%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 47 0 R 93 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417150742+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417150742+01'00') /Title (William of Malmesbury and the Ethics of History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4755 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(William of Malmesbury and the Ethics of History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is one of the worst vices of medievalists that we are too reluctant to take the authors of our major sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at their word. We are keen to classify \(or dismiss\) repeated ideas or phrases as tropes, )] TJ ET BT 447.908 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(topoi)] TJ ET BT 472.580 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonplaces merely because they are frequently repeated. Perhaps we should consider that the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repetition of a concept indicated its importance, rather than consign such features to the realm of literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism. Sigbjrn Olsen Snnesyn?s new monograph, )] TJ ET BT 300.668 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(William of Malmesbury and the Ethics of History )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes one of the most familiar of these ?tropes? \(a chronicler?s assertion that he wrote for the moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edification of the reader\) and convincingly shows that we )] TJ ET BT 312.956 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(must )] TJ ET BT 338.624 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take it seriously if we are to understand a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly crucial text, William of Malmesbury?s )] TJ ET BT 280.976 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gesta Regum Anglorum)] TJ ET BT 396.296 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 399.296 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 399.296 172.137 m 413.288 172.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 413.288 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( An extremely detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation of William of Malmesbury?s writing, linking )] TJ ET BT 318.680 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GR )] TJ ET BT 337.676 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his theological output, is used to test )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William?s assertion that he wrote )] TJ ET BT 197.660 145.019 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ad bonae vitae institutum. )] TJ ET BT 325.328 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Snnesyn?s objective is to show that William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not only heavily influenced by, but consciously wrote in the philosophical/ethical tradition of, Cicero )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of Augustine of Hippo. The result is an important and occasionally difficult work that makes a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant contribution to the growing scholarship on the greatest of 12th-century England?s chroniclers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will soon be considered required reading for anyone conducting serious research on the tradition of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronicle writing in the period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1373)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 7 February, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sigbjrn Olsen Snnesyn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781843837091)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(302pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Gerrard)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 399.2957 172.4515 413.2877 184.3315 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7796 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Summary)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The monograph proceeds in seven chapters of widely varying length. The first of these, )] TJ ET BT 456.596 758.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Framework of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(an Enquiry )] TJ ET BT 90.680 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 1?20\), makes the case for writing the work. Snnesyn shows that William of Malmesbury )] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeatedly commented on the purpose of reading and writing history \(and not just in his historical works\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting that modern historians \(most outstandingly Bishop Stubbs\) have valued William because and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only insofar as he conformed much more closely to modern ?scientific? history than most of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries. William?s own comments, however, strongly influenced by his extensive knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical ethicists as well as by historians ancient and medieval, ought not to be disregarded as mere )] TJ ET BT 516.608 672.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(topoi)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but taken seriously as a manifesto for his work. Snnesyn develops the point by arguing that ?historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing? itself cannot be addressed as an atemporal ideal but that we must pay more attention than historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often have to the question of why history is written in the first place. We must view historical writing as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice, a ?socially embodied activity ... a locus of meaning? \(p. 15\), that can be fully understood only in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the context of its authorship. In consequence, William?s historical writing \(and by extension the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing of all medieval monks\) must be located very firmly in the setting and overarching philosophical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objectives of Benedictine monastic life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through his extensive knowledge of Roman philosophers \(most importantly Cicero and Augustine\), William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Malmesbury inherited a complex and highly coherent set of ethical ideas. In the classical scheme, all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy aimed at an understanding of the highest attainable human good \()] TJ ET BT 404.312 518.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Telos)] TJ ET BT 430.316 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), though different schools )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might disagree on what constituted that good. In a Christian context, it could only mean unity with \(in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Augustinian formulation, loving contemplation of\) God. This meant more than merely the apprehension of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correct doctrine, however; it required the purposeful and disciplined development of good character, often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focussed around specifically designed spiritual exercises based on the contemplation of edifying examples. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These could even be drawn from the \(properly excerpted\) work of pagan authors. It was also a collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endeavour, arising from the nature of man as a social animal. In the context of monastic or scholastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education \(a distinction in Snnesyn?s view that has been rather overstated\) this meant the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between student and master. At a greater scale, this meant the Augustinian concept of a Christian )] TJ ET BT 503.264 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(res publica)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(united around its shared pursuit of )] TJ ET BT 201.332 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Telos)] TJ ET BT 227.336 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William?s theological work \(his comparatively neglected )] TJ ET BT 311.972 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Commentary on the Lamentations )] TJ ET BT 477.968 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and his )] TJ ET BT 515.300 363.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Miracles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of the Virgin)] TJ ET BT 94.688 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) shows that he had developed an ecclesiology much influenced by Augustine?s concept of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian moral community. Just as Christ stood at the head of the church, kings stood at the head of earthly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nations. They could exercise that role to lead their people towards )] TJ ET BT 353.288 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Telos, )] TJ ET BT 385.292 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or their personal moral failures )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could bring about spiritual and material decay in their societies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Snnesyn argues that )] TJ ET BT 139.004 280.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GR)] TJ ET BT 155.000 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s historical content is entirely rational within this philosophical scheme. The first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two books show the emergence of the English as a civilized, Christian people, bound together by their status )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a moral community advancing towards a Christian )] TJ ET BT 292.652 251.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Telos, )] TJ ET BT 324.656 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and making spiritual, moral and material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress under the leadership of kings supported by nobles and bishops. In Snnesyn?s view, modern, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?scientific? history separates the empirical from the moral, and regards William of Malmesbury?s value as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholar as resident in his empirical trustworthiness. Snnesyn argues, however, that as a product of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophical/ethical inheritance, moral progress or retreat was the central object of William?s interest. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William?s remarks on earlier English intellectuals \(such as Aldhem, Alcuin and Bede\) show that he admired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their learning not for its own sake, but for its reformative capacity. In his understanding, moral unity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress \(largely inspired by the king\) brought with them military and political success, while royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degeneracy brought division, decay and defeat at the hands of foreign invaders \(as had happened twice in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11th century\). Nevertheless, despite the disasters provoked by the character defects of Aethelred II and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under-educated leadership of the late Anglo-Saxon church, the English had been established as a national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moral community sufficiently securely for the Norman Conquest to mean the divine correction of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent errors, not the obliteration of their national identity. Kingship is seen less as a juristic office than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perfective moral role.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7310 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Snnesyn?s view, the later books of )] TJ ET BT 222.656 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GR )] TJ ET BT 241.652 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(add relatively little to this scheme in conceptual terms. William?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of the Norman kings which \(as has long been recognised\) is modelled on the Suetonian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographies \(with heavy emphasis on their personal characters\) may not be to the taste of the modern reader, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but does accord very well with William?s broader purposes. It represents the fullest development of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edificatory examples of good and bad kings that William?s view of the purpose of education required.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In short, Snnesyn has advanced a very convincing case that William ought not to be thought of as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practitioner of an atemporal historical profession, but as a monastic educator working in a self-consciously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical framework first and foremost. His primary interest was in spiritual/moral development and history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided an appropriate mechanism for that. William himself did not separate the empirical from the moral, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for he viewed moral education as the primary goal of historical writing, the moral character of leaders as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historically causative, and the lessons of history residing in not just in epistemological fact but in divine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Truth.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Analysis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(William of Malmesbury and the Ethics of History )] TJ ET BT 273.344 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a substantial achievement, a worthy addition to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing body of scholarship on William himself and on the extraordinary flowering of historical writing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took place in the Anglo-Norman )] TJ ET BT 192.992 534.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regnum )] TJ ET BT 235.316 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the 12th century. Snnesyn?s central case, that William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceived of his work, and the task of historians more generally, as a continuation of the task of classical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethicists in a Christian moral framework, and that this conception was the organising principle behind his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work, unifying his history and theology, is admirably well-demonstrated. It also positions elements of major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in the historical tradition of the period, such as concepts of national identity and kingship, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firmly within the intellectual culture of the day. It ought to have a substantial impact on our reading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gesta Regum, )] TJ ET BT 104.336 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and on our understanding of the chronicle tradition more widely, and surely invites attempts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to apply similar analysis to other historians of the period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Snnesyn covers a remarkable amount of ground in the 272 pages of his main text. Though clearly writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for postgraduate scholars, the author assumes no knowledge of classical ethics and the monograph fulfils in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part the role of an introduction to the form and influence of classical ethics on medieval thought. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant elements of the philosophy of Cicero, Augustine, Seneca and other Roman authors are clearly and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meticulously explained. The recent scholarship on national identity has been usefully drawn together and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical underpinnings explored. Snnesyn?s investigation of how the characters of William the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conqueror and Harold II are depicted as having contributed towards the Norman victory at Hastings includes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most theoretically advanced discussion that I have read concerning the place of divine intervention in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval chronicle writing. He has taken great pains to unfold his argument with precision, to ensure not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only that the various elements of William?s thought are established, but that their precise origins are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explored and their relative importance assessed. More so than the vast majority of academic monographs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this work is one continuous argument that develops in sequence. It is not, therefore, a work that can be easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summarised, or ?dipped into?, and \(though many of its potential readers will doubtless be inspired by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contents page to select individual chapters\) this is very much a book that should be read and reflected on )] TJ ET BT 538.928 223.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(toto.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are aspects of this work that may not please all readers. ThoughSnnesynbrings into his discussion a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide range of historiography, there are some places where he seems to exaggerate controversy by stressing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obsolete historiography, and others where the theoretical apparatus seems somewhat overdone. It seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unnecessary to dwell on those historians who struggled to accept that the Middle Ages had concepts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnicity in the wake of the horrors of twentieth century nationalism \(p. 107\) when \(as he points out\) there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now a very considerable weight of scholarship pursued from multiple perspectives on medieval ethnicity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national identity. In a similar vein, his criticisms of Bishop Stubbs \(pp. 2?3, 60 \(n. 65\)\), whom Snnesyn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later describes as a ?great Victorian scholar?, seem unnecessary and perhaps a tad ironic given that the focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this work is squarely on not imposing criteria of analysis on the work of earlier historians. Forays into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wittgenstein?s understanding of ?meaning? \(pp. 15?20\) and Aristotelean concepts of causation \(pp. 145?6\) )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R 39 0 R 42 0 R 45 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 10427 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may strike some readers as excessive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A more significant problem is the very strong focus that Snnesyn has placed on )] TJ ET BT 423.968 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GR )] TJ ET BT 442.964 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the expense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gesta Pontificum Anglorum.)] TJ ET BT 171.680 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Snnesyn gives three reasons for this ? that consideration of the other texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would widen the scope of the study considerably, that the new edition of )] TJ ET BT 385.304 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GPA)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 411.632 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 411.632 740.307 m 425.624 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 425.624 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published only when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his work was well advanced and that since William?s work as a ?scientific? historian is largely a product of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gesta Regum, )] TJ ET BT 104.336 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of that work is sufficient to establish the ethical nature of William?s work \(pp. 3?4\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This decision, however, is problematic. The new edition of )] TJ ET BT 319.976 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GPA,)] TJ ET BT 349.304 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after all, is five years old, and a good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paperback translation \(by David Preest\) was available as far back as 2002. Snnesyn acknowledges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeatedly the importance of )] TJ ET BT 174.644 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GPA, )] TJ ET BT 203.972 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarding it as )] TJ ET BT 275.624 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GR?s )] TJ ET BT 305.288 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?monumental twin? \(p. 1\) and ?companion volume? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 96\). He does address some differences between how William handled the Battle of Tinchebrai in the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works \(p. 245\), but there are other points where William?s depiction of events diverges more significantly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly concerning the behaviour of bishops.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 269.972 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 269.972 626.259 m 283.964 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 283.964 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Perhaps the most dramatic of these concerns St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wulfstan?s defence of the city of Worcester against rebels in 1088. In )] TJ ET BT 372.260 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GR, )] TJ ET BT 394.256 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some royal knights were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?inspired by the blessing of Bishop Wulfstan, who had been entrusted with the command of the castle?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while in )] TJ ET BT 76.016 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GPA)] TJ ET BT 102.344 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(in a story shared with John of Worcester?s account\) the story becomes miraculous as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wulfstan excommunicated the besiegers, throwing them into confusion and blinding many of them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second problem caused by the minimal discussion of )] TJ ET BT 312.320 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GPA )] TJ ET BT 338.648 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the heavy emphasis on kings and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship to national identity as the organisers of moral communities. By emphasising )] TJ ET BT 462.332 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GR )] TJ ET BT 481.328 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so heavily, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Snnesyn almost obscures the fact that William himself could organise history very differently if he so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chose.Snnesyngoes so far as to suggest that ?There was no way to describe the development of a )] TJ ET BT 512.588 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gens)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other than through the deeds and characters of its kings and the effects of these on the people? \(p. 182; also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?in the Latin West of the Middle Ages, such an executive faculty was always focused on a single, monarchic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ruler, the )] TJ ET BT 80.336 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(princeps )] TJ ET BT 124.664 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or )] TJ ET BT 137.660 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(rex)] TJ ET BT 152.984 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, p. 149\). )] TJ ET BT 204.308 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GPA, )] TJ ET BT 233.636 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, seems to offer a very different way of organising the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the English around the development of dioceses. When he approached history in this fashion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William?s concept of the English )] TJ ET BT 197.000 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(gens)] TJ ET BT 218.996 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( appears to have been quite different, including giving regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyses of English character, emphasising the impatient dignity of the men of Canterbury )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.624 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.624 414.675 m 484.616 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 484.616 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence and harsh speech of the men of Northumbria )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 294.956 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 294.956 400.419 m 308.948 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 308.948 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for instance. Though Snnesyn?s final chapter is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very helpful on how we should see William?s moral agenda informing his historical writing without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violating his concept of truth, it does not help us in cases where the framing of the story or of major concepts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is very significantly different. In short, the very intellectual coherence of Snnesyn?s case makes the lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of )] TJ ET BT 100.016 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GPA )] TJ ET BT 126.344 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic. If the scheme of )] TJ ET BT 270.308 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GR)] TJ ET BT 286.304 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( flows so naturally and seamlessly from William?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of moral education, how do we explain a major piece of his historical writing that does things )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite differently?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The relatively minor treatment of )] TJ ET BT 196.988 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historia Novella )] TJ ET BT 280.328 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not cause the same difficulties. In some senses, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text can be considered an appendix to )] TJ ET BT 217.640 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GR. )] TJ ET BT 239.636 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The exemplary and ethical scheme that Snnesyn develops for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GR )] TJ ET BT 53.012 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be applied almost as well to )] TJ ET BT 209.324 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(HN, )] TJ ET BT 231.992 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the prologue of which asks:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For what is more to the advantage of virtue, or more conducive to justice than recognizing the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divine pleasure in the good and punishment of those who have gone astray? Further, what is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more pleasant than consigning to historical record the deeds of brave men, so that following )] TJ ET BT 64.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their example the others may cast off cowardice and arm themselves to defend their country? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 513.572 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 513.572 179.091 m 527.564 179.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though the work was never completed, the extant main text of )] TJ ET BT 337.964 142.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(HN )] TJ ET BT 357.632 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can also be largely understood in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of Snnesyn?s scheme. The central crisis of )] TJ ET BT 285.632 127.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(HN )] TJ ET BT 305.300 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the arrest of the bishops in 1139\) is partly a product )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the influence of court faction on King Stephen )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 272.972 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 272.972 112.323 m 286.964 112.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 286.964 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and his response to their influence brought about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further divisions, a degradation that stood in marked contrast to the masterful central direction of Henry I?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reign.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 61.676 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 61.676 83.811 m 75.668 83.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 75.668 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The king?s weakness, therefore, had allowed weakness, disunity and ultimately sacrilege )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 508.580 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 508.580 83.811 m 522.572 83.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 522.572 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regression notably similar to that described by Snnesyn in )] TJ ET BT 320.996 70.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GR?s )] TJ ET BT 350.660 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depiction of William Rufus \(pp. 213?227\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert of Gloucester, the dedicatee of the work embodies, the same characteristics as William?s ideal kings )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 411.6317 740.6215 425.6237 752.5015 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 269.9717 626.5735 283.9637 638.4535 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 470.6237 414.9895 484.6157 426.8695 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 294.9557 400.7335 308.9477 412.6135 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 513.5717 179.4055 527.5637 191.2855 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 272.9717 112.6375 286.9637 124.5175 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 61.6757 84.1255 75.6677 96.0055 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 508.5797 84.1255 522.5717 96.0055 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 50 0 R 53 0 R 56 0 R 59 0 R 62 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R ] /Contents 48 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Length 11798 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 46.352 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GR, )] TJ ET BT 68.348 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vigorous, just, temperate and valorous.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Snnesyn has done an excellent job of integrating William of Malmesbury?s thought into the inheritance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classical learning and the intellectual currents of his day. He could, however, have done more to place him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the context of historical writing in the British Isles. He points out that William had a view of kingship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(somewhat comparable to Gildas \(p. 125\) whom William admired and that the two worked from a common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(core of canonical texts. He might, however, have gone further than this. Even though Gildas shows no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of the direct influence of either Cicero or Augustine )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 331.940 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 331.940 697.539 m 351.932 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 351.932 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the details of his education are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opaque, the exhortative, edificatory objective of Gildas? work dominates )] TJ ET BT 386.948 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Excidio, )] TJ ET BT 446.600 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far more so than any of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William?s historical writings. In a similar vein, rather more could be done with the connections between )] TJ ET BT 537.944 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GR)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Bede. Though Snnesyn does repeatedly acknowledge Bede?s role as model for William, more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis might be placed on the similarities in the portrayal of important figures in the two texts \(Bede?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of Edwin?s conversion )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 173.324 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 173.324 626.259 m 193.316 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 193.316 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is dominated by the king?s )] TJ ET BT 327.980 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(reasonableness, )] TJ ET BT 407.972 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just as William?s view of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the investiture controversy in England is shaped by Henry?s )] TJ ET BT 358.964 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(reason )] TJ ET BT 394.628 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 242\)\). Bede?s view of the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of kings as )] TJ ET BT 89.012 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(rectores animarum )] TJ ET BT 183.668 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is if anything more strongly expressed than that of William.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.312 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.312 597.747 m 490.304 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 490.304 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant for Snnesyn?s argument is George Molyneux?s recent work on the Old English Bede )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.280 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.280 583.491 m 525.272 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 525.272 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he shows was translated with a heavy emphasis on the exemplary material that could be gained from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bede?s Latin text. Indeed, the nature of )] TJ ET BT 226.304 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(HN )] TJ ET BT 245.972 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a bank of edifying examples is )] TJ ET BT 408.944 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(more heavily)] TJ ET BT 471.260 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( emphasised in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Old English translation that in the original.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 257.348 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 257.348 540.723 m 277.340 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 277.340 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Molyneux points out that annotations probably in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand of Coleman \(the Worcester monk who laid down the foundations of William?s own )] TJ ET BT 464.624 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Vita Wulfstani)] TJ ET BT 533.636 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasize the didactic value of the )] TJ ET BT 205.976 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(OEB.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.304 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.304 512.211 m 252.296 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 252.296 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Indeed, Molyneux feels driven to defend the translator from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism for excising important historical material \(particularly primary documents\) just as Snnesyn must )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protect William of Malmesbury from the opposite charge, of being a historian out of his time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One might wish for an extension of Snnesyn?s argument that deals more fully with )] TJ ET BT 441.308 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GPA )] TJ ET BT 467.636 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and makes more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(links with the wider tradition of historical writing, or disagree with some aspects of the theoretical or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical discussion, but )] TJ ET BT 192.680 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(William of Malmesbury and the Ethics of History )] TJ ET BT 432.008 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeds in its primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aim of placing one of the great minds of the 12th century into the context of his intellectual heritage and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual/moral life as a Benedictine monk. It is a stimulating, challenging and significant contribution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 366.915 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William of Malmesbury, )] TJ ET BT 186.008 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gesta Regum Anglorum,)] TJ ET BT 304.328 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ed. and trans. R. Mynors, M. Winterbottom and R. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomson \(2 vols., Oxford 1998?9\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.332 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.332 320.643 m 291.320 320.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William of Malmesbury, )] TJ ET BT 186.008 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gesta Pontificum Anglorum)] TJ ET BT 320.672 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. and trans. M. Winterbottom, R.M. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomson, \(2 vols., Oxford 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.004 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.004 292.131 m 282.992 292.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 279.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Gerrard, )] TJ ET BT 121.988 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Military Activities of Bishops, Abbots and Other Clergy in England c. 900?1200)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(unpublished University of Glasgow PhD thesis, 2010\), pp. 213?17,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.996 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.996 263.619 m 443.984 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GPA, )] TJ ET BT 93.344 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prologue.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.004 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.004 249.363 m 192.992 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(GPA)] TJ ET BT 87.344 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Ch. 99.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.348 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.348 235.107 m 182.336 235.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 222.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6 William of Malmesbury, )] TJ ET BT 195.008 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historia Novella: The Comtemporary History)] TJ ET BT 415.004 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. and trans. by Edmund )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King and K. R. Potter \(2nd ed., Oxford, 1998\))] TJ ET BT 285.656 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 291.656 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I, 1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 310.652 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 310.652 206.595 m 364.640 206.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(HN, )] TJ ET BT 86.684 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(II, 22.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.676 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.676 192.339 m 169.664 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(HN, )] TJ ET BT 86.684 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(II, 23; III, 47.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 152.000 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 152.000 178.083 m 205.988 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 165.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(HN, )] TJ ET BT 86.684 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(II, 25.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.676 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.676 163.827 m 169.664 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 150.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On Gildas? knowledge of the Classics and Patristics, see N. Wright, ?Gildas?s reading: a summary?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sacris Erudirii, )] TJ ET BT 141.692 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(XXXII, 2 \(1991\). Though there are substantial overlaps \(particularly Orosius and John )] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cassian, the most important authors for Snnesyn?s conception are Cicero and Augustine, both )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notably absent from Wright?s compendium. My thanks to Alex Woolf for this reference.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 489.944 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 489.944 106.803 m 549.932 106.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 93.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bede, )] TJ ET BT 94.676 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ecclesiastical History of the English People)] TJ ET BT 306.332 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. Leo Sherley-Price \(Rev. ed., London, 1990\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(II, 13.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 93.008 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 93.008 78.291 m 152.996 78.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 65.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for instance Cenred of Mercia?s attempts to correct one of his wayward subjects \()] TJ ET BT 476.576 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(EH, )] TJ ET BT 498.572 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(V, 13\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 532.232 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 532.232 64.035 m 559.892 64.035 l S BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 49.779 m 96.344 49.779 l S endstream endobj 49 0 obj [47 0 R /Fit] endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 331.9397 697.8535 351.9317 709.7335 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj [47 0 R /Fit] endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 173.3237 626.5735 193.3157 638.4535 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 55 0 obj [47 0 R /Fit] endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 470.3117 598.0615 490.3037 609.9415 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj [47 0 R /Fit] endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 505.2797 583.8055 525.2717 595.6855 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 61 0 obj [47 0 R /Fit] endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 257.3477 541.0375 277.3397 552.9175 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 64 0 obj [47 0 R /Fit] endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 232.3037 512.5255 252.2957 524.4055 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 237.3317 320.9575 291.3197 332.8375 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 70 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 229.0037 292.4455 282.9917 304.3255 ] >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 72 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 389.9957 263.9335 443.9837 275.8135 ] >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 74 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 139.0037 249.6775 192.9917 261.5575 ] >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 128.3477 235.4215 182.3357 247.3015 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 78 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 310.6517 206.9095 364.6397 218.7895 ] >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 80 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.6757 192.6535 169.6637 204.5335 ] >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 82 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 151.9997 178.3975 205.9877 190.2775 ] >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 41 0 R >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 84 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.6757 164.1415 169.6637 176.0215 ] >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 44 0 R >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 86 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 489.9437 107.1175 549.9317 118.9975 ] >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 49 0 R >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 88 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 93.0077 78.6055 152.9957 90.4855 ] >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 52 0 R >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 90 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 532.2317 64.3495 559.8917 76.2295 ] >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 55 0 R >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 92 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 50.0935 96.3437 61.9735 ] >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 55 0 R >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 95 0 R 97 0 R 99 0 R 101 0 R ] /Contents 94 0 R >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Length 1669 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Molyneux, ?The Old English Bede: English ideology or Christian instruction??, )] TJ ET BT 465.332 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Review)] TJ ET BT 98.672 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 124, 511 \(2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.664 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.664 780.819 m 244.652 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Molyneux, esp. 1310.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 168.344 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 168.344 766.563 m 228.332 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15 Ibid, 1315.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.348 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.348 752.307 m 191.336 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 710.719 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 692.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 692.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1373)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 691.545 m 328.316 691.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 666.568 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 652.168 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/48888)] TJ ET endstream endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 96 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.6637 781.1335 244.6517 793.0135 ] >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 58 0 R >> endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 98 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 168.3437 766.8775 228.3317 778.7575 ] >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 61 0 R >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 100 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 131.3477 752.6215 191.3357 764.5015 ] >> endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 64 0 R >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 102 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 691.8595 328.3157 703.7395 ] >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1373) >> endobj xref 0 103 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000564 00000 n 0000000653 00000 n 0000005460 00000 n 0000005569 00000 n 0000005679 00000 n 0000005788 00000 n 0000009349 00000 n 0000009477 00000 n 0000009561 00000 n 0000009590 00000 n 0000009718 00000 n 0000009754 00000 n 0000009819 00000 n 0000017668 00000 n 0000017733 00000 n 0000025096 00000 n 0000025229 00000 n 0000035710 00000 n 0000035740 00000 n 0000035868 00000 n 0000035904 00000 n 0000035934 00000 n 0000036062 00000 n 0000036098 00000 n 0000036128 00000 n 0000036256 00000 n 0000036292 00000 n 0000036322 00000 n 0000036450 00000 n 0000036486 00000 n 0000036516 00000 n 0000036644 00000 n 0000036680 00000 n 0000036710 00000 n 0000036838 00000 n 0000036874 00000 n 0000036904 00000 n 0000037028 00000 n 0000037064 00000 n 0000037094 00000 n 0000037220 00000 n 0000037256 00000 n 0000037466 00000 n 0000049318 00000 n 0000049348 00000 n 0000049476 00000 n 0000049512 00000 n 0000049542 00000 n 0000049670 00000 n 0000049706 00000 n 0000049736 00000 n 0000049864 00000 n 0000049900 00000 n 0000049930 00000 n 0000050058 00000 n 0000050094 00000 n 0000050124 00000 n 0000050252 00000 n 0000050288 00000 n 0000050318 00000 n 0000050446 00000 n 0000050482 00000 n 0000050610 00000 n 0000050665 00000 n 0000050793 00000 n 0000050848 00000 n 0000050976 00000 n 0000051031 00000 n 0000051159 00000 n 0000051214 00000 n 0000051342 00000 n 0000051397 00000 n 0000051525 00000 n 0000051580 00000 n 0000051708 00000 n 0000051763 00000 n 0000051891 00000 n 0000051946 00000 n 0000052074 00000 n 0000052129 00000 n 0000052257 00000 n 0000052312 00000 n 0000052437 00000 n 0000052492 00000 n 0000052618 00000 n 0000052673 00000 n 0000052797 00000 n 0000052852 00000 n 0000052958 00000 n 0000054680 00000 n 0000054808 00000 n 0000054863 00000 n 0000054991 00000 n 0000055046 00000 n 0000055175 00000 n 0000055231 00000 n 0000055361 00000 n trailer << /Size 103 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 55458 %%EOF