%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 31 0 R 39 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818112924+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818112924+01'00') /Title (A History of History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4721 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A History of History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The postmodernist phase of historical theory has all but drawn to a close.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 384.968 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 384.968 271.929 m 398.960 271.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 398.960 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nonetheless, there are still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pockets of resistance and for some strange reason Britain has been one of the strongholds. With the recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retirement of Keith Jenkins, Alun Munslow is now the incontestable doyen of British postmodernist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical theory: a position that the unkind might say is equivalent to being the captain of the Titanic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, the true believers soldier on: following on from 2010?s )] TJ ET BT 366.308 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Future of History)] TJ ET BT 471.308 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Munslow returns to the lists with )] TJ ET BT 195.356 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of History)] TJ ET BT 293.024 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It is a strange book in many ways. Its title would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest some kind of concern with historiography: has Munslow attempted to historicise historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistemology in order to show that the values the historians possess are to a large extent contingent? Well, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no. We do get occasional references to something that happened around 1700 which had some kind of large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequence for historical epistemology; but it is never really elaborated on.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 400.952 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 400.952 143.625 m 414.944 143.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 414.944 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Instead, )] TJ ET BT 458.600 145.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is largely a retread of most of Munslow?s other work: an attempt to convince of the virtues of viewing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical theory largely through the work of Hayden White. One can only half-jokingly suggest that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book should have been entitled something like )] TJ ET BT 260.336 102.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(These Things I Believe)] TJ ET BT 369.320 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. There is much repetition in its pages, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the phrase about not having to eat the whole egg to know that it is not quite right came to mind more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than once. Such is the reviewer's lot.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1356)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 13 December, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alun Munslow)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415677158)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(232pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Timmins)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 384.9677 272.2435 398.9597 284.1235 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 400.9517 143.9395 414.9437 155.8195 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8735 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is much in )] TJ ET BT 118.004 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of History)] TJ ET BT 215.672 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that supports Alexander MacFie?s remark that thereis a large body of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertions that practising historians and postmodernists agree on, and that the differences only really start to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assert themselves when it comes to the conclusions they draw from them.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.636 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.636 754.563 m 400.628 754.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 400.628 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( At various points in )] TJ ET BT 501.632 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of History)] TJ ET BT 82.352 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Munslow is at pains to assure us he is far from the caricature of the raving idealist that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmodernist theorists are sometimes portrayed as: ?I am not sceptical about the possibility of knowing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what probably happened in the past? \(p. 44\); ?I believe the past once existed and that we can hold a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial range of justified beliefs about it? \(p. 45\); ?what I define as my multi-scepticism is not to deny )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that factual knowledge about the past is possible? \(p. 95\); and ?[a]ll we have in history narrative is ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance of quoted evidence?, which to be fair, is often pretty good? \(p. 107\). Indeed, at one point he even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feels compelled to distance himself from one of his mentors, Keith Jenkins: he cannot ?go as far? as Jenkins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in completely abandoning the past \(p. 68\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite conceding all of the above however, Munslow still believes that it is ?highly desirable to re-think )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history by rejecting the definition of the historical consciousness that has been the consequence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifold errors and omissions committed by historians of a particular kind over the past three hundred years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or so? \(p. 171\) \(Incidentally, the term ?historians of a particular kind? is a recurring term \(of abuse?\) in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, used to describe the poor misguided souls who have yet to cross the Rubicon and start practising the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?new? history\). The view of history as what historians do in )] TJ ET BT 324.644 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of History)] TJ ET BT 422.312 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( we might describe as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variations on a theme of Hayden White. Historians might be able to find out a lot of ?true? things about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past, in the sense of single-sentence propositions: ?Neville Chamberlain flew on a plane in 1938?, ?King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles I prorogued Parliament in 1629?, and so forth. Once we try to weave these into a narrative however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we are doomed. There is no such thing as inherent meaning to be discovered in the past-in-itself; and even if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were, the distorting effects of narrative ? the need to emplot ones ?data? \(the term ?data? crops up in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places in )] TJ ET BT 79.340 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of History )] TJ ET BT 180.008 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where we would normally use the term ?facts?\), the need to utilise tropes -)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mean the idea that we can present a transparent picture of the past is a nonsense.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the key failings in not only )] TJ ET BT 202.004 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of History)] TJ ET BT 299.672 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but which also dogged Munslow?s previous work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Future of History)] TJ ET BT 139.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is a failure to recognise a\) the existence of various mechanisms that underpin the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline of history, and b\) the fact that the kind of change he wants to occur needs to come at a disciplinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level. He seems to acknowledge that the current disciplinary practices of history were rooted in the time of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ranke: but doesn?t take this realisation further and investigate how this disciplinary mechanism could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially be overthrown / replaced. If it is the case that historians ?fail to recognise? the fact that their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline is a fictive construction etc., then wouldn?t Munslow be better off trying to examine the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(machinery that is in place to prevent them from throwing off these Rankean shackles? In Munslow?s brief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of Frederick Jackson Turner, Munslow once again seems to arrive at the point that certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplary works of history set the tone for a generation of scholars: but rather than pursuing the point, once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again he draws back into the familiar incantation of ?historians cannot access the past as it was?. Recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading Daniel Dennett?s book on Darwin, I was struck by the lines ?Darwin appreciated that only a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relentlessly detailed survey of the evidence for the historical processes he was postulating would ? or should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? persuade scientists to abandon their traditional convictions and take on his revolutionary vision, even if it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was in fact ?deducible from first principles??.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 253.628 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 253.628 217.347 m 267.620 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 267.620 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There is much in Bernard Waites's remark that ?If Jenkins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wants to persuade a generally sceptical academy of the virtues of the radical history he envisages, then his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best strategy would be to write some? ? a comment that could equally apply to Professor Munslow.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.296 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.296 188.835 m 524.288 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In some respects, Professor Munslow?s stance reminds one of philosophers of science prior to the historicist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turn in that discipline: he concentrates on the individual historian, and fails to address the fact that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian is part of a disciplinary culture. Again, he comes tantalisingly close to doing so towards the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book when he writes about the fact that ?high-end university and doctoral and post doctoral research of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular kind? \(there?s that phrase again!\) is a kind of academic ?dead man?s handle? \(p. 175\). But once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again, he tails off into what historians in his view )] TJ ET BT 273.668 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(should)] TJ ET BT 305.672 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( be doing. I suspect that ultimately, Munslow fails )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to address the disciplinary mechanisms of history because he would be forced to admit that his and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cohorts' attempts to persuade historians ?of a particular kind? to change their ways have largely been a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure. To an extent, and without wishing to have the Lakatosian ?mob rule? charge levelled, historical )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 386.6357 754.8775 400.6277 766.7575 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 253.6277 217.6615 267.6197 229.5415 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.2957 189.1495 524.2877 201.0295 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 8360 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistemology is largely what the majority of historians say it is. Ultimately, a discipline legitimates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methods it uses, and the problem that Munslow has is that the epistemology he is arguing for is one that by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and large historians have not taken up. Munslow talks of the ?rather hazy? concept of professional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgement \(p. 118\), but there is nothing hazy about it: the whole purpose of training historians is to instil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them with the epistemic values which are promoted and accepted by the profession. Every historian is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product of socialisation into their discipline, and until Munslow realises and addresses this to some extent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he will be condemned to go around in circles, writing for an every decreasing band of postmodernist fellow-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travellers. And here we come to the heart of the problem: historians ?ought to consider forms of historying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that are not produced exclusively and in accordance with classic empirical-analytical-representational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking? \(p. 98\). But the fact is until the majority of the profession is convinced to do so ? with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanying shift in training and values ? this will not occur. And the fact is that postmodernist historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory has singularly failed to inspire such a change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a sense Munslow?s strategy in )] TJ ET BT 195.992 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of History)] TJ ET BT 293.660 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is brilliant. By insisting that everything we know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the past is compromised once we incorporate it into a narrative, he avoids having to address thorny )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues such as reference or meaning in any great detail. For instance, when meaning is briefly dealt with in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book, we get no references to Quine or Davidson; it is simply enough to state that there is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?definitive? meaning to be found in the past and then move on. But there is a lacuna even in this strategy; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one would expect a discussion of the works of Louis Mink and/ or David Carr with regards to the idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherent narrative in historical events \(as indeed, Frank Ankersmit does in his most recent work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Meaning, Truth and Reference in Historical Representation)] TJ ET BT 320.996 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). But alas, it is not to be found here. The other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thing about the idea of the distortion of narrative is that to accept it is largely a matter of faith based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreement with the work of Hayden White; and conversely, if one doesn?t accept it, then one can be written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(off as one of those historians ?of a particular kind? ?who just doesn?t get it?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Speaking of Ankersmit, he is the only contemporary theorist of history to be addressed in )] TJ ET BT 465.968 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 70.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in any great detail; although there are what amount to puffs for Hayden White, Keith Jenkins, Robert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosenstone and Sande Cohen respectively.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 240.320 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 240.320 414.675 m 254.312 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 254.312 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Ankersmit has always posed somewhat of a problem for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmodernists: they would desperately love to co-opt him into their camp, but he has generally resisted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to do so. )] TJ ET BT 121.688 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of History)] TJ ET BT 219.356 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( adopts the strategy pursued in a recent book on Ankersmit by Peter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Icke \(himself a student of Keith Jenkins\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.316 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.316 371.907 m 246.308 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 246.308 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Munslow posits the existence of two Ankersmits ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early/good Ankersmit, whose )] TJ ET BT 178.664 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Narrative Logic)] TJ ET BT 255.668 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( espoused views most postmodernists could agree with, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the later/bad Ankersmit who took as his starting point the fact that historians were quite successful at what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they did, and tried to develop a philosophy of history to account for this. I will come back to this at the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this review.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Munslow will undoubtedly bridle at being told he has something in common with historians ?of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular kind?, like many a historical theorist he seems to have a fairly bad grasp of what constitutes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary philosophy of science. The second chapter in this book, ?History and/as science?, mentions no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophers of science, but bizarrely does include excursions on Marx and Nietzsche. And what are we to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make of sentences such as ?by studying atoms and stars, one can establish how the physicist and astronomer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure out how they should be investigated? \(p. 44\). What does this mean? That in order to understand how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientists investigate objects we should study the objects themselves? Surely not. Let us chalk this up to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(careless editor, and state that what he means is that the scientist him/ herself studies an object in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determine how it should be investigated. But this is almost equally ludicrous, as a quick perusal of any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primer on the philosophy of science will tell you. I think what Munslow is trying to say here is that objects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as stars are available to direct perception, whereas the historian directly constitutes his/her objects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study: ?the historian ... creates their objects and makes all the decisions by creating general statements as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cause and effect? \(p. 44\). So although things-in-themselves existed in the past, such as kings, queens and so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forth, as soon as the historian tries to pin any sense of meaning to them, he/she comes unstuck. The problem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is however, that what Munslow is ascribing to the historian here sounds remarkably like what scientists do, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the sense that they impose taxonomic categories upon ?the-world-in-itself?, which subsequently ?cut the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world up in different ways?. History ?is )] TJ ET BT 227.984 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(always an imposition)] TJ ET BT 329.996 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on the past dictated by the narrative )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 240.3197 414.9895 254.3117 426.8695 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 232.3157 372.2215 246.3077 384.1015 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 9078 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the historian.? \(p. 99\) We could say something very similar about science: science imposes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a conceptual structure upon the world in order to make sense of it.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.620 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.620 780.819 m 365.612 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 365.612 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Like many ?historians of a particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind?, Munslow seems to be working from a fairly outdated concept of the philosophy of science here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, one of the reasons that a postmodernist philosophy of history has largely failed to make much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an impact is its refusal by and large to examine what it is that historians actually do, preferring instead to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrate on )] TJ ET BT 107.324 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a priori)] TJ ET BT 144.332 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( literary theory ? favouring prescription over description. Herman Paul has recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued for something like a ?performative turn? in the philosophy of history: focusing upon what historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually do as opposed to looking at the finished product.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 308.660 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 308.660 683.283 m 322.652 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 322.652 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And as we have seen, Frank Ankersmit quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensibly argues philosophers of history need to take what historians actually do as their starting point, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(move on from there. Complain as he might that historians are failing to take the writings of Jenkins et al. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriously, Munslow doesn?t seem to understand that as long as he continues to produce prescriptions which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are far divorced from the actual practise of history, he is fated to become something like a Priestley of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical method; clinging to phlogiston theory while all around him move on.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.499 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Michael Roth, ?Ebb tide?, )] TJ ET BT 212.996 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History & Theory)] TJ ET BT 298.328 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 46 \(2007\), 66?73, and George Iggers, ?A search for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a post-postmodern theory of history?, )] TJ ET BT 247.328 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History & Theory)] TJ ET BT 332.660 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 48 \(2009\), 122?8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 423.980 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 423.980 532.227 m 477.968 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Incidentally at one point Munslow argues that historical understanding has not evolved since 1700, a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite frankly bizarre claim \(p. 42\). The most charitable explanation of this might be that Munslow has )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misunderstood what ?evolves? actually connotates. If he is saying that the idea that historical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistemology is moving towards some fixed point in the future ? i.e. Actonian ?Ultimate History? ? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs to be jettisoned, then I agree. But evolution implies a process driven from behind, reacting )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against what has previously gone before. Therefore, the idea that historical epistemology hasn?t made )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(some form)] TJ ET BT 114.344 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of progress since 1700 is absurd.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 274.652 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 274.652 432.435 m 328.640 432.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 419.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Alexander MacFie, ?On the defence of \(my\) history?, )] TJ ET BT 344.936 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rethinking History)] TJ ET BT 435.932 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 14, 2010 \(p. 210\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 527.924 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 527.924 418.179 m 555.584 418.179 l S BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 403.923 m 90.344 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Dennett, )] TJ ET BT 143.000 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Darwin?s Dangerous Idea)] TJ ET BT 270.992 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1996\), p. 49.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 382.316 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 382.316 389.667 m 436.304 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard Waites, ?In defence of historical realism?, )] TJ ET BT 310.940 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rethinking History)] TJ ET BT 401.936 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 15 \(2011\), pp. 332?3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 511.256 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 511.256 375.411 m 551.252 375.411 l S BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 361.155 m 78.008 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Incidentally, Munslow tries to defend Cohen?s impenetrable prose by stating that ?Cohen cannot )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blamed for being difficult. Thinking at a high level is always likely to be difficult? \(p. 146\). However, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Rorty was always able to write about the same subject matter as Cohen in an easy and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaging style; or for that matter, if Bohr and Feynman to name but two can write about quantum )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mechanics in an engaging manner, I fail to see why the same cannot be done for historical theory.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 532.916 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 532.916 289.875 m 560.576 289.875 l S BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 275.619 m 90.344 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Timmins, ?Review of )] TJ ET BT 203.672 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Frank Ankersmit's Lost Historical Cause: A Journey from Language to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Experience)] TJ ET BT 117.992 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(review no. 1245\) <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.404 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1245)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.404 247.107 m 443.048 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 446.048 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 460.040 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 5 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(November 2012].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.664 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.664 232.851 m 202.652 232.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 219.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See the work of Thomas Kuhn for example.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 274.640 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 274.640 218.595 m 328.628 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herman Paul, ?Performing history?, )] TJ ET BT 240.656 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History & Theory)] TJ ET BT 325.988 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 50 \(2011\), 1?19.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 411.308 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 411.308 204.339 m 465.296 204.339 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 189.007 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 171.227 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 171.227 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1356)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 169.833 m 328.316 169.833 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 144.856 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.456 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/44098)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.056 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1245)] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 351.6197 781.1335 365.6117 793.0135 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 308.6597 683.5975 322.6517 695.4775 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 423.9797 532.5415 477.9677 544.4215 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 274.6517 432.7495 328.6397 444.6295 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 527.9237 418.4935 555.5837 430.3735 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 404.2375 90.3437 416.1175 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 382.3157 389.9815 436.3037 401.8615 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 511.2557 375.7255 551.2517 387.6055 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 361.4695 78.0077 373.3495 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 532.9157 290.1895 560.5757 302.0695 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 64 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 275.9335 90.3437 287.8135 ] >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 219.4037 247.4215 443.0477 259.3015 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1245) >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.6637 233.1655 202.6517 245.0455 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 274.6397 218.9095 328.6277 230.7895 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 41 0 R >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 72 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 411.3077 204.6535 465.2957 216.5335 ] >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 44 0 R >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 74 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 170.1475 328.3157 182.0275 ] >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1356) >> endobj xref 0 75 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000523 00000 n 0000000619 00000 n 0000005392 00000 n 0000005501 00000 n 0000005611 00000 n 0000005720 00000 n 0000009281 00000 n 0000009409 00000 n 0000009493 00000 n 0000009522 00000 n 0000009650 00000 n 0000009686 00000 n 0000009715 00000 n 0000009843 00000 n 0000009879 00000 n 0000009977 00000 n 0000018765 00000 n 0000018795 00000 n 0000018923 00000 n 0000018959 00000 n 0000018989 00000 n 0000019117 00000 n 0000019153 00000 n 0000019183 00000 n 0000019311 00000 n 0000019347 00000 n 0000019438 00000 n 0000027851 00000 n 0000027881 00000 n 0000028009 00000 n 0000028045 00000 n 0000028075 00000 n 0000028203 00000 n 0000028239 00000 n 0000028428 00000 n 0000037559 00000 n 0000037589 00000 n 0000037717 00000 n 0000037753 00000 n 0000037783 00000 n 0000037911 00000 n 0000037947 00000 n 0000038075 00000 n 0000038130 00000 n 0000038258 00000 n 0000038313 00000 n 0000038441 00000 n 0000038496 00000 n 0000038622 00000 n 0000038677 00000 n 0000038805 00000 n 0000038860 00000 n 0000038988 00000 n 0000039043 00000 n 0000039169 00000 n 0000039224 00000 n 0000039352 00000 n 0000039407 00000 n 0000039533 00000 n 0000039588 00000 n 0000039716 00000 n 0000039812 00000 n 0000039940 00000 n 0000039995 00000 n 0000040123 00000 n 0000040178 00000 n 0000040306 00000 n 0000040361 00000 n 0000040489 00000 n trailer << /Size 75 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40585 %%EOF