0000018644 00000 n 0000018728 00000 n 0000026922 00000 n 0000026952 00000 n 0000027080 00000 n 0000027116 00000 n 0000027200 00000 n 0000034023 00000 n 0000034053 00000 n 0000034181 00000 n 0000034217 00000 n 0000034282 00000 n 0000042397 00000 n 0000042462 00000 n 0000048503 00000 n 0000048568 00000 n 0000055043 00000 n 0000055108 00000 n 0000061275 00000 n 0000061394 00000 n 0000069590 00000 n 0000069718 00000 n 0000069773 00000 n 0000069901 00000 n 0000069956 00000 n 0000070084 00000 n 0000070139 00000 n 0000070266 00000 n 0000070435 00000 n 0000070561 00000 n 0000070730 00000 n 0000070856 00000 n 0000070952 00000 n 0000071017 00000 n trailer << /Size 57 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 71511 %%EOF