%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818083014+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818083014+01'00') /Title (New Netherland and the Dutch Origins of American Religious Liberty) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4134 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(New Netherland and the Dutch Origins of American Religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Liberty)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evan Haefeli?s excellent new book, )] TJ ET BT 209.300 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Netherland and the Dutch Origins of American Religious Liberty)] TJ ET BT 546.296 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does nothing less than expand and transform our understanding of religious diversity and toleration in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial Dutch North America. It will become required reading for anyone seriously interested in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the mid-Atlantic colonies, the genesis of religious pluralism in America, or the history of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toleration in the Dutch world. It will also be of use to scholars and students interested in seeing how a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transatlantic approach to colonial American history can freshly illuminate sources already examined by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generations of historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Netherland?the 17th-century colony of the Dutch West India Company \(WIC\) in what is today New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, New Jersey, and the Delaware Valley?occupies a distinctive place in historiography. American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians have long considered the Dutch colonial experience as a template for the emergence of cultures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversity and competition that would ultimately shape American political and religious development. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work of the popular writer Russell Shorto, Dutch New Netherland has even been posited as the cradle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern American liberalism, with its live-and-let-live acceptance of social and cultural difference. The trope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives on in current political culture, with Mayor Michael Bloomberg invoking New York City?s tolerant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch origins to defend the building of an Islamic Cultural Center near the World Trade Center site. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1363)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 9 January, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evan Haefeli)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780812244083)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(384pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Pennsylvania Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philadelphia, PA)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steven Jaffe)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7117 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other hand, European historians have largely viewed New Netherland as something of a footnote. Rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than being the ?island at the center of the world? celebrated by Shorto, Manhattan and its environs are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually seen as a backwater neglected by Dutch sponsors who were far more interested in investing their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources in the fight with Portugal over Brazil and with Spain over various Caribbean islands.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Americanists, religious tolerance has been one of the touch points of what allegedly made New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Netherland so pivotal for the American future. Yet assessments of the colony?s religious history have had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contend with a central paradox. On one hand, by the 1650s New Amsterdam \(now New York City\) and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(satellite communities were home to a colorful array of European religious refugees and ?seekers?: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lutherans, Mennonites, Jews, English Baptists, Quakers, and a few Catholics, all of whom existed outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bounds of the colony?s official Dutch Reformed \(Calvinist\) church. Surely, most commentators have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued, their ability to find new homes in New Netherland reflected the growing importance of religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toleration in the Dutch Republic, where Amsterdam was becoming the most religiously cosmopolitan city in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the other hand, the fact that each of these groups had to struggle with the colony?s on-site director, Peter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stuyvesant, his provincial council, and the local Dutch Reformed clergy in order to secure concessions has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also been central to the historical narrative. Indeed, the Flushing Remonstrance, a 1657 petition that has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(celebrated as one of the earliest arguments for religious freedom in America, was a protest by a group of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonists against Stuyvesant?s anti-Quaker measures, not an endorsement of the colony?s official policies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Were Stuyvesant and his Calvinist allies representative of an outmoded or aberrant tradition that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming obsolete in the Netherlands even as they attempted to impose it on colonists? The twin realities of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tolerance and intolerance coexist awkwardly in much of the writing on 17th-century Dutch North America, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving rise to a teleological inference: Stuyvesant and company were on the wrong side of American history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destined to be losers as the colony?s religious dissenters planted the roots of American pluralism by taking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advantage of a Dutch climate of toleration that prevailed despite Stuyvesant and the local Reformed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergymen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is where Haefeli steps in, relying on close readings of Dutch and English primary sources and building )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the recent work of Jaap Jacobs, Willem Frijhoff, Benjamin J. Kaplan, Ned C. Landsman, Maarten Prak, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other historians. Inspired by ?the relatively new fields of Atlantic world history and borderlands history? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. x\), Haefeli jettisons the purely Americanist focus as myopic and misleading, instead embracing an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach that places New Netherland in the context of contemporaneous European and, indeed, global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Religious life and policy in Dutch North America, he insists, must be understood as part of the larger Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience, and that experience was evolving during the 17th century not only in the Low Countries but in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies and outposts as far flung as Dutch Brazil, South Africa, the East Indies, India, Ceylon, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Formosa. Indeed, as Haefeli points out, ?Dutch tolerance, colonies, and nation were created together? \(p. 21\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the long revolt against Spain and the struggle over national self-definition that lasted from the mid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16th to the late 17th century. Moreover, the peculiar dynamics of Dutch political and religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture?especially the primacy of local, provincial, and confessional identities, rather than national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uniformity, as the crucial engines of social reality? determined the outcomes of religious confrontations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wherever the Dutch settled during their ?Golden Age?. Similarly, the contingencies of timing that brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific players together in specific places at specific moments explain the variations in Dutch religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy far better than does a uniform and static policy of toleration that never actually existed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Central to Haefeli?s argument is the question of what defined Dutch toleration in the 17th century. He makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear what Dutch toleration was not: a clearly enunciated policy in favour of freedom of public worship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applicable everywhere at all times. However, the Dutch Reformed Church, though supported by the state, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was embraced by only a minority of the Dutch people \(other Protestants, Catholics, and small groups of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews made up the rest of the population\); it avoided forcing the heterodox to attend its services or to pay for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its upkeep. At the heart of what distinguished Dutch toleration was the idea of liberty of conscience: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals were free to believe what they wanted without harassment by magistrates, prelates, or )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7371 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquisitors, a policy that distinguished the Dutch Republic from contemporary Spain, Portugal, England, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France, and other European states. Yet the privilege of conducting public worship, services and ceremonies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was reserved to the Dutch Reformed Church?a church that was ?national? if not ?established? by 17th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century European standards. Technically, other religious communities?whether Catholic, Lutheran, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mennonite, Jewish or, after the Synod of Dort in 1618, the Arminian Protestant congregations known as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Remonstrants?were not supposed to manifest themselves publicly in services or processions. Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformed clerics and laymen often hoped that non-Reformed Christians would eventually convert after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exposure to the public church.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What developed in reality was a patchwork of discrete and often transitory policies in different cities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provinces, and regions. In parts of the Netherlands where Counter-Remonstrant \(hard-line Calvinist\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magistrates and clergy had the upper hand, non-Reformed Protestants and Catholics could find it difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sustain any kind of congregational life, and Jews were generally prohibited from settling. At the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extreme stood the great trading port of Amsterdam, which became the capital of ?connivance?, defined as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tacit acceptance of congregations of Catholics, Lutherans, Mennonites, Remonstrants, and Jews so long as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they conducted their religious life in private. \(Today, a sense of how this worked can be gained at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amsterdam?s Museum Ons? Lieve Heer op Solder, or ?Our Lord in the Attic?, a private Catholic church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concealed in a house in 1661.\) In Amsterdam, connivance eventually slipped into an acceptance of public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worship for some groups, with Lutherans permitted to open a public church in 1633 and the first public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synagogue opening in 1639. Between latitudinarian Amsterdam and rigorously Calvinist towns like Leyden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Franeker \(where a young Peter Stuyvesant studied philosophy\) lay a range of often unpredictable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibilities, with some cities ?conniving? and later rescinding connivance for specific groups, or vice versa, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the balance of local political and religious power shifted back and forth. As Haefeli points out, gaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clarity on the specifics of any given locality?s policies is complicated by the inclination of Dutch authorities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to commit these policies to writing: ?oral promises could be made and retracted, giving magistrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(room for maneuver they liked? \(p. 155\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In some of the book?s most fascinating passages, Haefeli shows how this Dutch ambiguity played out in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distant colonies. In Batavia \(today?s Jakarta\), Dutch authorities sought to suppress Chinese temples, but then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connived at their presence, while refusing to tolerate even private services by Catholics or Muslims. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brazil, military, political, and commercial considerations led the Dutch to permit public worship by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics and Jews; the Western Hemisphere?s first synagogue opened in Recife in 1636. Yet non-Reformed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestants there enjoyed no such privilege. In Formosa \(Taiwan\), where Dutch colonization \(1624?62\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost exactly paralleled that in New Netherland \(1624?64\), Calvinist missionaries converted some 5,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(native Formosans to the Dutch Reformed Church. Meanwhile their colleagues on the Hudson did little to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convert native Lenape and Iroquois, and clergy throughout the Dutch Americas and Caribbean responded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse ways to the prospect of converting enslaved Africans. Most analogous to New Netherland was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cape Colony in what is today South Africa, where, despite the presence of some Lutherans and Catholics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Reformed Church was the sole recognized religious body.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The core of Haefeli?s argument is to show how these vagaries of Dutch religious policy shaped the particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounters of different religious minorities with New Netherland?s authorities. As in Europe, Brazil, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia, inconsistency \(or flexibility, in the view of Dutch policy makers\) was the rule. From the vantage point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Netherlands, Stuyvesant?s relatively intolerant Counter-Remonstrant strain of Calvinism was hardly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anomalous or obsolete. As in many parts of the Dutch Republic, Lutherans in New Amsterdam who sought a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully-fledged public church failed to obtain official sanction for their efforts. Meanwhile, their coreligionists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Delaware won precisely those privileges from Stuyvesant because of the specific terms of the Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seizure of their settlement from Sweden in 1655. Although the WIC authorities in Amsterdam overruled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stuyvesant?s attempt to discourage Jews from staying in New Amsterdam, the Company never extended full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious privileges to the Jews there, at most telling Stuyvesant to let them worship privately in the wake of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requests from Jewish correspondents. Quakers, who insisted on preaching openly without official permission )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and who violated a 1656 ban on private religious ?conventicles?, certainly got Stuyvesant?s Calvinist juices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flowing, and his treatment of them became a feature of early Quaker martyrology. But Quakers were also )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7353 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved in a broader conflict between English Calvinist settlers and more radical English Protestants in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dutch-ruled western Long Island, a conflict in which English and Dutch Calvinists made common cause )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against Quaker nonconformity. In the most radical case of Dutch toleration being extended to North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America, the visionaries Franciscus van den Enden and Pieter Cornelisz Plockhoy projected a harmonious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colony of open-minded Protestants who would eschew confessional distinctions as they sought spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlightenment on the far side of the Atlantic. In New Amstel on the Delaware River \(controlled by the city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Amsterdam, not the WIC\), Plockhoy founded his utopia in 1663, only to have it fall apart when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English invaded a year later.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In each instance, Haefeli shows how particular prior experiences in the Netherlands or in the greater Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial world shaped the expectations of dissenters and the specific responses of officials. He also shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how religious confrontations involved varied stakeholders on both sides of the Atlantic?WIC managers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amsterdam, first and foremost, but also the consistories and classes of Dutch Reformed clerics in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Netherlands, Reformed ministers on the ground in America, influential nonconformist bodies in Europe, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil officials and merchants mindful of diplomatic and military needs, and colonists themselves?all of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom kept a flurry of letters, petitions, declarations, and complaints flowing back and forth across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ocean. In any given instance, the balance of power and circumstance between these interests would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determine outcomes for particular dissenters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haefeli also underscores how neither side viewed these confrontations as vindications of some sweeping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general principle of toleration or intolerance: ?the issue was not about a uniform practice but rather a series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of individually negotiated arrangements? \(p. 137\). Even the 31 Flushing Remonstrants on Long Island, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warned Stuyvesant in 1657 that religious persecution was an affront to God, were not disinterested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bystanders invoking an abstract right but Quaker sympathizers \(and in some cases, eventual converts\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neither the dissenting sects nor the Dutch Reformed clergy and magistrates in North America projected their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions much beyond the narrowly circumscribed bounds of group interest and immediate circumstance. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even Stuyvesant, portrayed as an inflexible bigot in much of the secondary literature, affirmed the right of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual conscience, and treated each of the dissenting groups on its own terms. This is one of the book?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most useful contributions to a historiography that has often viewed New Netherland through the generalizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(filter of the religion clause of the U.S. Constitution?s First Amendment \(1789\), an anachronistic approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that has obscured more than it has clarified.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haefeli also emphasizes the irony of viewing the New Netherland Dutch as prime movers of a culture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toleration that they supposedly bequeathed to the Englishmen who seized the colony from Stuyvesant in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1664. Many scholars have posited the experience of heterodoxy in New Netherland as determinative or at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least influential in the subsequent history of the Middle Colonies, where New York, New Jersey, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pennsylvania became the most religiously and ethnically diverse of the 18th-century British North American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies. But, as Haefeli shows, it was the English conquerors themselves?the first governors of New York, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Nicolls and Francis Lovelace?who introduced a form of religious pluralism that displaced the Dutch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformed Church from primacy and made each Protestant denomination an equivalent player in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colony?s devotional and public life. Under the English, Lutherans were finally permitted to found a church, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Quakers were allowed to hold meetings \(but not to proselytize\). When a Dutch fleet seized New York in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1673 and the region briefly reverted to Dutch rule, the Reformed Church was restored to its dominant public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position, to the discomfort of local Lutherans and others who had grown accustomed to English pluralism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Only with the return of English governance in 1674 was a more pluralistic toleration restored. In short, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English conquerors were significantly more tolerant than the Dutch authorities who had preceded them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once again, the accidents of timing and the agendas of specific players, in this case the coterie of religiously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latitudinarian expansionists around James Stuart, Duke of York, during the English Restoration of the 1660s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounted for religious policies and social realities. \(Regime change would again reshape the religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climate of the Middle Colonies after 1688, when royal governors Benjamin Fletcher and Lord Cornbury )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established the Church of England as New York?s government-supported church, but in the context of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glorious Revolution?s Toleration Act, which countenanced congregations of dissenters on both sides of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic.\) By 1730, the churches of seven different Protestant confessions and a synagogue were open in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5812 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British New York City, a situation unimaginable in the 17th-century Dutch colony; only Catholics had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(await the liberalizing effects of the American Revolution to enjoy religious freedom in New York. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Disjuncture, rather than some general ?atmosphere? of toleration bequeathed by the Dutch to the English, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped devotional life. As Haefeli suggests, ?the greatest Dutch contribution to American religious diversity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was to hold the Mid-Atlantic out of the English orbit until this singular period of English history? \(p. 19\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book extends our understanding in many ways, successfully interweaving an impressive range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources and topics. For Americanists in particular, it provides a grounding in Dutch religious and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history that has usually been missing, to the detriment of both scholarly and popular interpretations of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Netherland legacy. It joins a body of recent work by Jaap Jacobs, Donna Merwick, Paul Otto, Willem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frijhoff, David William Voorhees, Firth Haring Fabend, Dennis J. Maika, and others, much of it enriched by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new translations of 17th-century Dutch documents undertaken by the New Netherland Institute in Albany, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York. This growing literature has challenged received wisdom on Dutch-Indian relations, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections between commercial and religious imperatives in colonization, and other aspects of New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Netherland history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have only one significant caveat. According to Haefeli, the peculiarities of Dutch tolerance ?require us to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rethink New Netherland?s reputation in American history as a place where people of many faiths, languages, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and nationalities peacefully coexisted? \(p. 91\). As provocative as this argument is, it does underplay?while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledging in passing?that a case can still be made for a Dutch contribution to colonial tolerance, albeit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a more limited one than has traditionally been advanced. After all, even if the experiences of dissenters in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Netherland were more like those of their coreligionists in hard-line Dutch Calvinist towns than in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?conniving? Amsterdam, the WIC permitted most heterodox believers to remain in North America, even if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctantly and in the face of heated opposition from Calvinist clergy on both sides of the Atlantic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lutherans, Anabaptists, ?Independents?, Quakers, Catholics, and Jews were generally shut out of 17th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Puritan New England and Anglican Virginia; where dissenters managed to find refuge, as in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonconformist Rhode Island or Catholic Maryland, they were more or less segregated from neighboring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies. Not so in New Netherland, where heterodox believers managed to put down roots that positioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them to gain more liberal privileges and rights after 1664. As has long been recognized, this countenancing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?erring spirits? reflected pragmatic calculation on the part of the WIC, desperate for settlers on their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American frontier, as well as the peculiarly urban nature of New Amsterdam as a commercial crossroads for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugees. But it also reflected the role of liberty of conscience at the core of Reformed self-understanding, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguably a contribution of lasting importance in America as well as in the Netherlands.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But this is merely a gloss on Haefeli?s impressive and convincing re-envisioning of New Netherland?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious history in the context of the Dutch Golden Age and its global diaspora. ?Dutch tolerance was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamic, complex, constantly negotiated process? \(p. 9\), he tells us. That tolerance looks different when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed simultaneously from the banks of the Amstel, the Maas, the Paraiba, and the Ciliwung as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the shores of the Hudson and the Delaware. We are indebted to Evan Haefeli for opening our eyes.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 244.783 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 227.003 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 227.003 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1363)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 225.609 m 328.316 225.609 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 200.632 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 186.232 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/45281)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 225.9235 328.3157 237.8035 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1363) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000576 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000004844 00000 n 0000004953 00000 n 0000005063 00000 n 0000005172 00000 n 0000008733 00000 n 0000008861 00000 n 0000008945 00000 n 0000009010 00000 n 0000016180 00000 n 0000016245 00000 n 0000023669 00000 n 0000023734 00000 n 0000031140 00000 n 0000031224 00000 n 0000037089 00000 n 0000037217 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37313 %%EOF