%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140724185330+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140724185330+01'00') /Title (London?s News Press and the Thirty Years War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4276 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(London?s News Press and the Thirty Years War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 38.012 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The emergence and evolution of professional news reporting and publishing in early 17th-century England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an important phenomenon that has received disparate attention from scholars, much of it in journals and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collections of essays, so new, comprehensive work on the subject is always welcome. This book offers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially fresh insight through the author?s extensive knowledge of the information about the Thirty Years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War disseminated via the corantos published in England in the 1620s and 1630s. The book usefully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides an integrated account of the origins of London news publication in a synthesis of existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship from a variety of disciplines and perspectives. Significantly, Boys correctly \()] TJ ET BT 463.952 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pace)] TJ ET BT 486.608 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Joad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Raymond and Nick Poyntz\) affirms the continuity between the corantos reporting exclusively foreign news )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1620s and early 1630s and the newsbooks of the 1640s that reported domestic events. Corantos and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newsbooks were both media conjured by a desire for information about events transpiring in troublesome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political times. Boys? book also offers some useful statistics and censuses of corantos. It is very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attractively presented, with a colorful composite cover and images in the text.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This study makes use of important manuscript collections in the British Library, such as the Trumbull Papers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Joseph Mead?s correspondence, as well as manuscript newsletters in The National Archives. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boys? book relies most on printed sources, both primary and secondary. For example, the author cites the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 47.483 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calendar of State Papers Domestic)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1374)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 7 February, 2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jayne E. E. Boys)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781843836773)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(348pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sabrina Alcorn Baron)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7503 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the reigns of James I and Charles I, but not the State Papers )] TJ ET BT 339.632 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Domestic \(SP14 and SP16\) in manuscript, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available on microfilm and online. To understand what attempts the early Stuart monarchs )] TJ ET BT 473.624 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did)] TJ ET BT 488.960 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( make to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control the press, information from the actual documents in SPD is vital. SPD is primarily the archive of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secretaries of state?s office which supervised all the monarch?s correspondence \(indeed all the monarch?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government business\). The senior secretary of state also coordinated Privy Council business and exercised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crown supervision of printed matter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This research lacunae \(among others\) has led Boys' to repeat an unfortunate misidentification of a licenser )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the press, Mr. Cottington, who is the joint focus of an entire chapter in her book. Cottington?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misidentification here is even more unfortunate because he was correctly identified decades ago by W. W. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greg, with Greg?s findings supported later by research from Sheila Lambert. Boys is aware of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversy over Cottington?s identity, but chose to follow mistakes originating with F. S. Siebert, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perpetuated in more recent studies by Michael Frearson and Cyndia Clegg. Greg found the autograph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprimatur of George Cottington on a manuscript submitted to him for approval, now in the Bodleian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Library. Lambert found George Cottington?s entrance to and degree from Oxford. My own research places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him among the chaplains of the bishop of London.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Under the terms of Elizabeth I?s Injunctions of 1559, it was the queen, a commission of six Privy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Councillors, )] TJ ET BT 96.020 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(or)] TJ ET BT 106.688 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the archbishop of Canterbury, the bishop of London, and the chancellors of the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universities who were responsible for pre-publication licensing for the press in their jurisdictions, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bishop in ordinary ?alwaies? one of the licensers. Thus, the vast majority of pre-publication licensing duties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devolved to the bishop of London, the ordinary of the jurisdiction in England where all printing was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducted save for the university presses. Ultimately, it was the bishop of London?s chaplains who did the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actual voluminous and quite onerous work of reviewing manuscripts for publication. The consequences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laziness in exercising these duties on the part of Samuel Harsnett, a chaplain to a late-Elizabethan bishop of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London and a licenser for the press, has been the subject of several articles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So George Cottington as a university-educated ecclesiastic was licenser of news in the early 1620s as part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the traditional oversight of the press, at that point extended to the new genre of news. It is no surprise that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was, or at least is to us, an obscure person. Indeed, it would be quite surprising if the licenser had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Francis Cottington, a much more prominent person as a Privy Council clerk extraordinary, secretary to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prince of Wales, member of Parliament, diplomat, and ultimately knight and baronet.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boys is correct that the crown, through the senior secretary of state?s office, began to take a more active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direct role in pre-publication licensing when Georg Rudolph Weckherlin in 1627 was given oversight of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(news, as well as other print genres deemed to be politically dangerous. Weckherlin was well educated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well read, skilled in a number of languages, and familiar with continental European politics due to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German origins and connections, his early employment in the Palatinate, and his work as a government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translator and letter writer. However, he was designated to license news not because of those talents, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather because he was a member of the personal staff of the senior secretary of state, Sir Edward Conway. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Incidentally, John Milton became licenser for the press in the 1650s in the same way and for the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons, in fact, succeeding Weckherlin in the job.\) It is worth noting also that, technically, Weckherlin was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a direct employee of the crown, but rather was employed by the senior secretary of state on his personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clerical staff. Weckherlin?s service in that capacity transferred to Conway?s successors as senior secretary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(namely Sir Dudley Carleton, viscount Dorchester, Sir John Coke, and Sir Henry Vane. When Charles I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personally asked Weckherlin to stay on as a member of Vane?s support staff in 1640, Weckherlin was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bitterly disappointed to not be promoted to a full crown appointment with more adequate wages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Just as the bulk of pre-publication licensing fell to the bishop of London?s support staff such as George )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cottington, so too had the licensing authority reserved to the monarch and Privy Council devolved to their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man of business, the senior secretary of state, and \(due to the overwhelming responsibilities of that position\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from him to his support staff, of whom Weckherlin was one. Only in very rare, extraordinary situations did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the senior secretary himself license materials for publication. Highly placed, professional bureaucrats such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the secretaries of state, Privy Council clerks both ordinary and extraordinary, signet clerks and the like did )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6910 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not have the time, much less the inclination, to review manuscripts for publication. This duty was pushed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down the food chain to lower level, if talented, clerical employees.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Reade taking over the licensing of news in the late 1630s must be understood in the same context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the inner workings of the secretaries of state?s office. Furthermore, Reade?s exercise of that duty is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligible only in the setting of internal office politics at that point, designed to displace the aged Sir John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coke as principal secretary of state. Reade was employed on the personal clerical staff of the junior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secretary of state appointed in June 1632, his uncle Sir Francis Windebank. As the decade wore on, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windebank was anxious to succeed Coke as senior secretary and a major part of the drama of Coke?s ouster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not only Windebank intruding in Coke?s duties and claiming Coke kept him in the dark about important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters, but also Windebank?s personal staff competing with Coke?s staff for control over business. Reade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was in the thick of the competition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From at least December 1638, when Reade first appears as licenser, there was talk that Coke was too weak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to carry out the duties of his office. Coke was at that time part of the Privy Council Committee of the North, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appointed to deal with the problems in Scotland, as well as a member of the Commission for Saltpeter and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gunpowder, in addition to all his other duties, in the midst of preparation for war. Coke was seriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overworked, especially for someone in his late 70s, and increasing numbers of tasks were being diverted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Windebank, including the king?s personal correspondence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In March 1639, Coke as the senior secretary and Weckherlin as a member of his staff, went north with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king to pursue war against the Scots. Windebank, as junior, and Reade on his staff remained in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Westminster. As Windebank took over even more duties that would normally have fallen to Coke, so his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staff member Reade took on the licensing that Weckherlin would have done had he been in the capital. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reade stepping in as licenser had nothing to do with Weckherlin?s performance or inclinations; Weckherlin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just happened to be working for the secretary of state who was sliding, if not being pushed, toward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retirement. Coke and Weckherlin remained in the north of England until late July, when the secretary went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his estate in Derbyshire and Weckherlin returned to the royal court in Westminster. Coke?s decision to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visit his country estate ultimately sealed his ouster from office.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Coke was with the king in the north, Algernon Percy, tenth earl of Northumberland, allegedly as part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the war effort, had commandeered the ?olde Noddie[?s]? lodgings in Whitehall Palace. Weckherlin?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mission in late summer 1639 was to try to reclaim those lodgings, or get the king to grant new ones. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weckherlin was apparently unsuccessful in this \(as was Henry Rich, earl of Holland, Lord Steward of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(queen?s household\). Nevertheless, the king ordered Coke to return to court on September 4 and just a day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later news writers were reporting that Coke?s replacement was imminent. Rumor had it the new secretary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be Sir Henry Vane, treasurer of the royal household, and indeed, on February 3, 1640, Vane was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sworn secretary while continuing to serve as treasurer. Windebank got the increased diet and title of senior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secretary of state, although he viewed Vane as meddling in business that was none of his, and Windebank )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was once again left behind when the king went north to fight the Scots again in 1640. In December, under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scrutiny by the Long Parliament \(of which he was a member\), Windebank fled to France along with Reade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving Vane as the sole secretary, until his own ousting at the displeasure of the king the following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(December.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Weckherlin had gone over to Vane?s staff in February 1640. When Vane was removed from office in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(December 1641 and the king shortly abandoned the capital and the central government administration in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(January 1642 following the attempt on the Five Members, Weckherlin stayed in London. He moved into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment of the Long Parliament, resuming many of his former duties such as pre-publication licensing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the press and deciphering coded correspondence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Better knowledge and understanding of both the bureaucratic and licensing processes is necessary in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases noted above, as in others addressed in this book. From the time control over printing had first been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempted in the reign of Henry VIII, it was an ad hoc process at best; elsewhere I have characterized the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English crown?s attitude in considering printed matter to be dangerous as ?crisis and response?. There was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5864 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no uniform, programmatic approach to such control, if for no other reason than that the crown did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employ the personnel necessary to perform such policing. So, control of the press was catch as catch can, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infused from time to time with new government measures and regulations, such as the 1557 chartering of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stationer's Company of London, the Injunctions of 1559, the 1586 Star Chamber decree, etc. Despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that some regularity had evolved by the early Stuart period in the form of pre-publication licensing via )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bishop of London?s chaplains, the process remained very ad hoc, depending in large part, as has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued by many scholars from many disciplines, on self-policing, or self-censorship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But in the reign of Charles I, the situation began to change as both printed news reporting and manuscript )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newsletters began to mature and the political situation became fraught. It was clear, or becoming more so, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ad hoc means of controlling printed matter would no longer suffice. From the early 1630s William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laud, archbishop of Canterbury, was working through the High Commission for Causes Ecclesiastical to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regularize and tighten oversight of the press, and likely the subscription manuscript news writing business as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well. His staff was researching the situation from early in the decade, and overt actions were taken during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the summer of 1637, namely the Star Chamber decree concerning printing, and the trials in Star Chamber of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry Burton, John Bastwick, William Prynne, and John Williams, bishop of Lincoln, for seditious libel. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But Laud?s intended program to control printed matter including news was never realized, due to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversy over the Scottish Prayer Book that same summer which soon escalated to civil war. The coming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of war with Scotland distracted the crown bureaucracy, to say the least, and on the heels of that conflict, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles I?s central administration was stagnant, circumvented, and disintegrating. Laud himself was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attacked by the Long Parliament, impeached in December 1640 \(when Windebank fled\) and imprisoned in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Tower in March 1641. To the extent that what might be called censorship had ever existed or was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planned, the Caroline crown?s ability to act on such matters was effectively destroyed in 1641 with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneous implosion of the ecclesiastical hierarchy, the prerogative courts of Star Chamber and High )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commission, the Privy Council, and the central crown bureaucracy generally.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boys? admittedly selected bibliography exhibits some surprising omissions, notably the work of Peter W. M. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blayney on the Stationers? Company, the size of print runs, and the procedures of entry, license, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority. Blayney presents an original, nuanced understanding of these topics, and knowledge of his work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have greatly informed this book, especially the sections dealing with the licensing process, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blayney calls ?authority?, as did W. W. Greg. Licensing for publication was the dominion of the crown, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carried out by the bureaucratic personnel available to it, the clerical staffs of the church and central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(executive. The Stationer?s Company did not grant license to print. The Company did possess the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective power available to control printing \(granted in the 1586 Star Chamber decree\): to seize and destroy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presses and type. But it was extremely reluctant to use that power, doing so only when sharply prodded by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crown. In most instances, interfering with the output or content of print was trumped by the internal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics and trade concerns of the Company. The crown was left to control the content of printed matter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when it was recognized as potentially dangerous, by whatever means it could co-opt.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 256.783 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 239.003 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 239.003 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1374)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 237.609 m 328.316 237.609 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 212.632 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.232 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/48892)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 237.9235 328.3157 249.8035 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1374) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000547 00000 n 0000000629 00000 n 0000004957 00000 n 0000005066 00000 n 0000005176 00000 n 0000005285 00000 n 0000008846 00000 n 0000008974 00000 n 0000009058 00000 n 0000009123 00000 n 0000016679 00000 n 0000016744 00000 n 0000023707 00000 n 0000023791 00000 n 0000029708 00000 n 0000029836 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29932 %%EOF