%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819004044+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819004044+01'00') /Title (The Business of War. Military Enterprise and Military Revolution in Early Modern Europe) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4083 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Business of War. Military Enterprise and Military Revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(in Early Modern Europe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After a period in which much historical attention has been directed to the rise of the early modern state, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now seems to be becoming fashionable to take the state out of the centre of the picture again. Perhaps this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributable to the way in which the nation state?s role has increasingly been brought into question in post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cold War Europe, with the collapse of multi-ethnic states such as Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth of separatism in many European regions, and the rise of supra-national bodies such as the EU. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social role of the state itself remains controversial, the subject of ongoing debates on both sides of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic, and affected by the growth of interest in charities, NGOs, and a putative ?Big Society?. In the case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the historical profession, it is no doubt salutary to shift perspectives from time to time, if only to maintain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some freshness of approach. In the case of David Parrott?s new analysis of the role of private enterprise in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern warfare, the result of such a shift is a very welcome and stimulating addition to our knowledge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parrott situates his analysis in the undisputed context of an early modern Europe in which the scale of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warfare grew steadily, both in terms of the size of armies and, he stresses, the duration of conflicts. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arose in the early 16th century and developed steadily through to the Thirty Years War and beyond, into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so-called ?age of absolutism?. Rulers thus faced a huge challenge in making their fiscal resources meet the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1367)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 17 January, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Parrott)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521735582)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(448pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neil Younger)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7057 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands of their military ambitions; the problem of how to raise and provision armies was one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatest of the age, yet, as Parrott points out \(pp. 261?4\), the multitude of military manuals published in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern Europe make next to no comment on these practical and financial difficulties, partly because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were such difficult and deep-rooted problems.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians have always tended to suggest rulers solved these problems by improving the workings of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state ? raising more taxes, employing more officials, and expanding their authority, often at the expense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative institutions. This was the argument of the ?military revolution? thesis proposed by Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roberts and defended by Geoffrey Parker. Warfare was thus accorded a central role in modern European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, providing a motor to turn the medieval state into the modern one. Considering what we know about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the weaknesses of the operation of early modern states, the notion that warfare drove the creation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern state has always, perhaps, been one of the more unlikely elements of the military revolution thesis. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chambers full of bureaucrats busily toiling away to govern the state and administer the army in any kind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of rational way were simply not there, and nor were the soldiers or police to impose their orders on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populace.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parrott, however, challenges much of this overall narrative much more fundamentally. In place of states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(steadily growing to meet the demands of warfare, he shows that instead it was private enterprise that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called upon to fill many of the gaps and smooth out many of the bumps left by the state?s weakness. It has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always been clear that private enterprise had a significant role in early modern warfare, and there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable, albeit scattered, literature on mercenaries, privateering, military contracting and so on, in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety of periods and national contexts. The argument presented here, however, is much more wide-ranging, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting convincingly that military enterprise was in fact virtually omnipresent in early modern warfare, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and consequently deserves much greater consideration than it has received.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first part of the book \(chapters one to three\) provides an overall survey of military enterprise between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about 1500 and 1650, primarily looking at armies but also at naval warfare. There are detailed accounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics such as the renowned Swiss mercenaries and German landsknechts in the 16th century as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rival armies of the Thirty Years War in the 17th. There are also more surprising topics, such as the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(private enterprise in the French Wars of Religion, the Spanish Army of Flanders, the French and Spanish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(galley fleets, and elsewhere. This constitutes a very valuable survey, comparatively short, and accessible to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good undergraduate students of war and society, a field which still has surprisingly few useful textbooks.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the key arguments here and throughout the book is that much of what we think we know about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military enterprise is inaccurate. Prime amongst these is the supposed shortcomings of mercenaries. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost impossible now to place the word ?mercenary? in a positive context. Yet, as Parrott argues, there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no real reason to think that they were poor-quality men, cowardly, liable to treachery or desertion, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivated more by pay or plunder than by accomplishing their employers? objectives. Very often, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reverse was true. Furthermore, as Parrott also discusses with relish, the patriotic dream of citizen militias )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defending their homeland \(a dream cherished by many authors of whom Machiavelli was only the best-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known\), was in practice just that, since few militias were markedly successful, at any rate in aggressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warfare. Mercenaries were often essential. Another long-established myth that should be mentioned is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposed superiority of Dutch infantry training, a key exhibit in the military revolution thesis, which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincingly dismissed as the propaganda of a small state doubting its own legitimacy and military might. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These argumentative, effective exercises in debunking are one of the book?s most enjoyable features.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapters four and five, Parrott moves on to in-depth thematic analyses of aspects of the business of war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These chapters focus almost entirely on the Thirty Years War, which is very much the book?s centre of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gravity \(and indeed has long been regarded as the high point of military entrepreneurship\). This was a period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which armies reached a remarkable level of privatisation, operating almost ? though never wholly ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independently from their parent sovereign authorities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four looks at the impact of military contracting on the operational effectiveness of armies. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Essentially, Parrott argues that the mercenary armies of the Thirty Years War were vastly more effective )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7523 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than usually thought, especially later in the war, as they became smaller, leaner and tougher, and as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commanders became increasingly accustomed to working in the peculiar conditions of that war. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument here is that mercenary armies were more and not less effective than state-run armies, and Parrott )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that this was due to these armies being confederations of privately-owned regiments in which each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonel had a vested interest in improving the quality of his product. This argument does not seem wholly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing, inasmuch as the increasing quality of the soldiers had as much to do with their experience, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline and so on as it did with the terms of their service, and this chapter seems at times to drift into, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively, an analysis of the operational context of the Thirty Years War ? a valuable exercise in itself, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly not one which arises out of the central themes of the book. It is also \(in this reviewer?s opinion\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising that by focusing on the operational level rather than the strategic in order to assess the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectiveness of the mercenary armies, this section of the book begins to read like an apologia for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct of the Thirty Years War itself. Parrott demonstrates \(and praises\) the operational brio of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commanders of the 1630s and 1640s, referring to their ?close synthesis of means and ends? \(p. 195\). This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasive, even masterly, operational analysis. But it creates an odd disjunction, since it appears to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlook their failure to achieve strategic results. However effective these armies were at many aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their job, the war still went on for three decades without achieving very much on the political level. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast, the French and Spanish monarchies are criticised for their ?lumbering? style of military operation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which accomplished little in a campaign season, but one can at least say that Louis XIV?s wars achieved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concrete results and expanded the frontiers of France.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five returns more directly to the central themes of the book, looking at how money was made from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war, and how the structure of international business and finance provided advantages to soldiers and military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planners, again primarily focusing on the Thirty Years War. This is again a valuable synthesis, highlighting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the astonishing capability, versatility and range of the elite international merchants and financiers of the day, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something which, as Parrott points out, stands in stark contrast to the often shambling efforts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary states. This chapter also discusses the motivations of those who offered their services as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military entrepreneurs, pointing out ways in which they gained both financially and in terms of ?social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(validation? for those from humbler or mercantile backgrounds ? an elegant summary, although probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offering relatively little to surprise most readers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the book?s final chapter, Parrott traces continuities and changes into the later 17th century and beyond. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that there was real change in this period, as the state finally began to get its act together. States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became less dependent on enterprisers to provide them with ready-made regiments, and they exercised much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater control over navies. They still made use of private enterprise, but increasingly this was a matter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplying goods or ships rather than whole units of men \(and after all, virtually any state would expect to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchase some ready-made goods from the private market\). Alongside this, chapter six sketches in important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and interesting ways the response of the late 17th- and 18th-century state \(especially in France\) to essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same problems as it faced 150 years earlier: the need for yet more soldiers and more spending, and still-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inadequate finances, especially in view of the difficulty of taxing the nobility. In place of the growth of state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control of the army, there was a continued dependence on clientage, venality and private investment on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of a nobility still committed to warfare, even as Louis XIV projected a facade of royal authority. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to this reading, armies only genuinely changed their character after the late 18th-century rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary or citizen armies in which the status of the soldiers plummeted as battlefield casualties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiralled. This section of the book is less detailed than those looking at the 16th and early 17th centuries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being more of an interpretative essay than a definitive analysis, but it provides an appropriate and satisfying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion to the period covered by the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a book, then, that contains a great deal that is interesting, revealing and thought-provoking. What of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its overall thesis, that privatized military activity was much more significant than historians have believed? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At heart, this is clearly true: historians have underplayed private enterprise, not entirely whitewashing it, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tending to mention it in their accounts of the period as a sideline or a dead end. So the central argument of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book stands, and historians of early modern warfare are indebted to Parrott for it. It is important to place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it in proportion, however, and the precise significance of this argument must be carefully considered. Firstly, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6408 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite the importance of private enterprise in the conduct of warfare, the fact is that this ever-growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military activity still took place under the aegis, and for the greater glory, of the state or the ruler. It could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that it was immaterial whether the state?s agents were ?private? or ?public? ? its reach was still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing. A second, related, issue is the difficulty of drawing clear lines between ?public? and ?private? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period. Where did the state end and the private sector begin? In the case of troop-raising, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how we choose to differentiate between a ?mercenary? and a ?regular soldier? may not make a great deal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense in early modern practice. In both cases \(allowing for variations in recruiting practices\), a ruler might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide an individual captain with funds and with authority to raise men and send him off to recruit a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(company of soldiers. In both cases, the state paid; in both, the captain gained financially \(in terms of salary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or private profit\). It is not always easy to identify whether we should identify this as ?private? or ?public?; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed, to place too much stress on whether this was public or private risks falling into precisely the trap of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking too much in Weberian terms that one is seeking to avoid. One might argue that if a military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterpriser was employed by a state, working for it and receiving income from it \(or profiting by its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permission\), then in effect he became part of that state, part of that ?public? sector. In that sense, Parrott?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument becomes more about the )] TJ ET BT 202.316 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(nature)] TJ ET BT 233.648 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the state than its extent. A more explicit discussion of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem would have been interesting.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a sense all of this reminds us that early modern states themselves had remarkably small ?public sectors?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to strict definitions. Many of their employees \(certainly in the English context with which this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer is most familiar\) were part-timers, amateurs, even unpaid; they often confused their own funds and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of the state. But as Parrott often shows, negotiated co-operation between different groups in society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could still allow the state to achieve its end, through public or private means. Either way, the state was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost invariably paying the piper and calling the tune; its power was growing, one way or another. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blurred line between ?public? and ?private? means that it is extremely difficult, and perhaps even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaningless, to try to draw a clear line between them. But if Parrott?s point was to raise the question, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge the framework of the debate, then in this he succeeds.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many ways, therefore, this is a very impressive book, a work of high synthesis. One cannot fail to admire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parrott?s scholarship, not so much in terms of manuscript sources \(in fact I did not spot a single manuscript )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(listed in the notes or bibliography\), but in a vast range of often obscure French, German, Italian, Dutch and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scandinavian literature as well as English. Few historians can have delved so deeply into the literature of so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad a chronological and geographical range of case studies. One slightly surprising exception, however, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the almost total neglect of any part of the British Isles, whose early modern military history is undergoing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant revival in which the links between English and continental military practice are an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme. There is almost no mention of the Civil Wars, and the New Model Army only gets two brief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentions. Given that Hungary, Spain, Denmark, Sweden and so on get fair amounts of coverage, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusion of England, Scotland and Ireland seems bordering on perverse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, there?s no doubt that this is an important contribution to the literature of European warfare and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the European state throughout the early modern period. Although the book contains a great many good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things, the detail and general argument has relatively little that is completely new. What )] TJ ET BT 459.296 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(is)] TJ ET BT 467.300 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( new is the way in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which it is assembled into a generally persuasive and compelling argument, one that will demand the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention of anyone working in the field, requiring them to adjust their overall narratives of the period, re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluate their assumptions, and think about the roads not taken in the history of European warfare, societies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and states.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2344 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(EH.net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 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