%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818070842+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818070842+01'00') /Title (Edwardian Ladies and Imperial Power) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4801 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Edwardian Ladies and Imperial Power)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This important book explores organise female imperialism in Edwardian Britain. Its significance lies firstly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the quantity of new research which it presents, which should make it of lasting value for future scholars of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's and gender history, modern British history and the history of imperialism; secondly, in the fresh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights it offers into ongoing scholarly debates concerning the nature of the Victorian and Edwardian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's movement, the impact of Empire on British society and culture, the range of European women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagements with imperialism, and the part played by women of the upper middle class and aristocracy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics and public life. These new insights, however, are perhaps rather downplayed by the author herself in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her introductory chapter, and are not drawn together at the end of the book. Part of the aim of this review, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then, it to try to draw out the significance and originality of the study through summarising its findings and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relating these to previous work in the field.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Bush's work is clearly informed by feminist scholarship and by post-colonial critiques of traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imperial History, this is very much an empirically-based study rather than a highly theorised or polemical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work. It is perhaps the stronger for this: the concentration on historical specificity and deep contextualisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is intended to get behind the generalisations of some post-colonial theorising about imperialism, and thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advance debates rather than simply fitting new material into a pre-established framework.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is interesting to compare Bush's study to the previous major study of Victorian and Edwardian women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engagements with Empire, Antoinette Burton's )] TJ ET BT 262.160 121.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Burdens of History)] TJ ET BT 353.492 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1994\). Bush's women are from higher on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social scale than Burton middle-class liberals: the upper middle class and aristocratic ladies who moved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in what Leonore Davidoff has called 'the best of circles'. While Burton's group wished to reform Empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among feminist lines, Bush's promoted a womanly imperialism intended to complement and support the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions and propaganda of the masculine imperial elite. The prime concern of these - often politically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conservative and High Church - Edwardian ladies was with settlers of British stock in the emerging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(137)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 September, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Julia Bush)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leicester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leicester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clare Midgley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7528 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dominions, not with Indian women, the focus of imperial campaigning by Liberal feminists. Burton's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women claimed a place for themselves in the British body politic through their role as social reformers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire; in contrast, Bush's female imperialists were content to continue female aristocratic traditions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exerting informal influence on powerful men rather than seeking direct political power for themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her introductory chapter, Bush sets the context for the emergence of female imperialist organisations in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwardian Britain. First, while much Edwardian imperialist propaganda was 'unselfconsciously masculinist', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as revealed in John MacKenzie's pioneering studies, it offered women an important symbolic role as mothers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Empire. Secondly, leading imperialists of the period were increasingly turning their attention away from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military conquest - the province of men - towards building a settled, civilising Empire - a project to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women were seen as vital. These two factors provided an opening for women's imperialist organisations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoting women's gender-specific contributions to Empire-building not only through propaganda and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind-the-scenes political lobbying but also through a range of practical work which included guiding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female emigration and settlement, supporting church-building and missionary work abroad, providing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(juvenile imperialist education, and offering hospitality for colonial visitors to the mother country.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bush's study focuses on four organisations, which, she argues, constituted an imperialist women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement. As she points out, during the period there were many other imperialist organisations with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial female memberships, but in these the policy-making leaderships were exclusively male. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition, it can be argued that the majority of women's associations of the period had some form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological and organisational commitment to empire. However, those she selects, though varied in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins, had by the Edwardian period emerged as a distinct and influential group yoked together by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common leadership drawn from High Society ladies with close links to the male governing elite. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women controlled highly centralised and hierarchical organisations, which fostered both a shared imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outlook and practical day-to-day co-operation. Of the four organisations Bush selects, two were mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership organisations, the Girls' Friendly Society \(f. 1875\) and the Primrose League \(f. 1885, with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ladies' Grand Council f. 1900s\), and two were smaller groups, the British Women's Emigration Association )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(f. 1888\) and the Victoria League \(f. 1901\) The three older organisations moved from their varied origins in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late Victorian period into a focus on female imperialism, a focus which embodied by the Victoria League )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from its inception. The League, described by Bush as representing the apex of female imperialism's social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prestige, drew together leading ladies from the executives of all the older associations and aimed specifically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to promote imperialism and strengthen connections between different parts of the Empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In studying these imperialist ladies' associations, Bush draws on both the publications and official records of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the organisations and the extensive personal records - autobiographies, journals and letters - of their leaders. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not, however, an organisational study in any conventional sense. Rather than considering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations separately, Bush studies them together. In addition, her focus is on their London-based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership elite, not on the ordinary membership. As she acknowledges, her study thus does not displace the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly studies of the individual organisations made in the 1970s and 1980s by Brian Harrison, Martin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pugh and James Hammerton. Rather it provides a new lens through which to view their accounts, refracted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through broader recent feminist scholarship of women and imperialism, and aiming to explore the themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which bound the organisations together and thus establish a 'paradigm of female imperialist ideas, methods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and achievements' while at the same time remaining sensitive to contrasts and variety.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bush approaches her source material sensitively. Given that female imperialists tended to leave the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production of grand general statements about Empire to male imperialists, she opts to build up a picture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's imperial ideas and vision of women's contribution to empire through exploring their organisational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices and activities. In the first half of her book Bush provides a picture of the social worlds in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading female imperialists were rooted and explores the impetus behind their personal engagement with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire. She moves on to look at the turn of the associations towards an imperial focus, to explore patterns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation and to provide a general overview of women's work for empire. In the second half of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she explores select aspects of their work and outlook in more detail, examining their relationships with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's organisations in the Dominions, their racial attitudes, and their involvements in education and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emigration. Finally, she places their activities in relationship with the Edwardian women's movement and the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7440 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffrage campaign. A brief postscript provides an overview of the impact of the First World War on organise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female imperialism, while useful appendices give information on the growth of female imperialism, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female imperialist networks and on the biographical details of 'leading ladies'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 2 on 'Society Lifestyles' successfully gets inside the social worlds of the women, and in so doing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adds to work by scholars such as Kim Reynolds and Pat Jalland on elite women and politics, and well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishing the 'bedrock of social and political assumptions' underlying female imperialism. One of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting insights Bush offers is that the continuing dominance of positions of imperial power by men from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social elite provided opportunities for the exertion of long-established forms of aristocratic female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political influence - this at a time when the power of such informal networking was coming under threat with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the increasing professionalisation and democratisation of domestic politics. Perhaps herein lies one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations why many imperialist ladies did not feel the need to support women's suffrage. Chapter 3 on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('The Imperial Turn' explores how these Edwardian ladies learnt to 'Think Imperially'. It begins by examining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the key importance of active engagement by family members in Empire-building, an engagement which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved their wives in travel and residency in the Empire: when these women returned to London society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were valued as 'experts' by female imperial associations. Bush goes on to look at the turn to imperialism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the leading ladies' organisations which are the focus of her study, identifying the impact of the South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African War of 1899-1902 as a pivotal factor - and incidentally providing fuel for those historians who argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the deep impact of the War on British society at the period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 4, entitled 'Organized Ladies' details the organisational practices of the ladies' associations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrating how the leadership's deep respect for social hierarchy, combined with the desire to exert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence on men at the heart of imperial power, led to very London-centred organisations. At the same time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determination to maintain a distinctive voice for feminine imperialism led to caution about close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaboration with larger, better-funded male imperialist organisations. In maintaining this distinctiveness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(links to female members of the royal family were crucial: in particular, Queen Victoria, commemorated as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maternal ruler of Empire, was an inspirational figure for female imperialism. Chapter 5 characterises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's distinctive work for empire, with its emphasis on practicality, altruism and the promotion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christianity and morality. Fund-raising was a key activity, used both to support missionary work, church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building and subsidised emigration and as an activity in its own right, designed to promote the imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cause to the British public. Direct production of propaganda, however, tended to be left to the men. In many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways, then, the associations can be seen as continuing the pattern of organised female philanthropy which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Prochaska has made a detailed study for the Victorian period - at a time, though, when middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women themselves were beginning to move from voluntary work into paid or elected posts in public service.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One key area of work was the fostering of co-operation with like-minded women overseas and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between British female imperialists and white women settlers in the Dominions is considered in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 6. The familial iconography of empire, which stressed ties not only of culture but also of blood, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly had a deep resonance for both groups of women. Close personal and institutional ties were fostered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through correspondence, hospitality to women visiting Britain from its colonies, and tours of the Empire by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading female imperialists. However, whereas Dominion women wanted a relationship of sisterhood to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in Britain, British women often saw themselves in a superior maternal role and often adopted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condescending attitude towards 'colonials'. In particular, British women tended to ignore the Empire's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversity and show little understanding or sympathy for colonial nationalisms or for women's role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation-building process which accompanied the shift to Dominion status. Recognition on both sides of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutual benefits of co-operation in the practical work of emigration, education and hospitality thus went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand-in-hand with conflicts over control of organisational initiatives and networks, a pattern which Bush )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrates vividly through her account of Meriel Talbot's World Tour on behalf of the Victoria League. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a strong chapter, which draws on and adds to recent work on women in settler societies and on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international women's networks of the period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If female imperialists were keen to develop links with white settler women they were reluctant to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indigenous women included in the organisations they helped to foster. This was a result of their views on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race. In Chapter 7 Bush explores how female imperialists adopted and adapted the 'race thinking' of leading )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7348 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male imperialists. Their chosen work for Empire linked biological and cultural production, epitomised in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept of 'imperious maternity'. Influenced by the eugenicist cause, they were concerned for emigrating 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right sort of women' to populate the white settler colonies - to become mothers of the imperial race in 'Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain'. Her findings are interesting to place alongside those of Lucy Bland and others, who have explored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminist support for Social Darwinism and eugenics. The women were also concerned to spread the 'English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way of life' through womanly care and education as a way both of fostering British racial solidarity and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controlling potentially threatening 'inferior' races)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 8 on education discusses the organisation's educational work in Britain among both adults and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children, stressing both its significance as part of a broader escalation of popular imperialism and its general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of distinctive femininity and relatively limited impact in comparison to the larger, better-resourced and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more influential male-led imperialist propaganda organisations of the period. Here Bush's interpretation is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little confusing: she does not really adequately explain why organisations which were concerned to maintain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a specific feminine focus did not carry this through more fully into their educational work - which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presumably largely among women and children. Perhaps a fuller consideration of the relationship of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership to local groups and to the boarder constituency of membership might have clarified her argument. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In addition, it is a pity that no attention is paid to the educational projects in colonial settings that the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women supported.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 9 focuses on organised emigration, described by Bush as 'one of the success stories of female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism'. In contrast to the secondary role of female organisations in the field of education and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda, the female emigration societies became respected for their specialist expertise both by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British government and by Dominion governments keen to attract women settlers. There was tension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, between female emigrants desire to send out gentile middle-class women and colonial demand for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class domestic servants. Growing out of Victorian feminist and philanthropic roots, the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women's Emigration Association retained the early desire to provide employment opportunities for middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class women and vision of the colonies as an era of escape form the restrictions of life in Britain with but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combined this with a new stress on women's racial and imperial duty as 'future nursing mothers of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English race to be'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Bush points out, Edwardian debates on female emigration were impacted on by current debates around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female education and employment, family life and the Vote, and in Chapter 10 she goes on to directly tackle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relationship between female imperialism and the women's movement, and especially to the campaign for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's suffrage, which reached its height at this period. There has been a tendency among historians to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equate uncritical support for Empire with an anti-suffrage position, and it is true that leading imperialists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both male and female, were prominent in the Anti-Suffrage League. But Bush points out that just as many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female imperialists were actively pro-suffrage. In a thought-provoking discussion, she encourages us to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meditate more critically about what we mean by 'women's movement' during the Victorian and Edwardian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods. Traditionally, this term has been applied to the liberal middle-class feminists who organised around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions of women's suffrage, married women's property rights, the sexual double standard, and improved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educational and employment opportunities for women. Recent scholarship has widened the use of the term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to encompass working-class women both in the suffrage movement and in what Gerry Holloway has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usefully termed 'the Industrial Women's Movement'. What then of women's organisations such as the female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialist associations discussed by Bush, which were not explicitly feminist in their objectives? Bush )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues persuasively that they should be seen as part of a broad-based 'women's movement' encompassing all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('publicly active and gender-conscious women'. Most of the leadership were involved in other forms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('women's work', often in co-operation with middle-class feminists: these included organised philanthropy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the settlement movement, social purity, temperance, education, local government, and the National Union of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women Workers. Can these female imperialists then be labeled feminists? Relating her work to studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which have stressed the historical diversity of feminism and explored the links between feminism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism, Bush argues that 'imperial feminists' and 'female imperialists' are overlapping but not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interchangeable categories. Most female imperialists were not 'feminist' because they did not challenge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing gender relations with their inequalities of power; however they shared with feminists a pride in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2423 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female identity, support for autonomous female organisation and reliance on networks of female support.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, I found this a fascinating and insightful book, and I would wholeheartedly recommend it to both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars and more advanced students alike. There is a resurgence of interest, both academic and popular, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the study of the British Empire at present, and scholarship by feminist historians seems to be contributing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the freshest new critical insights. Bush's chapters on relations between British-based women and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women in the Dominions, and on the relationship of female imperialists to feminism and the women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement are particularly strong. The decision to focus on the female leadership of the organisations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides the book with a coherent focus, though inevitably the specific nature and activities of the rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diverse organisations is somewhat obscured. I also think it is a pity that the impact of the leadership on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary members of the mass organisations is under-investigated: this could have provided an interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(route into discussing working-class girls and women's relationship to imperialism. But perhaps that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 582.415 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 564.635 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 564.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/137)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 563.241 m 322.316 563.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 538.264 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 523.864 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/754)] TJ ET BT 34.016 509.464 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 563.5555 322.3157 575.4355 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/137) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000545 00000 n 0000000627 00000 n 0000005480 00000 n 0000005589 00000 n 0000005699 00000 n 0000005808 00000 n 0000009369 00000 n 0000009497 00000 n 0000009581 00000 n 0000009646 00000 n 0000017227 00000 n 0000017292 00000 n 0000024785 00000 n 0000024850 00000 n 0000032251 00000 n 0000032335 00000 n 0000034811 00000 n 0000034939 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35034 %%EOF