%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150725162200+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150725162200+01'00') /Title (The British Isles and the War of American Independence) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4520 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The British Isles and the War of American Independence)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The nineteenth-century German political theorist, Heinrich von Treitschke, concluded that it was war 'which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turns a people into a nation.' His opinion has been reiterated by scholars over the years, many of whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concur with Michael Howard's assertion that from 'the very beginning, the principle of nationalism was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost indissolubly linked, both in theory and practice, with the idea of war.' War, in Howard's words, 'was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the necessary dialectic in the evolution of nations.' America offers a case in point here: founded by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution, the nation came apart in the nineteenth century only to be reunited after a brutal Civil War. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of both wars has, of course, been the focus of much attention by American historians. British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, too, express an interest in the American Revolution, but for the period following Britain's 'loss' of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her North American colonies their interest in the United States tends to fade, picking up again only once )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America became involved in the European wars of the twentieth century. Further, many of those studies that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do examine the Revolution focus, perhaps obviously enough, on the American side of the equation. Whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there have been studies, such as John Derry's analysis of )] TJ ET BT 307.784 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Politics and the American Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1976\) that focus on the war's impact on the United Kingdom, these have tended either to isolate one aspect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its effect \()] TJ ET BT 95.660 130.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(e.g.)] TJ ET BT 112.988 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on politics\) or, as Conway notes, they adopt a broad approach and study the war's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('international and imperial dimensions' \(p. 2\). Students, consequently, frequently react with surprise when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advised that the American Revolution was a central event in British history. The appearance of Conway's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work should ensure that, in future, the news comes as less of a shock to them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It may seem illogical to look at only one side in any conflict, but of course the emphasis on America's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(136)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 September, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Conway)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780198206593)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(418pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan-Mary Grant)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7486 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins has tended to blur the considerable impact that the war for independence had on Great Britain. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution is not unique in this regard: in the case of the American Civil War the extended focus afforded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the South has resulted in a similarly skewed image of that particular conflict, too. There are additional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parallels. The reality of the Revolution, like that of the Civil War, has over time become both obscured and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplified. The role played by the Loyalists in the case of the former has, for obvious reasons, been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(downplayed, sometimes to the point where, in popular culture at least, the story of the American Revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is one of oppressed colonists rising up )] TJ ET BT 220.340 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(en masse)] TJ ET BT 263.996 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( against the dictatorial British monarchy. Of course it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not so straightforward. Like the later Civil War, the American Revolution was a war which pitched )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbour against neighbour, perhaps in an even more brutal and direct way than the nineteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict did. It left no one involved left unscathed, and that held as true for Great Britain as it did for her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North American colonies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conway's study of the effect that the Revolution had on Great Britain is multidimensional. On one level it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a work which argues for continuity, or rather for development, over dramatic change in British history, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several main areas: military, social, economic and ideological. As Conway puts it, his work 'by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrating on the impact on the British Isles of the last significant conflict before the French Revolution, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should add something to the increasingly well-established case against the traditional, "limited war" view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century armed struggles' \(p. 5\). On another, it is a study of the role that the war played in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction of a distinctly British national identity. 'The connection between war and national identity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the timing or even the reality of the emergence of a popular identification with Britain,' Conway notes, 'have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been hotly contested,' and it is his intention to explore the degree to which 'the war promoted an overarching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of Britishness' \(p. 9\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The range and the complexity of the subject, combined with the fact that Conway is addressing it on more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than one level, could result in an unwieldy volume, but the material is extremely well-controlled throughout. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conway selects to begin with an examination of the British armed forces during the Revolution, moving on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to consider the economic, social and cultural impact of the war in a broad sense before focusing on its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on parliamentary and religious reform and on British imperial attitudes generally. He includes several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local studies, and has selected Brentwood in Essex, Lichfield in Staffordshire, Strabane, County Tyrone, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hull, Glasgow and the county of Berkshire as providing a representative cross-section of the British Isles at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time. These brief but informative local 'snapshots' enable him to highlight, at the micro level, many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the macro trends he has identified in the body of the work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The opening chapter examines military mobilisation, and attempts 'to establish just two fundamentals: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of Britons and Irishmen who served in a military capacity, and the sections of society from which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they came' \(pp. 11-12\). In line with recent trends, Conway argues that the revolutionary war was not as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinct from the French Revolutionary or the Napoleonic Wars which came after. The '"British Armed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nation" of the 1790s and early 1800s,' Conway concludes, 'should be seen less as a revolutionary departure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from past practice and more as a development and intensification of recent trends' \(p. 29\). Here, again, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are distinct echoes of the historiographical debate over the Civil War's 'modernity' and its relationship to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('total wars' of the twentieth century. In this case, Conway examines in some detail the level and composition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the troops who were sent to North America to suppress the rebellion, and concludes that the evidence 'sits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat uneasily with the received wisdom of the composition of the British armed forces in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century' \(p. 29\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although foreign - particularly German - troops were employed in the colonies, the British army did not rely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on them to the degree previously supposed. Further, the actual composition of the British army and navy was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not drawn only from the top \(aristocratic officers\) and bottom \(vagrants, paupers and criminals in the rank )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and file\) tiers of British society, but in fact included a large percentage of the 'middling sort.' Taking the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale and the range of mobilisation into account, Conway argues that the Revolution 'can be seen to fit into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pattern of steadily increasing participation' stretching from the War of Austrian Succession through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seven Years War, the Revolution itself and on to the conflicts of the early nineteenth century. Rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representing any kind of deviation from this trend, the American war for independence simply 'carried on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upward trajectory' as far as the British armed forces were concerned \(pp. 43-44\). It mobilised more men )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7658 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Conway estimates about one in seven or eight served\), at more levels, and consequently had a greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on British society as a whole than previously thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The war's impact on the economy was less, Conway concludes, that one might have expected, but it did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result in 'enormous turmoil and compelled often considerable adjustments and adaptations' \(p. 84\). Its direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect on individuals was, similarly, mixed, but perhaps greater than a cursory glance might suggest. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conway highlights this fact via a close and careful reading of some of the available evidence. He looks at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect of the war upon women, noting that whilst it increased their involvement in and awareness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader world it also 'bolstered traditional attitudes' among men \(p. 89\). The war also reinforced anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic tendencies and class friction generally within British society, providing some 'interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointers to the future' even if it did not in itself create such tensions \(p. 104\). Reform of both the penal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system and the poor laws in England can be traced more directly to the changes brought about by the war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conway suggests, and the reform impulse in general was given a boost. The loss of the North American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies, he argues, 'caused much introspective reflection, leading to a campaign for moral regeneration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing criticism of the slave trade' \(p. 128\). Similarly, reform of both the representative system and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between Church and State was encouraged by events across the Atlantic. However, as with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British reform bills passed after the American Civil War, it was not necessarily the case that the war created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the climate for reform, but rather that it provided an opportunity for reform-minded individuals to press their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case and effect change in these areas. Above all, Conway concludes, the war had the effect of militarising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British and Irish society, 'not just in the sense that large numbers of adult males went into uniform, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in that military events fascinated the public' \(p. 128\). Out of this militarization, he goes on to argue, a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherent sense of Britishness emerged.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This increased sense of 'Britishness' did not, however, prevent the existence, or the intensification, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisions within the nation, particularly regarding the appropriateness of the war itself. Again, Conway is in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tune with current thinking regarding the levels of support for and opposition to the war, both of which were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors from the outset. In this context he cites the work of James Bradley and Kathleen Wilson, both of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom have uncovered 'strong and consistent opposition to the war' in public petitions and in individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English cities such as Newcastle and Norwich \(p. 130\). Scotland, by comparison, 'perhaps came nearest to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unanimity on the American issue,' and supported British attempts to suppress the revolution in North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American \(not something many Scots today are likely to highlight in their quest for a 'special relationship' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the United States\). Conway warns against taking the evidence as wholly representative, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless concludes that it 'tends to strengthen the case for considering the Scots as very largely in favour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of coercion of the colonists' \(p. 133\). The Irish, on the other hand, inclined toward the opposite view, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were more generally opposed to the war. Within the political realm, too, the war reinforced already existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divisions and, in some cases, created new ones. Certainly, Conway argues, the British army's extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilisation, its use of German mercenaries and Scottish troops led to increasing concern over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government's intentions at that time, and 'reinforced the impression of a slide into tyranny' \(p. 165\). At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time, he stresses that in many cases the 'aim of those who opposed the war against the Americans was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to stop what they saw as a civil war within the British empire, not to protest at the use of military force per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(se.' \(p. 321\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was amidst all this upheaval, Conway argues, that Britishness came to be redefined, and here he brings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Colley's )] TJ ET BT 106.844 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britons )] TJ ET BT 145.184 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into play. Colley's thesis has, he notes, been criticised on several levels, one of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns its timing. Some scholars, most notably Adrian Hastings, take issue not only with the assertion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the eighteenth century was the point at which this sense of 'Britishness' emerged, but question the whole idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of nationalism being a modern phenomenon. Others, such as Murray Pittock, by concentrating on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish, or more generally 'Celtic' expressions of identity, argue against the existence of any coherent sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 'Britishness' at all, and stress the persistence of marginalisation in the case of the Scots, Irish and Welsh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within British/English nationalist constructs. As with nationalism studies generally, the debates are both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex and likely to be lively for some time to come, but in the context of the American revolution and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of 'Britishness,' Conway argues that the evidence could support Colley's thesis in )] TJ ET BT 490.460 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britons)] TJ ET BT 525.800 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps even extend it. Localism, Conway suggests, 'was not necessarily incompatible with an overarching )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7175 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of Britishness. Nor was contemporary English, Welsh, Scottish, and even Irish patriotism.' Identity, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminds us, 'was and is multifaceted,' and, to a degree, context-sensitive \(p. 168\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conway has two main props for his argument, or rather his support of Colley's argument, that a distinct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Britishness' can be detected in the eighteenth century: first, warfare itself, or the nationalising effect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military service; second, the importance and influence of what he very neatly describes as 'component )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriotisms.' Of the two, Conway places greater weight on the latter. He stresses that the role of warfare, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the revolutionary war at least, in the development of national identity was not a straightforward case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalty to the nation being inculcated in the process of fighting for it. Rather, he argues, 'far from weakening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local identification, the American war might well have strengthened it' \(p. 170\). Despite this, the conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('created circumstances conducive to widespread identification with Britain among the peoples of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Isles' \(p. 168\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conway shows how the British state, by encouraging localism via the extension of militias and the raising of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regiments at the local level and under local leadership, effectively turned local loyalties to national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantage. In the case of Ireland, participation in the volunteer units gave Ulstermen 'a voice, a sense of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own importance,' in short, a sense of citizenship \(p. 227\). Irish volunteers held closely to the ideal of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('citizen soldier,' and saw themselves fighting to uphold 'republican virtue' in their own communities, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitude mirrored, of course, by their opponents in the colonies. Sometimes, too, Conway notes, local pride )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was acknowledged and invoked as a deliberate means of stimulating national involvement, as when Captain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Napier sought to encourage naval recruitment in Scotland by suggesting that the Scots would not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wish to 'allow themselves to be outdone by the English' \(p. 182\). Such tactics were doubtless extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective in the production of an army in which 'Englishmen, Welshmen, Scotsmen, and Irishmen were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought together and could become Britons' \(p. 191\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reinforcing the link between warfare and nationalism in the case of the American revolution was the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the British forces were not simply fighting the colonists but, as the war progressed and as France, Spain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even Holland joined in on the American side, found themselves facing a 'multiplicity of foes.' In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter stages of the conflict, Conway argues, the 'British could now see themselves as struggling gamely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against a formidable coalition, rather than as using parental power to chastise their wayward colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children' \(p. 200\). Given the odds stacked against them by that point, Conway concludes, 'even eventual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeat might seem like a moral victory and be cause for national self-congratulation' \(p. 202\). By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion of the revolution, Britain could position itself in the role of 'beleaguered nation,' a position that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was echoed to some degree in the 'Very Well, Then, Alone!' image of Britain facing the Nazi threat during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Second World War. However, whether, in the eighteenth century, this image carried as much weight in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalising terms remains open to debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Conway concludes that continuity seems, overall, more significant than change in the case of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact that the American war for independence had on Britain, he nevertheless identifies certain areas where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change can clearly be detected. These include attitudes toward 'the use of military force as an instrument of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy,' which, he argues, became more critical, and 'prepared the ground for the more clearly antiwar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigns in the struggle against revolutionary and Napoleonic France' \(p. 315\). The revolution also, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests, 'furthered the process whereby the British empire became increasingly associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritarian rule over subject peoples and less with largely self-governing British settlements abroad' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(345\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having detailed the various divisions within British society at the time of the American war of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence, Conway ends by stressing those elements of unity that existed. 'This unity,' he argues, 'was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on a conception of Britishness that was in an important sense very different from what had gone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before.Once the Americans departed from the empire, national identity had to be reconfigured' \(p. 354\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war itself, he concludes, played a major part in this reconfiguration of Britishness. 'The armed services were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves melting pots and, perhaps more tellingly,' Conway suggests, 'they presented to the wider public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an image of Britishness at work' \(p. 355\). Yet this perception of British unity should not be taken at face )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value. Here, again, there are revealing parallels with the nation that America became. There, too, the ideal of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3889 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'melting pot' failed to create the kind of unity that its proponents anticipated. Despite severing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial connection in the eighteenth century, Britain and America remained linked, in several ways. In both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nations, the achievement of unity and the construction of national identity were fraught with difficulties.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scholars of nationalism tend to steer clear of the American example because the complexities of a nation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigrants which only managed to establish itself as a nation via an internecine Civil War do not fit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comfortably with any of the current theories concerning the development of national identities. However, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British case, with its sometimes uneasy mixture of Scottish, Welsh, Irish and English elements and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious divisions was and remains no less complex. There are additional parallels. The debate over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(timing \(as if this could be measured with any accuracy\) of the emergence of a sense of Britishness has its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterpart in the continuing, and not always constructive, debate over the origins of Southern nationalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the United States. The balance between local loyalties and American nationalism is, similarly, not yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully understood. American nationalism, indeed, is too readily relegated to second place by scholars who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argue that state loyalties took, and take, precedence in the federal system. In this context, Conway's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument for the nationalising effect of 'component patriotisms,' and the way in which he has shown how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(localism could function within a national context is extremely valuable, and deserves further attention. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conway's work, indeed, certainly deserves a wider readership not just among British historians, but among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American historians and scholars of nationalism more generally. )] TJ ET BT 346.964 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The British Isles and the War of American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Independence)] TJ ET BT 100.652 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( not only presents a succinct and comprehensible survey of a complex period of British history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but has some genuinely original observations to make on the role of warfare in the development of a nation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the way in which the various component parts of any nation shift around and reconfigure themselves in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times of crisis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 454.111 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 436.331 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 436.331 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/136)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 434.937 m 322.316 434.937 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 409.960 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 395.560 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/752)] TJ ET BT 34.016 381.160 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 435.2515 322.3157 447.1315 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/136) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000564 00000 n 0000000646 00000 n 0000005218 00000 n 0000005327 00000 n 0000005437 00000 n 0000005546 00000 n 0000009107 00000 n 0000009235 00000 n 0000009319 00000 n 0000009384 00000 n 0000016923 00000 n 0000016988 00000 n 0000024699 00000 n 0000024764 00000 n 0000031992 00000 n 0000032076 00000 n 0000036018 00000 n 0000036146 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36241 %%EOF