%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 31 0 R 42 0 R 86 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140706123406+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140706123406+01'00') /Title (Soldaten: On Fighting, Killing and Dying. The Secret World War II Transcripts of German POWs) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4694 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Soldaten: On Fighting, Killing and Dying. The Secret World War II )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Transcripts of German POWs)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A new book has entered international debates on German soldiers and war crimes with a vengeance: )] TJ ET BT 518.564 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldaten)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, heralded by the German political magazine )] TJ ET BT 249.968 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Der Spiegel )] TJ ET BT 309.956 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(as the dust jacket states\) as ?nothing short of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensation ? The myth that the Nazi-era German armed forces [were] not involved in war crimes persisted for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades after the war. Now two German researchers have destroyed it once and for all?. In contrast the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German newspaper )] TJ ET BT 129.980 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die Zeit)] TJ ET BT 168.980 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has evaluated the volume, written by historian Snke Neitzel and psychologist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harald Welzer, in more measured terms as ?a significant contribution to the mental history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wehrmacht?. It is already evident that the title and the dust jacket invite misreadings and a misuse of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldaten)] TJ ET BT 76.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, perverting it to a sensational expos of the German army when it is nothing of the sort.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On first glance the methodology of )] TJ ET BT 205.328 111.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldaten )] TJ ET BT 250.328 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to replicate that of )] TJ ET BT 373.304 111.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?Opa war kein Nazi)] TJ ET BT 469.640 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? [?Grandpa was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no Nazi?] )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 83.996 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 83.996 95.985 m 97.988 95.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 97.988 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( whose authors proceeded from a sample of 40 families covering three generations: those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were adults during the Third Reich, their children and grandchildren. Individual and group interviews were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recorded and analyzed, centering on the re-telling of events, experiences and actions during the Third Reich. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldaten)] TJ ET BT 89.012 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( existing transcripts of German POWs' conversations amongst each other in British and American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1370)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 24 January, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Snke Neitzel)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harald Welzer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780307958129)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.05)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(437pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alfred A. Knopf)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine Winter)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 83.9957 96.2995 97.9877 108.1795 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 9107 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captivity are analyzed, centering on the re-telling of experiences, actions, opinions and perceptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers at war. In both books the interviews are cross-checked against the contemporary written record to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(help identify where informants had embellished or even invented their testimony.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?Opa war kein Nazi?)] TJ ET BT 149.348 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the intergenerational retelling and remaking of history is central. The conclusions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are that a tendency to make a hero out of the ancestor progresses with each generation. Collaboration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in National Socialist Germany are downplayed, and acts or intentions of resistance inflated or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invented. Historical information that challenges this progressive intergenerational whitewash provokes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotional resistance and we can expect that the next generation will continue this development. The types of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges posed by )] TJ ET BT 133.664 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?Opa war kein Nazi?)] TJ ET BT 236.000 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( extend far beyond Third Reich historiography and have relevance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the analysis of other group-narrating enterprises, e.g. Australian public discourses of European settlement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Aboriginal dispossession)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldaten)] TJ ET BT 89.012 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the raw material is transcripts of covert surveillance; British and American secretly taped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversations of POWs for the purpose of gaining information that would aid the Allied war effort. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limitations of this material are set out thoughtfully in the book: transcripts were only made of what was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deemed ?relevant?. Thus, the extensive conversations about women, sex and rape are marginal in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selections of what was kept. Agent provocateurs were sent amongst the POWs, initiating topics. It is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognized that defiance in captivity and a desire to get on well with fellow POWs, with whom one was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locked up for duration unknown, limited disagreements. Yet the constraints of the POW camps are of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary importance for this study. No explicit examination is undertaken of this ?total institution? and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences for the way that experiences were framed and narrations coloured. An analysis of POWs' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities could have utilized a large body of scholarly work, particularly on German POWs in captivity in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United States.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 119.012 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 119.012 471.699 m 133.004 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 133.004 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Instead the book tries to excavate the layers of feelings and perceptions of the soldiers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The methodology to peel back the layers of narration by POWs to find those of soldiers is reflexive, sound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and thoughtful. It is, nevertheless, a reconstruction. In )] TJ ET BT 295.976 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?Opa war kein Nazi?)] TJ ET BT 398.312 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the situation and context in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the narrations were constructed is the point of analysis. In )] TJ ET BT 346.628 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldaten )] TJ ET BT 391.628 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the situation of men in captivity is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary. Interestingly, a far greater number of female historians undertake studies of POWs and Internees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than of military operations, at least in Australia. Emasculated, captive men seem a feminine domain, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the battlefield is a masculine prerogative. The choice of the two male German scholars to focus on fighting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men, )] TJ ET BT 60.680 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldaten)] TJ ET BT 102.680 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, seems to have been rewarded in the reception of the book. It has been translated into English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within one year of its German publication \()] TJ ET BT 241.652 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?Opa war kein Nazi?)] TJ ET BT 343.988 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is still only available in German\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldaten)] TJ ET BT 76.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has received breathless reviews, calling the study ?sensational? for all the wrong reasons, namely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it reveals finally that the German Army committed war crimes. The )] TJ ET BT 382.292 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Observer?s )] TJ ET BT 440.612 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sub headline, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, reads ?Conversations between German POWs recorded by British intelligence reveal a chilling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitude to mass murder?, and Con Coughlin in )] TJ ET BT 261.680 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Telegraph)] TJ ET BT 332.012 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?hails a chilling account of German atrocity?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 286.371 m 48.008 286.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The book is more humble in its claims, and gives credit to other historians who have assembled this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument through painstaking historical work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The British material used contains thousands of individual accounts and conversations, the American some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(100,000 pages. Thus Neitzel in a earlier publication concentrated on some 200 conversations among German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Generals.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 79.664 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 79.664 217.347 m 93.656 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 93.656 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( For this task the archival background material was extensive. Files on officers are open and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available in the German archive, while material on ordinary soldiers, as Bryan Mark Rigg?s book on Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans in the )] TJ ET BT 110.336 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wehrmacht)] TJ ET BT 165.656 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( shows, is hard to come by. Most of Rigg?s archival material is either on officers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or from private holdings.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 154.004 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 154.004 174.579 m 167.996 174.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldaten)] TJ ET BT 89.012 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( transcripts from conversations of a wide range of military personnel are used, including rank and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(file, army, air force and navy. With such overwhelmingly vast material the authors are confronted with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem of analyzing the particular and finding the general, a fine balance they undertake to maintain by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving us quotes and summary comments on both exceptional views and opinions held by most men. Yet, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately, this study gives way to a desire to find general trends following a German academic tradition, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast to a tendency in English-speaking studies to focus on the particular. In the short section on cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences of German, Italian and Japanese soldiers, which I regard the weakest of the book, however, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors depart from their generalizing trend to spell out particularities of German soldiers. This, I believe, is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 119.0117 472.0135 133.0037 483.8935 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 286.6855 48.0077 298.5655 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 79.6637 217.6615 93.6557 229.5415 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 154.0037 174.8935 167.9957 186.7735 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 8420 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a real pity. It contradicts one of the authors? central conclusions that it was not ideology, but the reality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war and group behavior within it, that enabled violence and war crimes. Bryan Mark Rigg?s study comes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a similar conclusion, namely that belonging to a specific military group would override racial ideology and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third Reich laws. German army officers tended to support, shield, and protect soldiers of Jewish heritage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who were part of their unit.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I cannot quite see the need by the authors to introduce a specific German-ness into the equation, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a slim picking of comparative studies into Italian and Japanese soldiers? mentality. In addition, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when analyzing Italian soldiers? accounts, the authors lack a sense of humor. This might seem strange thing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to say, for grave topics are discussed in this volume, but really, how can an account that pokes fun at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans by an Italian POW be summarized with the comment that obviously the Italian ?valued bravery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and persistence in battle? \(p. 288\)? It raises the question of whether the authors overlooked or ignored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sarcasm and irony in other parts of the transcripts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The question of what the specific impact of German-ness is, what this entails, and whether it predisposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German )] TJ ET BT 75.668 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldaten)] TJ ET BT 117.668 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to commit violence and war crimes of course picks up on a longer debate on the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sonderweg)] TJ ET BT 87.344 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Daniel Goldhagen?s )] TJ ET BT 193.988 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitler?s Willing Executioners)] TJ ET BT 337.316 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( concludes that Germans were different to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their fellow Europeans, and that it was Antisemitism that paved the way to genocide and the Holocaust.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 531.284 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 531.284 557.235 m 545.276 557.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neitzel and Welzer side to a large degree with a different argument, namely Joanna Bourke?s, that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingness to kill and even enjoy it grows out of the military structures that emphasize group belonging, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences of fighting, killing and death.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.320 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.320 514.467 m 248.312 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 248.312 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Thus, )] TJ ET BT 281.312 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldaten)] TJ ET BT 323.312 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( argues, ideology, particularly Antisemitism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not explain German soldiers? actions. Anti-Nazis and Nazis alike killed civilians, and anti-Semites and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those free\(er\) of Antisemitism collaborated in the Holocaust. Further, and here the authors depart from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bourke?s results, German soldiers did not seem to need extended initiation into obedience, fighting and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killing. The German )] TJ ET BT 134.672 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sonderweg)] TJ ET BT 188.000 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was a militarization of German society, beginning in the 1860s and 1870s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that made the transition from civilian life into military life easy and smooth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is at this point that I would have firstly liked some comparisons to be made, especially with conscripts, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example during the Vietnam war, to see if integration into military group belonging and army life, and a self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identification as ?soldier?, are not more rapid than the authors claim, and not dependent on prior experiences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a martial civilian culture. Secondly I would have liked, as stated earlier, a more extensive debate about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of captivity. In my own work on internment of civilians I examined camp structures and transnational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences, and their effect on heterogeneous groups of German men and women, some who had lived in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australia and others who were brought to Australia from Palestine, Iran, and New Guinea. Internment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fostered group belonging and ardent German patriotism, so that Australian army dossiers concluded that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(camp was 100 per cent pro-Nazi, and needed no segregation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.264 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.264 302.883 m 340.256 302.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 340.256 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( How much of the more salacious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graphic accounts of violence and killing have their genesis not in soldiers? feelings and perceptions, but in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of captive POWs?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The concluding section of )] TJ ET BT 161.996 249.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldaten)] TJ ET BT 203.996 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( includes a short transcript of a US helicopter crew firing on civilians in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baghdad in 2007, and the authors apply their findings to contemporary situations. The choice of an air force )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example is telling. Throughout the book conversations by members of the German navy, army and air force, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as of the SS, are analyzed, and differences between these groups are drawn out. In analyzing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(motivations for killing and perceptions of the victims, the authors in the first part of the book \(which is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoted to actions\) use mostly narrations by members of the armed forces, particularly for accounts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust. But in the second part, which focuses on perceptions, group belonging and the impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology, the authors rely a lot on accounts by fighter pilots and members of the German air force. Here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neitzel and Welzer find distance and closeness, identification of individual ?targets? and a general lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empathy with these targets as human beings, the problem of killing civilians as opposed to enemy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combatants, and the space for individual decisions and actions. Thus, I would argue, it is not the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army, the )] TJ ET BT 82.340 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Wehrmacht,)] TJ ET BT 140.660 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that is at the centre of this study, but the )] TJ ET BT 338.648 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Luftwaffe)] TJ ET BT 383.996 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In short, this study is a fine starting point for further inquiries into soldiers' and POWs' mentality. It has to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read as carefully, thoughtfully and critically as the authors? assembly of their arguments, where guesses and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 531.2837 557.5495 545.2757 569.4295 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 234.3197 514.7815 248.3117 526.6615 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.2637 303.1975 340.2557 315.0775 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R ] /Contents 43 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Length 9496 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibilities are clearly marked and commented on. This book invites engagement and deserves critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection. Breathtaking praise for its supposed sensational revelations does it a great disservice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.315 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harald Welzer, Sabine Moller and Karoline Tschuggnall, )] TJ ET BT 342.284 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(?Opa war kein Nazi?: )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 451.616 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nationalsozialismus )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 451.616 715.473 m 554.972 715.473 l S BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(und Holocaust im Familiengedchtnis.)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 701.217 m 250.676 701.217 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 253.676 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 267.668 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Frankfurt and Main, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 405.644 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 405.644 701.043 m 459.632 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, Allen V. Koop, )] TJ ET BT 207.332 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Stark Decency: German Prisoners Of War in a New England Village)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Hanover, NH, 1988\); Ron Robin, )] TJ ET BT 231.332 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Barbed-Wire College: Reeducating German POWs in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(United States during World War II)] TJ ET BT 231.008 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Princeton, NJ, 1995\); Arthur Lee Smith, )] TJ ET BT 437.324 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War for the German )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mind: Re-educating Hitler?s Soldiers)] TJ ET BT 245.000 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 323.648 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 323.648 644.019 m 377.636 644.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 631.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ben Hutchinson, ?)] TJ ET BT 153.008 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldaten: On fighting, Killing and Dying)] TJ ET BT 349.688 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Snke Neitzel and Harald Welzer ? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review?, )] TJ ET BT 107.996 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Observer)] TJ ET BT 173.648 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 30 September 2012; Con Coughlin, ?)] TJ ET BT 358.316 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Soldaten)] TJ ET BT 400.316 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Sonke Neitzel and Harald )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Welzer: review?, )] TJ ET BT 148.976 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Telegraph, )] TJ ET BT 225.308 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30 October 2012.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 308.960 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 308.960 601.251 m 362.948 601.251 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 588.394 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Snke Neitzel, )] TJ ET BT 137.672 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Abgehrt: Deutsche Generle in Britisher Kriegsgefangenschaft, 1942?1945)] TJ ET BT 507.308 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. \(Berlin, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2009.\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 572.739 m 149.000 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bryan Mark Rigg, )] TJ ET BT 154.676 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitler?s Jewish Soldiers: the Untold Story of Nazi Racial Laws and Men of Jewish )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Descent in the German JMilitary)] TJ ET BT 222.656 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Lawrence, KS, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 335.288 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 335.288 544.227 m 389.276 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Goldhagen, )] TJ ET BT 157.664 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitler?s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust)] TJ ET BT 490.640 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NY, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 118.340 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 118.340 515.715 m 172.328 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanna Bourke, )] TJ ET BT 141.668 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Intimate History of Killing )] TJ ET BT 288.680 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.004 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.004 501.459 m 420.992 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine Winter, ?The long arm of the Third Reich: internment of New Guinea Germans in Tatura?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Pacific History)] TJ ET BT 189.680 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 38, 1 \(2003\), 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S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 375.272 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daily Express)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/350657/Book-Review-Soldaten-On-fighting-killing-and-dying)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 346.899 m 515.660 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 518.660 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spectator)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.spectator.co.uk/books/8659491/eavesdropping-on-the-enemy/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 318.387 m 388.976 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 391.976 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 34.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Telegraph)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/historybookreviews/9601401/Soldaten-by-Sonke-Neitzel-and-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 289.875 m 536.960 289.875 l S BT 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34.016 185.368 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.968 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/47070)] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.568 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3596155150)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.168 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2012/sep/30/soldaten-neitzel-welzer-holocaust-review)] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2206982/I-liked-shoot--women-kids--kind-sport-Secret-Nazi-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tapes-reveal-ordinary-German-soldiers-responsible-war-crimes-just-SS.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.express.co.uk/posts/view/350657/Book-Review-Soldaten-On-fighting-killing-and-dying)] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.712 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6] http://www.spectator.co.uk/books/8659491/eavesdropping-on-the-enemy/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7] http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/historybookreviews/9601401/Soldaten-by-Sonke-Neitzel-and-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.056 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harald-Welzer-review.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 451.6157 728.0983 451.6157 728.0983 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3596155150) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 451.6157 715.6135 554.9717 727.4935 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3596155150) >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 701.3575 250.6757 713.2375 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/3596155150) >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 405.6437 701.3575 459.6317 713.2375 ] >> 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