%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417180518+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417180518+01'00') /Title (Consumption and Gender in the Early Seventeenth-Century Household The World of Alice Le Strange) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3906 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Consumption and Gender in the Early Seventeenth-Century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Household The World of Alice Le Strange)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where does the history of consumption happen? The answer would be easy for the history of production: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(workplace. Historians can use a well-understood taxonomy to organise their research: the farm, the factory, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the office and so on. The history of consumption has never had this precision, thanks to the less location-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific nature of consuming. Clothing, for example, acquired its power as a bearer of status and taste, partly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of the variety of situations in which people wore their garments. Similarly, people have eaten food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at work or in the street as well as in their kitchens. Studies of consumption have addressed this problem in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of ways. Some ?go with the flow?, tracking the items of consumption across a range of situations, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show how meaning and use changes in different context. Others focus on particular sites where important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions about consumption are made or a high volume of activity takes place. A popular one for historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been the household.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jane Whittle and Elizabeth Griffiths have written a detailed study of consumption in a single household, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Le Stranges, a gentry family in early 17th?century Norfolk. The Le Stranges lived in the parish of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hunstanton on the north-west Norfolk coast and had been associated with the area since the 12th century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1358)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 13 December, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jane Whittle)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Griffiths)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199233533)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Farrell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7289 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whittle and Griffiths have chosen to focus on Sir Hamon Le Strange \(1583?1654\) and his wife Lady Alice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1585?1656\) who married in 1602. When Alice?s father died the Le Stranges inherited the manor of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sedgeford, and their income rose to nearly 2000 a year, placing them within the upper gentry of Norfolk. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The household records kept by Alice Le Strange provide a continuous series of accounts for disbursements, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receipts and the kitchen from 1610 to 1654. A database was constructed from a 20-year sample of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts from 1606 to 1626, in addition to the receipt accounts 1606?12 and 1619?21 and kitchen accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1619?21. Analysis of this database forms the core of the book, although these are supplemented with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building accounts and wills.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The pioneering histories of consumption, such as Lorna Weatherill?s or Daniel Roche?s, used probate and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other records to focus on the period 1660?1800. )] TJ ET BT 266.972 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World of Alice Le Strange)] TJ ET BT 413.300 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( begins at least 50 years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier, and one of the book?s arguments is that historians should pay more attention to consumption prior to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the long 18th century. The authors certainly demonstrate that a wide range of consumer items and patterns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption existed in the early 1600s. They emphasise the mundane nature of most expenditure and then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broaden their focus from the world of the goods themselves to the wider implications of these patterns. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These include gender and social relations, the effect of the life-cycle of family members on consumption, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and how provisioning a household shaped local employment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not to say that some of the classic subjects of material culture such as luxury or fashion are ignored. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the Le Strange family were not involved with the royal court or part of the emerging ?season?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they invested time and money in dressing fashionably. Hamon and Alice were big spenders when they went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on one of their rare trips to London. In 1628 they spent 492 there, purchasing 308 items. This included the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchase of a new ?crimson damask? bed with furnishings for 84, and five tapestries for 41. Both Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cottons and the ?new draperies? appear in the accounts. The Le Stranges bought 29 yards of calico in several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colours in 1630, which were used to make a man?s shirt and for curtains. They bought other types of cottons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for bed furnishings and cupboard and table cloths. However, most novelties that can be found in the accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were European or English rather than from Asia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although this big spending in London attracts the eye, Whittle and Griffiths show that there was a hierarchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of shopping locations: those closest to Hunstanton attracted the most spending. This may not sound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly surprising, but what is interesting is the role of Norwich. Most of the family?s luxury spending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took place there rather than London. In Norwich the Le Stranges visited tailors, bought books, scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instruments and a clock. The most regularly visited shopping centre was King?s Lynn where basic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(haberdashery and groceries were purchased. Alongside the geographical differences there were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctions between the goods acquired. Some clothing, such as silk stockings and Spanish leather boots, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was bought ready to wear. For their best clothes the Le Stranges had outfits made up for them by tailors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although even there was a hierarchy as well. Local tailors were given pre-selected cloth to work with, whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwich and London tailors were trusted to provide the most appropriate fabrics themselves. The Le )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strangesalso bought second-hand apparel and inherited clothing from relatives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The household was also directly involved in making clothes. The Le Stranges owned sheep and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(servants did some carding and spinning, though the majority was put out to weavers \(to make cloth for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(household use rather than clothing\) and knitters \(for hose and stockings\). These differences are reflected in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the record keeping. Tailors are named in the accounts and were paid by bill; spinners and knitters are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unnamed and paid by the task. Retailers are never named and the household seems to have bought very little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at markets or from pedlars. The authors argue that this evidence points to the strong personal links between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumers and producers in this period, with middlemen being in a subordinate position. Hamon borrowed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money from his London tailor, as well as the ?town of Lynn?. A similar argument is made for food. As with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(types of cloth, a variety of foods appear in the accounts, including a wide range of meats and fish. Novelties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 17th century such as cherries, peaches, nectarines and artichokes all appear here. However, compared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the recipes in cookery books of the period they ate a simple diet in which mutton, cheese and lamb )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(featured strongly. The kitchen accounts reveal the strong influence of seasonality on what was eaten, as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as local influence. Closeness to the sea, for example, explains the variety of fish eaten.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7254 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the core of the book is gender analysis. Within eight years of their marriage Alice Le Strange took over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the management of the household accounts from her husband and then, in the 1630s, took over the estate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts too. She introduced more detailed accounting techniques, listing all relevant items and dividing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them into categories for cross referencing. She moved food and building expenditure into their own separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts and introduced half yearly stock-taking in the kitchen. A similar process of improving record )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keeping occurred when she had control of the estate accounts. Alice was not unusual in being a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentlewoman keeping household accounts. Indeed, she had a model in the accounts that Hamon?s great, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great, grandmother Anne Le Strange kept in the 1530s. It is clear that Alice consulted these earlier records )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and may have used them as a model for her own. However, the authors suggest she was unusual in having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control over the household accounts whilst her husband was alive and living alongside her. Hamon Le )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strange appreciated his wife?s talents because of her ?ever incessant industry in strayness of knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(above her sex, to the just, faithfull and laudable advantage and advancement of myne estate? \(p. 33\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Le Stranges owned four marriage advice books and three husbandry manuals. The authors conclude that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the range of skills Alice le Strange demonstrated in her management of the household, coupled with her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subordination to her husband, conform to the ideal of the housewife presented in the advice literature. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast to two other Norfolk gentlewomen examined in the book, Alice?s household management stands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out for its stability over several decades. The accounts are also used to explore the gender difference in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spending on education and allowances. There was quite a stark divide between the spending on the Le )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stranges? sons and daughter. Whilst the sons were sent away to school, Elizabeth was kept at home. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learnt to read and write but the only book bought for her was a primer and the only tuition paid for was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(singing lesson at the age of 20. In contrast, the allowances provided for the eldest son Nickolas were twice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of his sister?s dowry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In some respects the book?s analysis of gender and consumption is close to that of the historiography of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later period. The differences between men?s and women?s shopping described by Amanda Vickery for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th century are found in Hamon's and Alice?s purchasing habits. Although the amounts spent by Hamon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Alice on luxuries were about equal, the objects acquired were not. Hamon followed fashion as much as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his wife did, described clothes in detail in his will and left nearly as many clothes as his wife. He took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charge not only of buying his own clothes, but also items relating his to social or leisure interests. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be crudely called ?men?s stuff?. He bought leather goods such as those associated with horses, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books for the large library at Hunstanton. He also had control of expenditure for improving the house. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meanwhile, Alice bought clothing and other items for herself, but was also in charge of all purchasing for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the day-to-day running of the household. Items bought for the household were not only more basic but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly marked distinctions between men and women: for example, goods bought relating to women?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic work, such as aprons. Toys and clothing bought for children also reflect this divide. Hamon?s sons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played with items connected with hunting, bowls or music. Elizabeth did not receive such items. Instead her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parents bought her items such as her first gown and bodice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whittle and Griffiths connect this gender division in spending with social status. Arguing against Thorsten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Veblen who thought that conspicuous consumption was mainly conducted by bourgeois wives, they argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it was male gentry who spent the most freely and most frequently in ways that served to demonstrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social status. Gentry position was displayed through infrequent but lavish spending. Hamon, for instance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had something of a horse habit, buying 329 worth of horses and selling 207 over a 15-year period. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors also use their material to argue against the idea of Grant McCracken, that elites distinguished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves through ?patina?, that is, objects that looked old and reflected the continuity of the aristocracy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McCracken?s chosen example was silver, but the Le Stranges replaced their silver regularly. Old items that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were kept or passed on were valued for their sentimental connection with other family members. What did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mark the family out from their social inferiors was the need to pay the political and legal costs expected of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the gentry. Political and legal expenditure increased from the 1620s and then ?ballooned? in the Civil War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade ? at 413 p.a. ? thanks to higher taxation, requisitioning and having to pay for the Royalist defence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King?s Lynn. This meant less money was available for textiles and building works.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7397 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the book's overarching framework of ?elite consumption? will be too restrictive for many readers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This limits the term to expenditure on items only the elite bought. The authors want this definition to work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it will reinforce their argument that in the fields of textiles and food the Le Stranges were part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common material culture. That is to say that they were closer to the material lives of their tenants than to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentry at the Stuart court. For one thing, this argument is undercut by the many instances of social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiation via consumption that they find, including in the mundane fields they emphasise. For another, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it seems conceptually confusing. To use a modern analogy, people who buy brand new BMWs share a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material culture with those who buy second-hand ones, but the big differences in expenditure between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two suggest that the buying of new ones can be properly labelled luxury consumption, whilst that of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others cannot.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consumption did not just help to construct social status but also reinforced social obligations. Here the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors turn to an interesting series of records of food given as gifts to the household. Unlike those who sold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(food to the Le Stranges, the names of gift givers were recorded in the kitchen accounts. 317 individuals are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(named, almost all tenants of the Le Stranges. Over 100 different types of gift are recorded with chickens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being the most commonly given item. Higher-status tenants gave more expensive items like turkeys. Unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the classic anthropological studies of gift-giving, where there is a delay in reciprocating the gift, in the Le )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strange household gifts were instantly acknowledged. What the records call ?rewards? were given to the gift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giver. These were cash payments with a sliding scale in operation to reflect the value of the original gift: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chicken received 6d, a turkey 7d. Gift giving not only reinforced the relationship between landlord and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenant, but also other forms of social bonds. A third of gift-givers were female, and the items they gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected the work they would have done in or for the household. Wet nurses, for example, gave gifts around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time of the birth of the Le Stranges? children. The records were kept for many years and this allows for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological analysis. Christmas emerges, unsurprisingly, as the high point of gift giving. Over the long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term, there was a falling away in the number of gifts given to the Le Stranges, with a dramatic decline from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the outbreak of the Civil War. The authors interpret this as evidence of the unpopularity of the family for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their Royalism, although it could also be tenants having to manage their resources more carefully in a time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of dislocation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike some historians who confine the theory to the introduction, Whittle and Griffiths bring in social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science concepts at relevant moments to illuminate their arguments. Although they refer to Jan de Vries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they steer clear of placing the Le Strange household within the argument over the 'industrious revolution'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They are also more methodologically ecumenical than De Vries, although the influence of the anthropologist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Miller is clear at key points. As they acknowledge, in places their definition of consumption is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stretched until it becomes ?expenditure?. There are gains to be made by doing this, particularly by putting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spending on food and textiles within their financial place. More money was spent on political and legal costs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or building works, than on apparel and groceries. The kitchen and the wardrobe made up about a third of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yearly budget. However, this study also reveals some of the limits to organising histories of consumption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(round the household. In contrast to an object-centred study it becomes hard to fully explain some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thechanges in consumption seen in the accounts. For example, as the tailors were allowed to choose the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fabrics they made up into garments, changes in the Le Stranges' most expensive clothing would seem to lie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside the household.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed the book backs off from placing the Le Stranges within longer-term change. At times they appear to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have continuity with the 16th century, at others with the late 17th century. It could of course be both, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depending on the area of focus. Still it would have been good to have had an outline of the direction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travel. And of course there is the problemwhich affectsall micro-histories of how much can be generalised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a single source, however detailed it is. Whittle and Griffiths compare where they can with other gentry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families in East Anglia. As they admit, some of the patterns they find suggest that the Le Stranges were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unusual. In their introduction the authors say that the sub-field they were less interested in was the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the gentry. But given the specificity of the sources, I would have thought this book might be most revealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for historians of the provincial elite. The success of using household accounts to highlight the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumption in reproducing local social relationships, and the effects of the Civil War on this, suggests that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1187 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is an approach that could be profitably pursued by others. )] TJ ET BT 333.308 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World of Alice Le Strange )] TJ ET BT 482.636 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that gentry households can be used to examine many aspects of consumption. Specialists in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern material culture, the household, gender and the gentry could all learn a lot from this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 724.975 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 707.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 707.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1358)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 705.801 m 328.316 705.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 680.824 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 666.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/44106)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 706.1155 328.3157 717.9955 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1358) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000605 00000 n 0000000687 00000 n 0000004645 00000 n 0000004754 00000 n 0000004864 00000 n 0000004973 00000 n 0000008534 00000 n 0000008662 00000 n 0000008746 00000 n 0000008811 00000 n 0000016153 00000 n 0000016218 00000 n 0000023525 00000 n 0000023590 00000 n 0000031040 00000 n 0000031124 00000 n 0000032364 00000 n 0000032492 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32588 %%EOF