%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721123933+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721123933+01'00') /Title (Science in the Twentieth Century and Beyond) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4126 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Science in the Twentieth Century and Beyond)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is 50 years since Thomas Kuhn published the million-selling )] TJ ET BT 338.672 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Structure of Scientific Revolutions)] TJ ET BT 503.000 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work reviewed here rightly acknowledges Kuhn?s to be ?by far? the most cited and discussed 20th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book about science \(pp. 415?16\). What has the history of science come to in the intervening half century? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judging by the majestic scope of Jon Agar?s new volume, we still have fertile big-picture approaches to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guide us through the untidily evolving and multiplying plurality of the natural sciences. Certainly an awful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lot of science has happened since 1900 \(certainly far more than in any previous century\) so it quite an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accomplishment to cover the requisite material in around 600 pages. More importantly than that, this work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epitomizes how much we have learned from attempting to generalize about the mechanisms and meaning of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientific change since the long debates on such Kuhnian themes as ?paradigms?, ?revolutions? and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alleged ?incommensurability? of successive scientific world-views. Revealingly, Agar mentions this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kuhnian lexicon only two thirds of the way in, and even then only in a single passing paragraph. So by this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late point in the monograph?s narrative, we realize that such terms are brought out by Agar only as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical relics from an outmoded past master.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet one Kuhnian term does still linger in Agar?s analysis: the notion of ?normal science? as a core feature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(productively organized and mundanely un-revolutionary collective research \(p. 58\). And this is the ancestral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1369)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 24 January, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jon Agar)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780745634692)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polity Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Graeme Gooday)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7965 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clue to Agar?s big interpretive theme: he seeks to recover scientists ?working worlds? as a framework for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empathetic historical reconstruction of their myriad intersecting daily endeavours. The great advantage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this approach is that, unlike Kuhn?s depiction of scientific paradigms as solipsistic self-referential enquiry, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Agar illustrates the many heterogeneous factors that have contingently moulded the agenda, resources and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methods of the sciences. These include the domains of technology, business, medicine, healthcare, social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy, politics and ? above all ? warfare. As we shall see there is much of value in this ?working worlds? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach, but also plenty to treat with caution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Agar?s synthesis we find ourselves a long way from the erudite but somewhat sterile and static )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taxonomies of science that featured in John Pickstone?s )] TJ ET BT 304.640 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ways of Knowing)] TJ ET BT 389.312 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and much nearer to the territory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of David Edgerton?s )] TJ ET BT 136.328 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Warfare State: Britain, 1920?1970)] TJ ET BT 304.328 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 307.328 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 307.328 654.771 m 321.320 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 321.320 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Indeed, we see how far the sciences have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned to thrive in circumstances of ubiquitous conflict and economic competition, rather than eschewing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these worldly concerns, as idealized and ideologically-loaded models of so-called ?pure science? would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us believe. Such a model of science as a socially detached enterprise is what lay at the heart of Kuhn?s book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, in ways which can still surprise the 21st-century reader, Kuhn barely reached into the 20th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never strayed beyond the physical sciences, and never reflexively acknowledged the Cold War context of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thriving military-industrial complex in which the)] TJ ET BT 269.012 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Structure)] TJ ET BT 316.676 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was written. By contrast, Agar opens up the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century in ways not even conceived by Kuhn, and treats us to a range of sciences that reveal how by the end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the last century, the physical sciences had been eclipsed in their intellectual and political significance by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex of disciplines focussed on genetics, mind and body. The sophistication of Agar?s management of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all these points of reflexive and disciplinary rigour shows just how much historians of science have learned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from other authors than Kuhn and other \(sub\)disciplines.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, in his carefully crafted introduction, Agar lays out his vision of working worlds as ?arenas of human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(projects that generate problems?. In this account the sciences are tasked to solve such problems ? in implicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast to Kuhn?s vision, in which scientists freely chose which anomalies to study in their normal science. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And, rather than trying to construct unworldly paradigms, science for Agar is the ?making, manipulation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and contest of abstracted, simplified, representatives of working world problems?, with outcomes that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulted as regularly in new kinds of knowledge as in new and useful products and machines. The four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal \(albeit overlapping\) categories of working worlds he lays out are: technological systems, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilization of fighting forces, civil administration and maintenance of the human body. It is in turn the task )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the historian of science to reveal the larger connections between the sciences and these working worlds so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that we can escape the thrall of localized case-studies that have informed yet stultified so much history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science \(pp. 1?5\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The structure of )] TJ ET BT 113.660 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Science in the Twentieth Century)] TJ ET BT 272.312 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is revealing of how Agar conceives the relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of these four forms of working world. The work is framed by studies of novel scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterprises at each end of the century. New kinds of physics, life sciences and sciences of the self are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covered in part one \(?Science after 1900?\) while part four \(?Sciences of our world'\) addresses new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental themes developing from the 1960s \(in which Kuhn?s contemporaneous work is mentioned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parenthetically\), new kinds of very big networks in genomics, internet-based computing etc., and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenge of connecting the miscellaneous ends at which the sciences had arrived by the turn of the 21st )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Part two is a study of ?Sciences in a world of conflict' ? the First World War and Nazi science ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while part three covers the Second World War and the Cold War, studying the particular sciences that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter comparatively non-lethal conflict generated. The Edgertonian themes of science co-evolving with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(warfare thus take up the preponderance of this monograph, cogently linking the rise of global warfare with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rise of global science. Not all readers will agree with this emphasis, but Agar undeniably offers us a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refreshing change from the peaceable sequestered world of Kuhnian ?normal? science innocent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in, let alone profit from, the world?s darkest woes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Agar?s strategy is to develop the interpretive theme of ?working worlds? through chronological progression )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through examples in these four main sections. Rather than overburdening with theoretical exegesis, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returns to the theme at over 20 points in the text ? although \(surprisingly\) it is not the subject of a substantial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthetic overview in the book?s conclusion, being mentioned only at the start and finish. That being said, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 307.3277 655.0855 321.3197 666.9655 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7747 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the notion of ?working worlds? is left so open-ended and \(arguably\) protean that it could be made to fit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost any historical scenario. And as the phrase ?working worlds? has been used before in sociology and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(healthcare, one would hope that Agar would have more explicitly contrasted his usage of the term with theirs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It must be said that the effective deployment of the 'working worlds' theme is more evident in some parts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book?s first section than others. This material might all too easily be read as a conventional account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centred upon some familiar ?discovery? pairings intruding from the 19th century: J. J. Thomson and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electron, Gregor Mendel and the gene \(although Agar does not emphasize that the attribution of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electron's discovery to Thomson was as retrospectively contrived as the attribution of the discover of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gene to Mendel\). The principal force of the working worlds thesis in this early section is that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universalizing projects of communication, power and lighting \(especially the electrical varieties\), along with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patents for these, actively generated demands for new knowledge that both furnished physics laboratories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with equipment, and motivated a train of theoretical investigation \(primarily in Germany\) that led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(founding of quantum theory. To be specific, Agar characterises the origins of that theory as the result of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?collision between sciences relevant to the working world of steam engines and empirical measurements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extracted from the working world of electrical light and power? \(pp. 26?39\). This is not quite the working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worlds thesis as laid out in the introduction, but it is at least coherently drawn from the solid scholarship of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Cahan on research c. 1900 at the Physikalische Technische Reichsanstalt in Berlin.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 464.612 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 464.612 554.979 m 478.604 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 478.604 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Agar certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoids the clich of associating Sigmund Freud in any facile fashion with the discovery of the unconscious; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead our author works hard to bring the late 19th-century understanding of electric currents in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluid flow in lighting circuits \(but oddly not in telegraph wires\) to explain Freud?s modelling of the human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind in terms of fluid flow \(p. 67\). This is not quite the thorough reconstruction of Freud?s working world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of that we might have anticipated, but we do at least see here the benefits of Agar?s attempt to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connections between different domains of the increasingly diverse early 20th-century physical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological sciences, which are rarely ever connected by historians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 'working worlds' thesis acquires a stronger purchase when it is deployed in the context of the ?Big )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Science? that emerged in the contexts of military conflict that dominate discussions in the mid-part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. After all, it was in the making of a whole new industrial mode of science that scientists were first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obliged \(but not unwillingly\) to turn to state/military and commercial sponsorship to supply resources on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale needed to conduct the new kinds of enquiry initiated in the 20th century, whether these be the initiation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of radar, atomic bombs or biotechnology. Most spectacular in this regard is the arrival of high-speed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(computing during the Second World War and its aftermath ? computer scientists getting their problems, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agendas and expense accounts from the military who were both sponsor and customer. From this project )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerged radio-astronomy, the control theory of cybernetics, artificial intelligence and genomics. Without the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power of electronic computing made possible by several decades worth of US military budgets, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kinds of project favoured by the US military in this period, it is hard to see how scientists? working worlds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have led them to these particular projects and outcomes \(pp. 367?99\). Indeed, it is not surprising that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is in this discussion that Agar devotes most effort to re-articulating the working worlds thesis ? in ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that might make the sceptical reader wonder if it is only in this context that Agar's thesis can be effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applied.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As already indicated the book?s conclusion does not substantially rearticulate the working worlds theme, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(except to say that ?much good science? was done by measuring, comparing and contesting simplified and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abstracted ?representative models of working world situations.? Thus does the author deftly concede that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there may have been at least some ?good science? that was not accomplished by such means. One such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candidate is the ?black holes? identified by Robert Oppenheimer and his students in the late 1930s as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extreme result of the application of Einstein?s General Theory of Relativity Theory to stellar collapse. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(topos)] TJ ET BT 60.020 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is mentioned by Agar \(p. 241\) without any indication of how black holes came into the world under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pressure of anything except theoretical physicists? exploration of their own esoteric mathematical tools )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and complex theories ? just the kind of explanation that a traditional Kuhnian account of paradigms would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have cherished. Doubtless there are other examples that readers \(or their students\) might wish to explore to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find the parts of science that do not so readily fit into Agar?s thesis, or might even be framed as counter-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 464.6117 555.2935 478.6037 567.1735 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7712 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence to it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whatever might be said of the working worlds thesis \(and we can but hope that Agar will further elucidate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this theme in a future publication\) his conclusion does build on what has emerged in the main core of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book to present a bigger picture. Three big themes emerge: in addition to the pre-eminence of warfare in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporting \(directly or indirectly\) the development of many sciences, he notes the rise of the USA as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominant power in the sciences by the end of the century, and the rise of the biomedical sciences to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eclipse the mid-century prestige and efficacy of the physical sciences that emerged from atomic warfare. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are surely sound ? if unsurprising ? conclusions. It remains for the reader to consider whether the best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical explanation of these can be found in some formulation of the ?working worlds? thesis or in more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventional socio-political analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, the scientist-centred assumptions of the working worlds thesis can make parts of this book a rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provocative read. Take, for example, Agar?s analysis of the recent rise of nanotechnology which cites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Langdon Winner?s 2003 criticism of the United States? forays into that novel field . Winner sees these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forays as the opportunistic creation of pseudo-goals to suit nano-technological means, with little attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ask what social needs of Americans those means might have been harnessed to meet. Although sympathetic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Agar suggests that Winner misses the point here by failing to observe that the particular working worlds that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have generated nano-technology are those of scientists, not the wider society that interests Winner. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumptive prioritization of the scientists? working worlds over that of society in Agar?s account certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiates it from historical sociologies of science that have navely presumed the public has had some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind of )] TJ ET BT 71.348 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(de facto )] TJ ET BT 112.676 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty over the trajectory of recent science. Yet it also reveals that Agar?s commitment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the working worlds thesis is at the expense of understanding how far the new sciences he writes about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have become more socially accountable in the post-Cold War era, or whether the sciences still exist in a neo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kuhnian world in which scientists are still free to set up and resolve their problems irrespective of wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social issues \(p. 496\). It is interesting therefore that Agar does not explore the limits and possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contestation of the working worlds approach: we are simply left to infer the uncongenial point that scientists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have not in general welcomed the views of the public on their work, whereas \(to put the matter in Agar?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms\) the public has often sought to become part of the working world of scientists by constraining what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they do with some kind of social contract ? tax-payers' money to be spent only for public benefit. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent limitation of Agar?s formulation of the ?working worlds? approach that privileges scientists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives over those of others might well be a fertile theme for further work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are also weaknesses to which the author himself honourably and candidly admits \(p. 507\). One of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these is the heavy reliance on secondary sources ? although this is a problem endemic to all synthetic ?big )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture? volumes. At least in contrast to Kuhn and even Pickstone the range of secondary literature in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of science that Agar draws upon is substantial, even polymathic in scope. Fortunately it is only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasionally the case that his choice of secondary sources leads to a distortion of emphasis, for example on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the electron where the story is still more British- \(and indeed Cambridge-\) focussed than state of the art )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature would have us believe.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 190.316 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 190.316 245.859 m 204.308 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 204.308 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He notes that his attempt to study all of the sciences for the entire 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century in a single volume is necessarily going to be selective in ways that understate the significance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some potentially very important issues. These include key episodes of non-Euro-American science \(notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Japan\), also sciences that were discredited and then only later revived \(?Is history of science a history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the undead?? Agar asks rhetorically\), and also those stories lost to posterity by being the subject of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategically managed secrecy. In effect Agar invites readers to consider these ?missing stories? as potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future research topics. Perhaps a wiki related to the book might be set up on these grounds for students to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(attempt to\) complete the project in the decades to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the plus side, this book, like Kuhn?s \(but unlike Pickstone?s\), opens up new avenues and projects for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enquiry. This reviewer believes that the provocations and gaps in this volume will inspire research and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching in the subject, taking longer overviews of topics, and reconstructing the contingencies of scientists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own working worlds rather than imposing on their lives boiler-plate templates from political or cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory. Generations of students might take great pride in fill in the gaps and critiquing the basic assumptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and terminology of the book, just as scholars have done for fifty years with Kuhn?s \(in\)famously )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 190.3157 246.1735 204.3077 258.0535 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 4386 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenging monograph.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To give one example of the fertile territory here, at the close of this often fascinating book we find Agar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sticking his futurological neck out in a manner untypical of the epistemically modest historian. In looking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward to contemplate what forces might shape the sciences of the 21st century, he pinpoints as key factors: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conflicts between the working worlds of energy intensive societies, international environmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governance and global commerce \(p. 530\). This is an interesting shift of emphasis from his analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20th century: either warfare will disappear as an independent force from his menagerie of working worlds, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or ? a much more chilling prospect ? armed conflict will become integral to competing efforts to secure each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these areas of energy, power, profit and sustainability. Let us hope that, on reading this book, those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible for the generations to come might see the usefully prognosticatory wisdom that Agar lays out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and steer us away from an Armageddon that might prevent a comparably ambitious book being written about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21st-century science.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.755 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Pickstone, )] TJ ET BT 142.352 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ways of Knowing: a new history of science, technology and medicine)] TJ ET BT 475.316 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, IL, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001\); David Edgerton, )] TJ ET BT 180.668 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Warfare State: Britain, 1920?1970)] TJ ET BT 348.668 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2005\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 442.988 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 442.988 546.483 m 496.976 546.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 533.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Cahan, )] TJ ET BT 133.004 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Institute for an Empire)] TJ ET BT 259.004 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Psysikalisch-Technische Reichsanstalt, 1871-1918 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1988\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.336 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.336 517.971 m 209.324 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jed Buchwald and Andrew Warwick, )] TJ ET BT 246.632 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Histories of the Electron: the Birth of Microphysics)] TJ ET BT 494.288 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2nd. ed., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge, MA, 2004\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.672 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.672 489.459 m 233.660 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 464.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 438.341 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 424.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Economist)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.economist.com/node/21556889)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 408.435 m 242.684 408.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 245.684 409.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 405.103 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 387.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 387.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1369)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 385.929 m 328.316 385.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 360.952 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 346.552 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/47066)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.152 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.economist.com/node/21556889)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 442.9877 546.7975 496.9757 558.6775 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 155.3357 518.2855 209.3237 530.1655 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.6717 489.7735 233.6597 501.6535 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 408.7495 242.6837 420.6295 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.economist.com/node/21556889) >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 386.2435 328.3157 398.1235 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1369) >> endobj xref 0 41 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000553 00000 n 0000000635 00000 n 0000004813 00000 n 0000004922 00000 n 0000005032 00000 n 0000005141 00000 n 0000008702 00000 n 0000008830 00000 n 0000008914 00000 n 0000008998 00000 n 0000017016 00000 n 0000017046 00000 n 0000017174 00000 n 0000017210 00000 n 0000017294 00000 n 0000025094 00000 n 0000025124 00000 n 0000025252 00000 n 0000025288 00000 n 0000025372 00000 n 0000033137 00000 n 0000033167 00000 n 0000033295 00000 n 0000033331 00000 n 0000033443 00000 n 0000037882 00000 n 0000038010 00000 n 0000038065 00000 n 0000038193 00000 n 0000038248 00000 n 0000038376 00000 n 0000038431 00000 n 0000038558 00000 n 0000038648 00000 n 0000038776 00000 n trailer << /Size 41 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 38872 %%EOF