%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140729085850+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140729085850+01'00') /Title (The Church in the Long Eighteenth Century) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4509 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Church in the Long Eighteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Hempton?s latest book is the best, most authoritative, and most imaginative overview of the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world-wide Christian Church in the period between the late 17th and early 19th centuries we have to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(date. As the author of a number of powerful and seminal studies of British and global Methodism, of religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and popular culture, of religion and politics in Britain after 1688, and of Evangelicalism and its discontents, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hempton now turns his formidable intellectual range, methodological sophistication, grasp of detail, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creative turn of phrase, to what amounts to nothing less than an overall history of Christianity in the long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th century. Although intended as a survey and introduction, this does much more than that, and offers not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only a wide-ranging synthesis of research, but a compelling interpretation of the changes within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian Church in the period, akin to John Bossy?s )] TJ ET BT 290.012 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Christianity in the West, 1450 to 1700)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 476.024 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 476.024 157.881 m 490.016 157.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 490.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to which this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is in many ways an admirable sequel. Moreover, Hempton is alive not only to the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments in this period for the history of the Church in the long 18th century itself but also to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications for determining the shape of world Christianity ever since. In this he does not fight shy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admittedly generally in asides, of drawing out some of the 21st?century significance of the 18th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes he examines. And while conventional East/ West polarities tend to equate Christianity with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West, Hempton reminds us that one of the most striking aspects of early modern Christianity was its global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reach, and Africa, India, the Americas, and Asia are central parts of his story. As he concludes, perhaps the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1357)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 13 December, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Hempton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781845114404)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. B. Tauris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeremy Gregory)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 476.0237 158.1955 490.0157 170.0755 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7752 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most significant lesson to draw from his analysis is not to use European Christianity as shorthand for global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity, even if the former played a crucial role in shaping the latter. Christianity, as his study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates, perhaps like other great world religions, has the ability to move beyond its particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment and maybe the source of its strength is its capacity to mean something powerful, and to mean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something very different, to people in diverse parts of the globe, while also being able to move beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific local context to create a compelling and persuasive global force. While Hempton doesn?t use the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term himself, this book is in some ways an exploration of ?glocal? Christianity in the 18th century, exploring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the interplay between global and local pushes and pulls in creating a world-wide religion. Throughout, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deftly moving the narrative on, Hempton keeps the large questions and the big picture to the fore, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shrewdly and imaginatively using regional, local and individual examples from around the world to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminate and add focus to the wider issues at stake.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is worth acknowledging at the outset the enormity of the task Hempton has set himself. As he notes, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most successful recent overview of Christianity in this period has been a collective task in the multi-authored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge History of Christianity: Enlightenment, Re-awakening and Revolution)] TJ ET BT 427.340 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.340 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.340 597.747 m 444.332 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 444.332 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( How does this present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume measure up to that? Hempton himself almost seems to invite the comparison, and in the conclusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his book he observes that better alternatives to the Cambridge subtitle, which he argues are Euro-centric in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus, might be ?imperial power, colonial encounters and native resistance?; or ?mission, hybridisation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indigenisation?. While the Cambridge book will certainly remain the essential reference point for specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics and geographical regions, the advantage of Hempton?s single-authored study is that it gives a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherent interpretation of the whole. Furthermore, while older histories of the Church tended to concentrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on organisations and institutional life, great men, and impersonal abstract forces such ?the Enlightenment?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hempton goes deeper into social history and highlights the importance of theological ideas, human agency, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and particularly the role of women \(for example in the anti-slavery campaign\), and the self-understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Christian women and men who are at the core of this volume. Reading the book also reminds us of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enormous possibilities for the circulation and travel of both people and ideas in this century, and it is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without significance that the case studies Hempton uses are of individuals who themselves travelled vast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distances across continents and cultures, and had their own religious odysseys, thereby undergoing both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritual as well as geographical change. One might ask how far this impression of movement and travel is in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact typical of the period, and while the opportunities for travel were no doubt greater than in previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centuries, we must not forget those who hardly moved at all, and who stayed in the same parish and district )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for all their lives. In part, perhaps, the distinctive qualities of the book no doubt owe much to Hempton?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own migratory transatlantic career. He has had posts at Belfast, Boston, and Harvard, and he generously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cites colleagues at all these institutions and elsewhere who have helped form his thinking and shape his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns of mind. Would he, one wonders, have written the same book if he had stayed in Belfast?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hempton?s brilliance is seen in the deceptively simple but exciting organisational structure of the volume, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dividing it into two parts: the expansion of Christendom \(covering its growth and extension beyond Europe, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including a stunning survey of the state of Christianity in all parts of the world via the conceit of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interplanetary researcher studying global Christianity\); and the transformation of Christendom \(by which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means changes within Europe which themselves impacted upon and were altered by the extra-European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus\). This organisational device enables him to cover a vast range of topics. The first part, among other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues, explores the ways in which European Christians viewed other civilisations and religions and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between Christianity and empire; the second covers the Enlightenment and science; revivalism; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and issues of church and state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the distinctive features of Hempton?s first part is his concentration on material culture and especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the art and architecture of global Christianity. The ways in which, for example, baroque churches in Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America drew on indigenous as well as European styles and forms is a fascinating insight into the creation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a global religion, and more generally Hempton notes that the prevalence of religious art and architecture in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period certainly casts doubt on this as a period when secularisation was occurring. The first part also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores the ways in which, to Western eyes, travelling across the world was in large measure time-travel as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(non-Christian cultures were viewed by Westerners as pre-biblical. As part of this mind-set, other religions )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 430.3397 598.0615 444.3317 609.9415 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7453 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were usually measured in comparison to Christianity, and Westerners looked for fixed doctrines and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separate priesthood comparable to those in Christianity in other faith traditions. Islam, for example, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently seen as a primitive heresy and Hempton notes how, because of Enlightenment criticism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superstition and Protestant evangelicalism, as well as a greater insistence on stricter orthodoxy among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roman Catholicism, Islam was increasingly observed in a negative light. Much the same could be said of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other religions, altering a more flexible stance to other faiths which had sometimes existed in the 16th and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th centuries and where Jesuits, for example, could have what became to be seen as a very tolerant \(if not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lax\) attitude to other religions. While this trajectory of a hardening of attitudes during the 18th century to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other faiths is no doubt true in broad terms, and has contemporary resonances for the ways in which Islam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been perceived today by some parts of Western Christian culture, Hempton could also have made more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Western use of non-Christian religions to critique Christianity, as well as the fascination, as late as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1790s and early 19th century, by Orientalists such as Sir William Jones, with Asiatic religions. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascination would continue as a counterpoint to what might be the dominant harsher narrative throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th and 20th centuries. But, as Hempton argues, bound up with Western perceptions of other religions were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western understandings of racial differences, and while the idea of a common humanity was frequently aired, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the idea of polygenesis was also attractive to several influential and modernising thinkers, including Hume, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which complicates our understanding of ?progress? in 18th-century thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The issue of the relationship between Christianity and empire has been much in vogue during the last couple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of decades and Hempton contributes a well-focussed discussion, neatly summing up the issues at stake and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adding his own sophisticated response to the problems. How far missionary endeavour was part and parcel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of colonial expansion, or how far was it an independent force, is a complex question and Hempton navigates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the matters involved clearly, pointing out not only the tensions between different religious groups but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ways in which religious organisations and institutions could criticise colonial governors and ensuring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the relationship between Christianity and empire was never simple, nor the dominant partner easy to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discern. How far missionaries were instruments of imperialism, how far they rooted out native ways of life, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and how far this necessitated a head-on conflict with other world religions are subjects treated in a nuanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a crucial driver propelling the missionary endeavour Hempton places ?heart religion? centre stage. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?religion of the heart? has been well documented for various types of Protestant evangelical traditions, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and indeed the phrase is usually reserved for developments within Protestant Evangelicalism and particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Methodism, Hempton?s important contribution is to highlight the parallels between Roman Catholic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant developments in spirituality, and where ?heart religion? can be seen as much as a Catholic as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant enterprise. In this, Hempton?s argument can be seen to be building on John Bossy?s crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insight that Protestant and Catholic developments in the 16th and 17th centuries had distinct similarities, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were in fact part of the same movement in the history of Christianity. Hempton \(acknowledging the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence on his thinking of Michelle Molina\) sees crucial parallels between Protestant pietists and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jesuits, exploring the connections between what he calls spiritual discipline, self-formation, and missionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service across the religious divide. This is an exciting and innovative argument and approach and promises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to encourage further comparative work on this matter. Hempton?s ability to see convergences and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarities across religious confessions is refreshing and adds new insights into the religious history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long 18th century. Nevertheless, where it has long been acknowledged that Protestants read Roman Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, and drew on, while at the same time critiquing, innovations in Catholic religiosity, further work is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed on how far Catholics read Protestant texts, and there is little doubt that Hempton?s discussion will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excite future research into this immensely important topic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How did the various forms of Christianity which existed in the 18th century engage with other religions, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how far were Christian denominations affected or changed by that encounter? In answering these crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions, Hempton notes the various models which have been used to describe and explain this relationship, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from syncretism and hybridity to power relations and native agency and resistance, as well as showing his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reservations with these models if too strictly defined and too narrowly applied. For instance, although he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises the importance of indigenous agency and resistance, Hempton also recognises that agency was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7614 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never pure and unidirectional and that it itself had been shaped by external factors and indeed could make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western Christian forces their own. One of the set-piece responses to these wider issues in earlier studies has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often been a discussion of the Chinese rites controversy. However, Hempton notes that concentration on this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter may actually itself be a Eurocentric perspective since many Christians in China knew nothing, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably cared less, about it. Moreover, other Christians in Asia were little aware of Rome and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands, such as the Thomas Christians in India who did not recognise Mary as the Mother of God. One of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subjects to which Hempton gives a relatively large amount of attention both in this section and in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book as a whole is the part played by black Africans in his argument. The topic is, of course, examined in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploration of slavery and the rise of the anti-slavery movement, but he also reminds us that until about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1730s most African Christians were Catholic and after then the majority were Protestant. To consider these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments, and their impact, he focuses on the extraordinary story of Rebecca Protten who became a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moravian deaconess and Hempton considers that she was likely to have been ?the first black woman to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordained in western Christianity? and ?sowed the seeds of a black Protestant international movement? which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he argues was one of the ?tectonic shifts? of the age.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section of the book examines topics which have more usually found themselves discussed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general accounts of the Church in this period but to which Hempton brings his own insights and concerns. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His powerful chapter on the Enlightenment \(during which he explores topics such as the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between science and religion, religious toleration, anti-slavery, and the vexed question of secularisation\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserves to be widely read as a summary of current thinking. But Hempton never sits on the fence. While he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges the massive continuities which existed between the 18th century and earlier periods in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious thinking and action \(such as the confessional divide\), he emphasises the importance of the changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which put strains on older habits of mind and ways of behaving. Nevertheless, he notes that ?full-blown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materialism? was ?rarely in view? and the practicalities and necessities of day-to-day living rather than high-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flown ideology accounted for the growth of religious toleration. His consideration of how far the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnessed the growth of secularisation is a useful corrective to some of the conventional thinking on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter, and he observes that developments in America were for religious liberty rather than secularisation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any meaningful sense, and in general cautions against the modern understanding of a divide between Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the USA.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As might be expected from his previous publications, Hempton?s account of the Protestant Evangelical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revival is a )] TJ ET BT 93.680 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tour de force)] TJ ET BT 155.672 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. He sums up swathes of scholarship in pithy and witty prose, seeing it, as he has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done elsewhere as the most important development in the history of Christianity since the Reformation. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(final chapter on issues of Church and State argues that it was not so much the failings of ecclesiastical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions or the clergy \(often the figures of attack in older histories\) but the pressures put on them by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massive population change and the rise of new denominations. But, as he reminds us, whatever the attacks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on established forms of Christianity in the 18th century, established churches exist to this day in England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Scotland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hempton?s study of the Christian Church in the long 18th century is, therefore, generally very different from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the older studies of the Church in the )] TJ ET BT 214.664 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 282.980 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which focused almost solely on tithe controversies, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state of the clergy and the episcopate, and popular antipathy to religious institutions, and which were almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solely concerned with Europe, and where, despite its geographical coverage, the heart of the relevant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge History of Christianity)] TJ ET BT 199.700 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( volume could be said to have extended these considerations world-wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than reconceptualising the history of religion in the age per se. Thus in many ways Hempton can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said to have transformed both the subject matter and the genre of general histories of the Church in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. Where conventional studies, focusing on Europe, and often under the shadow of the paradigm of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French Revolution, tended to write the history of the Church in the long 18th century as a narrative of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline and waning of influence, Hempton can conclude, with his world-wide focus, that ?by the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century the Christian west had emerged as the economic powerhouse of the world?, although it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would take a different book to explain how far, and why, it was the West?s Christianity which could account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for its dominant position globally at the end of the period covered by this volume. Nevertheless, at a time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when publishers are trying to persuade newly minted PhDs to turn their theses into broader books, Hempton )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 1760 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that the writing of overviews and syntheses, perhaps even the writing of text books, should be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reserved for senior scholars who, like him, are at the very top of their game.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.315 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Bossy, )] TJ ET BT 125.024 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Christianity in the West, 1400?1700)] TJ ET BT 298.700 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 377.348 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 377.348 715.299 m 431.336 715.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge History of Christianity: Vol 7, Enlightenment, Re-awakening and Revolution)] TJ ET BT 489.008 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Stewart )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown and Timothy Tackett \(Cambridge, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 297.656 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 297.656 686.787 m 351.644 686.787 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 671.455 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 653.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 653.675 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1357)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 652.281 m 328.316 652.281 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 627.304 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 612.904 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/44101)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 377.3477 715.6135 431.3357 727.4935 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 297.6557 687.1015 351.6437 698.9815 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 652.5955 328.3157 664.4755 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1357) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000551 00000 n 0000000640 00000 n 0000005201 00000 n 0000005310 00000 n 0000005420 00000 n 0000005529 00000 n 0000009090 00000 n 0000009218 00000 n 0000009302 00000 n 0000009331 00000 n 0000009459 00000 n 0000009495 00000 n 0000009579 00000 n 0000017384 00000 n 0000017414 00000 n 0000017542 00000 n 0000017578 00000 n 0000017643 00000 n 0000025149 00000 n 0000025214 00000 n 0000032881 00000 n 0000032979 00000 n 0000034792 00000 n 0000034920 00000 n 0000034975 00000 n 0000035103 00000 n 0000035158 00000 n 0000035286 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35382 %%EOF