%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140919082347+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140919082347+01'00') /Title (Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4190 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Edge of Empires: A History of Georgia)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Think of what you are about to read more as a dialogue between two scholars of Georgia than a conventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review of a colleague?s book. Those few of us outside of Georgia who chose to study the Georgian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language and delve into the three millennia history of that beautiful and beleaguered country have usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped our narratives in the template of national history ? the story of a distinct people who managed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain a continuous existence despite invasions, occupations, exile, and the fall of their polities. Writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a mode that only became imperative in the nationalist 19th century provides a coherence and continuity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that belies the eclectic, disjointed, and cosmopolitan actualities of the Caucasian )] TJ ET BT 422.300 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(longue dur?e)] TJ ET BT 485.960 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Yet since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources often are generated by states, and archival materials are usually organized by governments, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprimatur of nation effaces the more complex variations of how people in the past understood themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Rayfield, Professor Emeritus of Russian and Georgian at Queen Mary, University of London, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undertaken just such a national story, even while his book?s title ? )] TJ ET BT 354.980 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Edge of Empires)] TJ ET BT 434.972 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? affirms Georgia?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liminal position between great multiethnic states. His subtitle suggests that he is presenting one possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account and that others will offer different readings. When I first went to Georgia nearly half a century ago, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Rayfield was somewhat of a legend, a stellar student with fluent Georgian and a deep knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1375)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 7 February, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald Rayfield)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781780230306)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(512pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reaktion Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ronald Grigor Suny)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7652 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its literature. Yet despite the proximity in our scholarly interests, over many decades we never met. He had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left Georgia before I arrived, and though he apparently came to a lecture I delivered in London, he left with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making himself known to me. When I published )] TJ ET BT 272.000 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the Georgian Nation)] TJ ET BT 444.332 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1988, Rayfield gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book a relatively critical review in which he even took issue with the title. How could this book, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centered on the 19th and 20th centuries, be about the making of a nation whose origins reached back into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prehistoric times? I finally met Professor Rayfield a year ago when we shared glasses of wine after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful dissertation defense of one of his protgs. Later I bought his extraordinary two-volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictionary of Georgian, which his wife delivered to me in a plastic bag in Victoria Station.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After the usual linguistic and archaeological introduction, Georgia?s history is conventionally said to begin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with its first king, Parnavaz, who may or may not have existed, but who is enshrined in chronicles both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georgian and Armenian. Georgia?s mixed heritage is attested to by Parnavaz?s name and his mother, both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Persian. The king married a North Caucasian \(Chechen or Ingush\) and gave his daughter in marriage to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ossetian. The Georgian king Mirian III converted to Christianity circa 317, and a century later the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georgian alphabet was devised. Georgians had their own identity, religion, and language but were deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embroiled in the shifting alliances, allegiances, and imperial rivalries that roiled through Caucasia and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anatolia. King Vakhtang Gorgasali, founder of Georgia?s eventual capital, Tbilisi, was also the son of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Persian mother and the husband first of a Persian wife and later a Byzantine royal. His country?s affinity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Iran marked Georgian culture until the 19th century. Colchis \(Lazica\), Western Georgia, remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more firmly in the Greek, Roman, and Byzantine sphere of cultural and political influence until the coming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Ottomans. The fateful decision of Catholicos Kvirion II in the seventh century to accept the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dyophysite Christology of Byzantium ended the centuries-old closeness with the monophysite Armenians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and secured Georgia as an eastern outpost of Orthodox Christianity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Arab invasions in that same period were an even more radical rupture in the history of Caucasia. Three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian peoples ? Georgians, Armenians, and Caucasian Albanians ? would henceforth live with the threat, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as the promise of tolerance, from Islam. Throughout the following centuries Georgia was more like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a mini-empire, with a diverse population, and hierarchical inequitable relations of power among its peoples, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than an ethnically and religiously homogeneous nation-state. Its history paralleled those of its neighbors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Armenia, Persia, Turkey, and Russia\) at least until late Soviet times. Rather than ethnicity, it was religion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and language that determined who might pass for Georgian. Rayfield is fond of the definition of Georgia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered by the ninth century author Giorgi Merchule: ?We can consider as Greater Georgia wherever Mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and prayers are said in Georgian? \(p. 62\). But as in Armenia, so in Georgia, many of the towns were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhabited by Muslim merchants and workers. A traveller in the late tenth century observed that Tbilisi was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?wholly Muslim? \(p. 72\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georgia \()] TJ ET BT 79.664 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sakartvelo)] TJ ET BT 129.656 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) was first united only in the early 11th century under Bagrat III, king of the Abkhaz. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But soon the kingdoms of Caucasia, particularly the Armenian, faced a new and mortal danger ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasions of the Seljuk Turks. Georgia?s monarchs made strategic agreements with the invaders, heralding a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of expansion and prosperity under the two most eminent rulers of the medieval period, David )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(aghmashenebeli)] TJ ET BT 112.004 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(the Builder\) \(1089?1125\) and Tamar \(1178?1213\). David gave up his Armenian queen for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a Qipchak to promote his kingdom?s security interests, while Tamar?s consort, David Soslan, was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ossetian. Their empires, with their cosmopolitan capital at Tbilisi, were devastated in the early 13th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the Mongols, and Georgia?s fortunes ebbed and flowed in the ensuing half millennium until by early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern times its monarchs repeatedly petitioned Russian tsars for protection against the predations of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Persians and the Ottomans.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rayfield?s opus is very informative, in the sense that it is chock full of information ? reigns, dynasties, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign incursions, efforts at unification, and multiple failures to hold fragile states together. Like an earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialist, Cyril Toumanoff, he is obsessed with how various princes were related to one another, who was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimate and who a pretender or usurper. His focus is on politics, the role of elites, rather than on society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and social relations more broadly. He largely leaves out culture and literature, perhaps justifiably since he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has treated Georgian writing extensively in his earlier history of Georgian literature. When the rulers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georgia cease to be native royals, Rayfield follows the adventures and misadventures, amorous and military, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7354 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the various Russian governors and viceroys. In such a history from the top down, with much of the down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left out, Georgia recedes from view as palace intrigues and personalities take center stage. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emancipation of the serfs is given short shrift. The dominance of Armenians in Tbilisi and other towns is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentioned in passing. Thanks to a Georgian study, he provides interesting details on anti-Semitism, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was largely a local Russian rather than a Georgian problem.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For all its suggestive material Rayfield?s construction of the Georgian past fails to give much analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why events or processes occurred. The story is Georgian?centric and Georgian-philic, a national narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused on the steady march forward of the Georgians themselves. Georgians? implicit nationalism is taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for granted rather than investigated. The rule of Russians is largely seen as a negative imperial imposition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though Rayfield concedes at several points that the authorities ?did some good? or ?Not all government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures were reactionary? \(pp. 304, 310\). Almost completely missing are the complex relations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georgians with the other peoples of Georgia, particularly their social rivals, the Armenians, which in my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding was a primary ingredient in the generation of Georgian nationalism and even the particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Menshevik brand of Marxism that became hegemonic in the national liberation movement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Still, what Rayfield gives us is usually reliable and clearly presented. The single doubtful episode comes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the appearance of Stalin, whom he claims framed an innocent watchseller, Arsena Jorjiashvili, for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assassination of General Fedor Griaznov in 1906, which in fact Stalin organized. Rayfield?s source is a post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet article, but close reading of the evidence from earlier memoirs indicts Jorjiashvili, who carried out the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killing even as Stalin?s group of terrorists was preparing to murder the hated officer \(p. 315\). There is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no evidence connecting Stalin with the murder a year later of the nationalist poet and political figure Ilia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chavchavadze \(now Saint Ilia\), which Rayfield pins on the Bolshevik leader.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter on the revolution and Georgian independence \(1917?21\) is bizarre in two ways. Rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using recent research and writing on the period, Rayfield depends almost exclusively on memoirs, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, of the German general Friedrich Kress von Kressenstein. The years in which masses of people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved onto the stage of history are told as the maneuvering of key leaders, a throwback to older modes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic and military history. The word ?soviet? is studiously avoided in favor of ?council,? and the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Mensheviks is grossly underestimated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Things go downhill both for Georgia and the book when we reach the ?Soviet annexation.? After 1921 the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of Georgia as told here was one of unremitting repression, executions, and resistance. Sanguinary as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Communists could be, they managed to create a degree of loyalty as formerly subaltern people moved up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social ladder and peasant Georgia was transformed into a modern urban and industrial society. Literacy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mass education, better health care, and public support of literature and national culture were also products of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Soviet state. Yet here Soviet power is depicted basically as a terror regime built on unspeakable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brutality. How raw power translated into a grudging legitimacy needs to be explained. Rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptualizations or interpretations, we are given reportage and indictment. It should be noted that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rayfield has uncovered fascinating material on Georgian migr activity against the USSR and Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterespionage targeting Georgians, though one might question the balance between the treatment of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emigration and internal affairs. Rayfield?s Soviet chapters are clearly post-Soviet history, a post-revisionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronicle that reflects the current anti-Soviet, even anti-Russian, mood of present-day Georgians. What the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviets called their )] TJ ET BT 129.008 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dostizheniia)] TJ ET BT 187.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(achievements\) have fallen into a deep memory hole and left on the surface )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are the ruins of a cruel failed experiment in human engineering.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rayfield regains his footing in the last chapter, which covers the years of restored independence. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was once a friend of the troubled dissident Zviad Gamsakhurdia, who became Georgia?s freely elected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(president in 1991, Rayfield is balanced and judicious in sorting through the contentious politics and suicidal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil and ethnic wars that divided and ultimately led to the disintegration of Georgia. While there is no love )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lost with the former communist, and second president of Georgia, Eduard Shevardnadze, the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges that this survivor of numerous assassination attempts was able to disarm the reckless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paramilitaries and reestablish a modicum of state authority. Rayfield is equally critical of Mikheil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saakashvili, the flamboyant young lawyer who overthrew Shevardnadze in the ?Rose Revolution? of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4988 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(November 2003. Unlike some pro-Georgian Western writers, Rayfield does not claim that Russia rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than Georgia initiated the disastrous Russo-Georgian war of August 2008. In this dubious adventure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saakashvili was the provocative David to Russia?s slow-footed Goliath. Rayfield?s narrative ends on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eve of Saakashvili?s electoral defeat by billionaire Bidzina Ivanishvili in 2012.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book will fascinate anyone interested in the turbulent, tangled past of the Georgians. What it lacks in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis and overriding interpretation it makes up with recovered tales of willful characters who in their zeal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually brought disaster to their country. When I attempted five decades ago to bring some coherence, if not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unbroken continuity, to Georgia?s history, I emphasized the theme of cultural and social construction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national identity and argued that only in modern times did politics, culture, territory, and popular sovereignty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come together in a discourse of nationhood. Whatever Georgia was in its thousands of years ? tribal society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynastic realm, ethnoreligious community ? it became a nation only in the 19th century with the rise of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secular intelligentsia and even more forcefully in the 20th century in the years of Soviet rule. A second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument in )] TJ ET BT 94.676 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the Georgian Nation)] TJ ET BT 267.008 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was that the histories of small peoples like Georgians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armenians cannot be told in isolation from the histories of the empires with which and within which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed. Empires both thwarted and enabled the making of nations. That complex story may be underplayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Rayfield, yet he gives us sufficient detail to illuminate the paradoxical interplay between the imperial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the national. Georgians were made and remade over time, both by their own efforts and the restraints )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposed and possibilities provided by those that dominated them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Economist)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.economist.com/news/books-and-arts/21567041-despite-its-unhappy-history-and-dire-geography-)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 485.955 m 557.276 485.955 l S BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(georgia-doing-well-bad-location)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 471.699 m 189.980 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 192.980 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Financial Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/1157c792-1cfb-11e2-a17f-00144feabdc0.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 443.187 m 388.304 443.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 391.304 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History Today)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historytoday.com/blog/2013/02/edge-empires-history-georgia)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 414.675 m 387.992 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 390.992 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 411.343 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 393.563 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 393.563 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1375)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 392.169 m 328.316 392.169 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 367.192 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 352.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/48896)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.economist.com/news/books-and-arts/21567041-despite-its-unhappy-history-and-dire-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geography-georgia-doing-well-bad-location)] TJ ET BT 34.016 309.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/1157c792-1cfb-11e2-a17f-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2KDEn1nvs)] TJ ET BT 34.016 295.336 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.historytoday.com/blog/2013/02/edge-empires-history-georgia)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 486.2695 557.2757 498.1495 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.economist.com/news/books-and-arts/21567041-despite-its-unhappy-history-and-dire-geography-georgia-doing-well-bad-location) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 472.0135 189.9797 483.8935 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.economist.com/news/books-and-arts/21567041-despite-its-unhappy-history-and-dire-geography-georgia-doing-well-bad-location) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 443.5015 388.3037 455.3815 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/1157c792-1cfb-11e2-a17f-00144feabdc0.html#axzz2KDEn1nvs) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 414.9895 387.9917 426.8695 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historytoday.com/blog/2013/02/edge-empires-history-georgia) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 392.4835 328.3157 404.3635 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1375) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000541 00000 n 0000000623 00000 n 0000004865 00000 n 0000004974 00000 n 0000005084 00000 n 0000005193 00000 n 0000008754 00000 n 0000008882 00000 n 0000008966 00000 n 0000009031 00000 n 0000016736 00000 n 0000016801 00000 n 0000024208 00000 n 0000024320 00000 n 0000029361 00000 n 0000029488 00000 n 0000029672 00000 n 0000029799 00000 n 0000029983 00000 n 0000030110 00000 n 0000030243 00000 n 0000030370 00000 n 0000030491 00000 n 0000030619 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30715 %%EOF