%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 38 0 R 61 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141123162902+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141123162902+00'00') /Title (History in the Making) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4676 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(History in the Making)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book raises the intriguing question of genre. The history discipline admits a variety ? not just academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forms \(such as the learned article, the monograph, the edited collection\), but also textbooks on the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, student guides to historical skills and types of history, not to mention the theory of history, here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissed in a sentence \(p. xi\). )] TJ ET BT 184.664 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History in the Making)] TJ ET BT 290.324 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( exemplifies a further genre, the retrospective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summation: an eminent, ?)] TJ ET BT 158.012 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(practising)] TJ ET BT 206.684 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( historian? ?explores some of the themes and problems addressed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians? \(p. ix\) in the last 60 years or so. This prospect raises expectations. In this account of ?science as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocation? would the historian assert the intellectual honesty of, but also the indispensable need for, value-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(free science in a society ideologically contaminated?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 287.288 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 287.288 172.137 m 301.280 172.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 301.280 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Exemplifying ?science as personal experience?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would it foster a new kind of responsibility that in the interests of human survival, the precondition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, could re-orientate technical expertise and disciplinary organization, not least the technical expertise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operative in history, itself an information-management technology, now reliant more than ever on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information technology?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 152.336 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 152.336 115.113 m 166.328 115.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, )] TJ ET BT 83.996 90.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History in the Making)] TJ ET BT 189.656 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a memoir both ?impersonal and personal?, observes the disciplinary limits. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It takes history as what it is and what it has become. The personal is a metonym for the historical: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical refracted through the personal produces the spectrum of interests displayed here. It expresses, ?in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1361)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 9 January, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Huxtable Elliott)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300186383)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Davies)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 287.2877 172.4515 301.2797 184.3315 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 152.3357 115.4275 166.3277 127.3075 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 9838 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the light of my personal experience, views on the practice of history as it has developed over the course of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(my professional life?; the author surveys ?changes in approaches to the past [...] most closely related to my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own particular interests? \(pp. ix, 215\). The grammar of the first person thus coordinates the author?s day-to-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day self with the ?general self? of the historian.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 261.632 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 261.632 752.307 m 275.624 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 278.624 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History in the Making)] TJ ET BT 384.284 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shows the development of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian?s professional interests mirroring emerging trends in historiography in ?the second half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth century and the opening years of the twenty-first? \(p. ix\). The historian makes history by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historically contextualizing himself and his work: his memoir defines itself as a historical document )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?representative of the last generation of pre-digital historians? and, therefore, possibly ?of some historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest, if only as a record? \(p. xi\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History is made as initial professional interests extend into the already available or emergent disciplinary or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sub-disciplinary moulds in which historical practice is cast. Research into 17th-century Catalonia under the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Castilian rule of Philip IV and his advisor, the Count-Duke of Olivares \(chapter one\), proceeds to raise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues about ?national and transnational history? \(chapter two\), biography as a form of political history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapter three\), and, given Spain?s loss of its empire, the perception or reality ? terms not mutually exclusive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? of decline in both history and historiography \(chapter four\). It also prompts excursions into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentary value of art and culture \(chapter five\), the scope and limitations of comparative history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapter six\), and, finally, the historiographical opportunities in a modernized, globalized world where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communication networks suggest historical networks, culminating here in those captured by Atlantic history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapter seven\). Thus a historicizing practice that began with a Spanish region becomes a global concern. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is certainly history in the making, history making more of itself, amplifying itself. Historians will surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find this overview of recent historiographical developments useful. But, hardly unfamiliar with the concept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of )] TJ ET BT 47.012 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mentalit)] TJ ET BT 91.676 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it leaves unmentioned the cognitive practice that enables history to be made at all. This practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifests itself in a ?thought-style? or ?ideas style? automatically attuned to history as something the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian makes.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 112.676 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 112.676 455.187 m 126.668 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 126.668 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( What makes this memoir valuable, even illuminating, is that it unselfconsciously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrates this historicizing mentality and its tropes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History in the Making)] TJ ET BT 139.676 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( illustrates the comprehensive discourse of the humanities in general, but particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of history, the most comprehensive category. ?It is understanding?, the author says, ?that lies at the heart of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historical enterprise?; the ?immense change? the historical profession has witnessed in the past six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades ?has led to a vast enrichment of understanding of history and of the historical process itself? \(pp. x, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(218\). But comprehension is ?only? a thought-style because it represents an aspiration to comprehensiveness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its users know is unachievable. As the author says: ?No narrative is ever fully comprehensive, no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation total? \(p.94\). Because total explanation is unachievable, history's discursive structure facilitates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the next best thing, )] TJ ET BT 128.348 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(amplificatio)] TJ ET BT 186.356 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the self-amplification of knowledge, a basic trope of historicized thought.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It requires \(first\) the lexicon of plenitude. It is often indicated by essentially redundant adjectives and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adverbs often in the comparative form. The author aims to achieve ?a )] TJ ET BT 370.268 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(full)] TJ ET BT 386.276 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( understanding? of events and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues \(pp. 18, 57, 139\); to explore ?in )] TJ ET BT 221.000 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(greater)] TJ ET BT 256.328 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( depth? economic tensions in Catalonia \(p. 48\); to secure a ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(better)] TJ ET BT 62.012 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( understanding? be it of the societies of early modern Europe, be it of the career of the Count-Duke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 80, 184\). Nothing could be styled more comprehensively than recognizing that the Industrial Revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?can only be )] TJ ET BT 97.664 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fully)] TJ ET BT 119.000 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( understood if it is placed in a global context and treated on a global scale? \(p. 213\), while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history itself is a ?collective enterprise [...] committed to achieving a )] TJ ET BT 366.632 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(better)] TJ ET BT 394.628 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( appreciation both of the world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is gone and of the world as we know it today? \(p. 217\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It involves \(second\) the recourse to catachresis. In conjoining opposites ? typically ?soft? aesthetic qualities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with ?hard? disciplinary demands ? it styles comprehension as all-inclusiveness. 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They face a constant challenge: ?to get )] TJ ET BT 356.936 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inside the subject)] TJ ET BT 440.264 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s skin and yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(maintain objectivity)] TJ ET BT 129.680 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(p. 97\). Ultimately ?)] TJ ET BT 235.664 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(imagination)] TJ ET BT 293.672 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 299.672 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(empathy)] TJ ET BT 340.328 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the )] TJ ET BT 363.992 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ability)] TJ ET BT 394.664 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to master a wide range of diverse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinds of evidence? are required to relate political actors ?convincingly? to ?their )] TJ ET BT 422.588 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(social)] TJ ET BT 451.256 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 457.256 49.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(conceptual)] TJ ET BT 509.912 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 35.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(political)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 261.6317 752.6215 275.6237 764.5015 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 112.6757 455.5015 126.6677 467.3815 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7512 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world?; but nothing explains just how they are ?brought into play?, as the author insists \(p. 113\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It sustains \(third\) the prevalence of self-cancelling antitheses. These signify comprehension by implying that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing is excluded. Their effect though is to produce redundancy, since their self-cancellation also cancels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the already unexceptionable point they were making. Some examples are: ?a historian has advantages as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as disadvantages? in studying a society not his own \(but to which occupation does this not apply?\) \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30\); Spanish history ?is made up of striking successes and equally striking failures? \(but to which European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country does this not apply either?\) \(p. 39\); like ?a revisionist approach to national history?, ?the combined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of cultural and art historians? has involved ?losses as well as gains? \(but what does not?\) \(pp. 49, 164\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What precise sense can be made of the assertion that though the ?line between popular and lite culture [...] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to have grown stronger with the passage of time, it was also porous with different worlds [...] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlapping? \(what exactly is a ?strong, porous line??\) \(p.163\)? What further alternative remains on learning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ?decline may be relative or [...] absolute, or some combination of the two? \(p. 133\), or that ?fluidity may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been a characteristic of the Atlantic world for much of its history [...], but so also [...] was stasis? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(209\), or that differing approaches can ?yield a synthesis in which the particular and the general blend? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(198\)? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To diversify and maximize the scope of historical cognition, there is \(fourth\) the recourse to a compendious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nominalism that facilitates comparisons and analogies, such as ?unity and diversity?, or ?centre and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periphery? permitting parallels between Franco and Olivares \(pp. 26?7\); the ?continuous interplay? between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?continuity [...] and change?, between ?the individual and his or her environment? or between ?perception )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reality? \(pp. 59, 93, 134\); the ?persistent tension between similarity and difference? \(pp.176, 194\); or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?loss of empire? connecting Philip IV?s Spain with Attlee?s Britain \(p. 11\); or ?revolutions? offering ?rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunities for comparisons? \(p. 172\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The same intention produces \(fifth\) atomization, the hallmark of comprehensive discourse. Here this means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the discipline grows ?specialist fields and sub-fields? \(p. 140\), such as trans-national history, early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, comparative history, )] TJ ET BT 175.004 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(histoire croise)] TJ ET BT 249.332 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, micro-history, global history, Atlantic history, imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, many ramifying further into disciplines such as art history, sociology, and anthropology. It also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multiplies the subject matter, thus de-materializing the objective past. There is, accordingly, in Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history not one Atlantic Ocean but ?several Atlantics?, ?a number of Atlantics?, Spanish, Portuguese, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English, Dutch, and French, depending on the route across \(p. 205\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conversely, comprehension triggers \(sixth\) the anxiety of omission, expressed in terms of performative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure. If the author?s research topic offers an ?open field? he can explore, he is also alert to any ?gap that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somehow needs to be filled?, to any ?inadequacy of [...] approach?, to ?paths not taken or forgotten?, to what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is ?dated? or ?increasingly anachronistic?, to ?a period seriously understudied? \(pp. 7, 23, 73, 79, 81, 85, 91, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(94, 101\). But this failure also produces redundancy: the assertion that ?all attempts at historical periodization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are [...] unsatisfactory because no single term can [...] encapsulate [...] an epoch as a )] TJ ET BT 440.552 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(whole?)] TJ ET BT 475.220 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a truism since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?period? and ?epoch? are synonyms \(p. 60\); the observation that ?to make sense of the contemporary world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a [...] part of the historical enterprise, but it is not the )] TJ ET BT 301.652 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(whole)] TJ ET BT 330.320 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( part [...]? collapses in self-contradiction: how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can a part be whole \(p. 214\)?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History in the Making)] TJ ET BT 139.676 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( relies unsurprisingly on a stabilizing, dualistic conception of knowledge: the subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the impartial historian\) confronts its object \(the past as it was\). This nave dualism is philosophically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questionable. Still historiography needs the past as it was. In any case, the validity of dualism is not the issue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here, but its function in comprehensive discourse. Historical practice proves unable to sustain it. It makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both subject and object indeterminate, thereby compromising its cognitive structure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So \(seventh\) the knowing subject, seeking ever fuller comprehension, destabilizes itself. The reason is: its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cognitive scope keeps expanding, discovering ?quite new perspectives? \(p. 100\). The narrative is articulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through such self-correcting phrases as: ?I had become aware, however, that I had entered sensitive territory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([...]?; ?my [...] researches and [...] travels brought home to me [...]?; ?As I came to appreciate [...]?; ?As I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to see [...]?; ?I became increasingly aware of the inadequacy of this approach [...]?; ?I would at least )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 33 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 9106 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(get a )] TJ ET BT 60.008 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(clearer)] TJ ET BT 94.664 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( sense [...]?; ?it became clear to me [...]?; ?as I came to know )] TJ ET BT 390.572 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(more)] TJ ET BT 415.232 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [...], I came to realize [...]?; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?I was not as aware [...] as I later became [...]? \(pp. 20, 26, 30, 56, 57, 73, 96, 99, 129, 134\). Consequently, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its cognitive stance also fluctuates, especially according to the ?lens? it uses \(p. 60\). The author can be both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?deeply immersed in my subject? and ?a genuine outsider?; yet he approaches his assignment ?from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standpoint of the new, post-Second World War generation? \(pp. 19, 29\). Now he advocates ?a clear-sighted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach, based on all the available evidence?; now he ?wants to see [the New World] through the eyes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth-century Spaniards? \(pp. 47, 202\). He knows there are areas ?he might otherwise have neglected to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore? and problems he ?might otherwise have side-stepped?; but he sees the value of exploring the palace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Buen Retiro ?from a variety of viewpoints, and from treating its history in the round? \(pp. 86, 141, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(214\). While different disciplinary perspectives produce ambivalence, offering now ?enrichment?, now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?distraction?, they can also converge in ?an integrated approach? from which ?much can be gained? \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(100, 153\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So too \(eighth\), the structures in historical practice that make the objective past comprehensible effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(de-materialize it. ?The attempt to pin down the past? may be ?an elusive enterprise?, yet in the archive the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author is in ?real touch? and ?direct contact? with it \(pp. xi, 13, 14\). ?Past and present? can be ?inextricably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entangled?, have a legitimate ?interconnected nature?, but ?constantly, and sometimes unexpectedly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interact? as well \(pp. 25, 80, 115\). Though ?the study of networks, connections and interacting systems has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become a key to unlocking the past?, the past, somehow already at liberty, has still ?an uncanny way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming back to upset the present? \(pp. 211, 215\). Though, unfortunately, ?every nation views its past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the prism of the present and its present through the prism of the past?, the historian is urged to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?enter imaginatively into the past while maintaining one foot in the present, and always be alert to new ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of approaching it? \(pp. 44, 215\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This multiplicity of inconsistent subject-perspectives and contradictory object-positions, characteristic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(amplificatio)] TJ ET BT 92.024 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, might make sense if it had a synthesizing, logical structure. It might not encapsulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive knowledge, but it would still evince total rationalization. But precisely here this memoir is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most ambivalent. While repudiating ?strong? forms of historicism, the ?deterministic?, ?mechanistic?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?general laws? of history proposed by Marx, Spengler, Toynbee, Braudel or Elias \(pp. 9, 93, 121-3, 151,170\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it can still mobilize the no less weak historicist features inherent in the comprehensive thought-style itself. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of )] TJ ET BT 76.676 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(res gestae)] TJ ET BT 125.000 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it can attribute a ?direction? to history, identify the ?trends of the times?, or pre-conceive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national history as ?teleological? \(pp. 51, 53, 87\). Further, suggesting a commercial analogy, it can define )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history as ?enrichment?, as an ?enterprise? \(pp. xii, 47, 67, 137, 217\). It can also represent the ?continuity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the enterprise over the generations? by analogy to ?seeds once sown, [that] may lie dormant for a while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before sprouting?, thereby invoking the irrational, organic conception of history typical of conservative-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological historicist thinking \(pp. 67-8\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.680 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.680 300.627 m 248.672 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 248.672 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Not least the author defines himself in historicist terms as ?a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative of the last )] TJ ET BT 154.652 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(generation)] TJ ET BT 206.648 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of pre-digital historians? or as belonging to ?the new, post-Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War )] TJ ET BT 91.328 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(generation)] TJ ET BT 143.324 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? \(pp. xi, 29.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 203.984 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 203.984 272.115 m 217.976 272.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 217.976 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Similarly his work defines itself by its macro-historical focus on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?outstanding?, world-historical individuals like Olivares or Bolivar who can ?shape? their period rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by any micro-historical frequentation with the )] TJ ET BT 257.984 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hoi polloi)] TJ ET BT 304.328 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( possibly not ?truly representative? of it \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(162,193\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Otherwise the historicist infra-structure is relocated to historiography, to historical practice. ?General laws? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of history may not exist, but sententious precepts, scholastic words of command affirming the historian?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(custodial responsibility for the past, still guide history?s making, )] TJ ET BT 347.684 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter alia)] TJ ET BT 392.024 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: ?Historians )] TJ ET BT 456.020 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(should be)] TJ ET BT 502.352 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with the present as with the past?; ?contingency [...] )] TJ ET BT 338.948 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(should never be)] TJ ET BT 414.932 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( left out of account in the [...] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation of the past?; ?to compare and connect are, and )] TJ ET BT 318.272 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(should be)] TJ ET BT 364.604 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( treated as, two sides of a single coin?; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?an anthropological dissection of court rituals [...] )] TJ ET BT 276.644 133.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(can all too easily)] TJ ET BT 358.976 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( result in a static picture of the past?; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?while empathy is an essential part [...] of biography, empathy )] TJ ET BT 336.632 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(can all too easily)] TJ ET BT 418.964 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( slide into unwary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sympathy?; ?the search for causes of decline [...] )] TJ ET BT 270.944 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(can all too easily)] TJ ET BT 353.276 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( assume the characteristics of a historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parlour game [...]? \(pp. 25, 93, 97, 183; 109,119; cf. pp.51,173,181-2, 212\). Discursive coherence relies on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categorical coordinators ? like the figures of sufficient reason, instruments of comprehension already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned ? such as: ?traditions? \(pp. 29, 124, 170\), ?transition? \(p. 63\), ?trajectory? \(p. 68\), ?forces? both )] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 234.6797 300.9415 248.6717 312.8215 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [30 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 203.9837 272.4295 217.9757 284.3095 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 9219 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?economic and social? and ?great impersonal? \(pp. 65, 93\), ?pressure both from above and below? \(p. 77\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?turning-points? \(p. 98\) ?process? both ?historical? and ?complex? \(pp. x, 61\), ?evolution? \(p. 51\), as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the redundancy, ?continuous process of evolution? \(p. 79\). But, above all, the imperative to contextualize )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-supposes a sense of history embedded in past events themselves, ? as in placing Spain?s past ?in a wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European context?; or setting the Catalan revolt ?within a coherent narrative framework?, ?documents into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their historical context?, decline ?in a larger historiographical context?, or ?two colonial worlds )] TJ ET BT 495.596 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(firmly)] TJ ET BT 524.264 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of their own time?; while ?the history of Spain [...] stands )] TJ ET BT 352.316 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(squarely)] TJ ET BT 393.644 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( within this master-narrative of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([...] rise and decline? \(pp. 36, 48, 84-5, 118, 119, 188; cf. pp.124, 137, 139\). A sophistical strategy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless: it perpetrates a ?vicious bifurcation? of reality, since contexts project prioritized structures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense abstracted originally from the very objects they subsequently frame.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.948 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.948 666.771 m 403.940 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, )] TJ ET BT 105.008 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History in the Making)] TJ ET BT 210.668 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( demonstrates history compulsively historicizing itself, historiography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself being determined by history. This determination takes several different forms. The author is naturally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismayed to discover that important archive material had disappeared in fires in 1794 and 1795 or that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(splendid Buen Retiro palace had been largely destroyed in the Napoleonic Wars \(pp. 16, 143\). Then the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author historicizes himself: by the generation he belongs to; by providing this memoir, this ?record? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical practice in the late twentieth-century; by reference to his immediate experience such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertaking research during the Franco rgime \(which ?sensitive territory? still gave him a ?privileged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position? compared with his Spanish colleagues \(pp. 20, 23, 41\)\) or reflecting on the decline of imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence as represented by the Suez Crisis \(p. 117\); but also, most recently, by assessing the implications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for historiography of the growth of information technology and of economic and cultural globalization \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(243\). The author also becomes an historical actor: his works on Spanish history contribute to national self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reorientation, particularly to the affirmation of Catalan identity, following the end of the Franco period \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30\); his interest in the Buen Retiro, fortuitously an act of ?reparation? for an ancestor?s involvement in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction, influences contemporary Spanish cultural politics regarding its restoration \(pp. 143, 167\). In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end )] TJ ET BT 54.344 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History in the Making)] TJ ET BT 160.004 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( leaves a paradoxical impression. No matter if history?s comprehensive thought-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(style is questionable: the historian?s interests need only shape his historical practice for historical practice to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shape history in its own self-interest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 378.915 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NB. Italicizations in the text are my own \(MLD\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 48.816 295.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Max Weber, ?Wissenschaft als Beruf,? in )] TJ ET BT 286.952 295.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gesammelte Aufstze zur Wissenschaftslehre)] TJ ET BT 503.264 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Winckelmann \(7th ed., Tbingen 1988\), pp. 582?613, p. 613.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 358.316 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 358.316 280.131 m 412.304 280.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 267.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cf. Hans Jonas, )] TJ ET BT 139.664 267.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wissenschaft als persnliches Erlebnis)] TJ ET BT 326.660 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Gttingen 1987\), pp. 28?31.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.980 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.980 265.875 m 522.968 265.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 253.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johann Gustav Droysen, )] TJ ET BT 184.664 253.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historik)] TJ ET BT 224.000 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. P. Leyh \(Stuttgart-Bad Canstatt, 1977\), pp. 365?6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 488.984 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 488.984 251.619 m 542.972 251.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 238.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cf. Ludwik Fleck, )] TJ ET BT 152.336 238.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Erfahrung und Tatsache. Gesammelte Aufstze)] TJ ET BT 378.656 238.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. L. Schfer & T. Schnelle )] TJ ET BT 64.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Frankfurt am Main, 1983\); Julien Benda, )] TJ ET BT 267.992 224.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Du Style d?ides. Rflexions sur la pense)] TJ ET BT 470.960 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris, 1948\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 208.851 m 118.004 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 195.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karl Mannheim, )] TJ ET BT 146.336 195.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideologie und Utopie)] TJ ET BT 248.324 195.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(8th ed., Frankfurt am Main: Vittorio Klostermann, 1995\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p.105, 202?3; )] TJ ET BT 132.680 181.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Konservatismus. Ein Beitrag zur Soziologie des Wissens)] TJ ET BT 403.016 181.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. D. Kettler, et al. \(Frankfurt )] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(am Main, 1984\), pp. 151, 155?6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.336 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.336 166.083 m 275.324 166.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 153.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Karl Mannheim, ?The problem of generations?, in )] TJ ET BT 328.628 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Essays in the Sociology of Knowledge)] TJ ET BT 510.956 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. P. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kecskemeti \(Abingdon, 2000\), pp. 276?320.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 277.988 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 277.988 137.571 m 331.976 137.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 124.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Karl Mannheim, ?On the interpretation of ?Weltanschauung??, in )] TJ ET BT 402.272 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(op)] TJ ET BT 414.272 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 417.272 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cit.)] TJ ET BT 432.272 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp.33?83.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.600 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.600 123.315 m 539.588 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Alfred North Whitehead, )] TJ ET BT 207.644 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Concept of Nature)] TJ ET BT 317.312 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge 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