%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 31 0 R 51 0 R 62 0 R 82 0 R 108 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728012853+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728012853+01'00') /Title (A Short History of Global Evangelicalism) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4243 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Short History of Global Evangelicalism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Being the fruit of 20 years of research on the part of its authors, )] TJ ET BT 342.284 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Short History of Global Evangelicalism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflects an awareness of the need to see the contemporary upsurge in evangelical religion both in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worldwide comparative perspective and in a long-term historical one. Thus by examining the worldwide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon of evangelicalism from the 1730s to the present, Mark Hutchinson and John Wolffe seek to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide the reader with an overarching framework in which specific manifestations of this religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement can be accurately understood. In relation to this, one of the book?s major objectives is to correct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reductionist ideological interpretations of evangelical history. A prime example of such, which the authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refer to, is the British Marxist historian E. P. Thompson?s assertion that Methodism acted as a form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?physic exploitation? in which evangelicals were agents of the capitalist domination of the working classes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 281\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 75.008 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 75.008 129.369 m 89.000 129.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 89.000 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Instead, the authors hope that this book will help to create more sophisticated historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerations of evangelicalism, in all its variegated forms, throughout the world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the modern age, when evangelicals are global pilgrims, a study such as this also helps us to stop thinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of evangelicalism merely in European and American terms or within narrow denominational frameworks. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is important because the authors remind us that evangelical Christianity is neither a particular ethnicity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1376)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 13 February, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Hutchinson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Wolffe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521746052)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Ritchie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 75.0077 129.6835 88.9997 141.5635 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 5300 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nor ecclesiology, but is a historical convergence of convictions which serve to link personal and local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience with a global mission \(p. 270\). The reviewer would agree that evangelicalism is therefore best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood not as a theological position, but as a historical phenomenon. For this reason, historians should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoid the temptation to define evangelicalism in overtly theological terms because, in attempting to do so, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is a danger of trying to squeeze evangelicalism into a mould which is not historically accurate. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore appropriate that the book begins with a chapter entitled, ?Understanding evangelicalism?, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeks to provide an accurate definition of the term. The poverty of attempting to define evangelicalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctrinally can be illustrated in a number of ways. First, the authors refer to the difficulty which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evangelical Alliance experienced at its formation in 1846 when it sought to formulate a doctrinal test that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was suitably inclusive but which excluded those who were either anti-evangelical \(such as the Puseyites\) or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who were not yet considered to be suitably mainstream \(such as those who denied eternal punishment\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 529.268 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 529.268 652.515 m 543.260 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The decision to make the perpetuity of the ministry and the sacraments terms of admittance to the Alliance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was even condemned by some of its members at the time, who viewed it as being too inflexible on doctrinal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters at the expense of practical Christianity.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 260.312 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 260.312 609.747 m 274.304 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 274.304 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Even when attempts have been made by evangelical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergymen to outline essential evangelical beliefs, they have often had to concede that these views are not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily unique to evangelicals. In many cases, it would appear that evangelicals have tended to place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more emphasis on certain doctrines than other groups, without these beliefs necessarily being evangelical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusives \(pp. 8, 11\). On the other hand, the authors point out that those attempts by evangelical writers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(produce definitions of evangelicalism have a tendency to reflect their own theological convictions as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed to historical fact \(pp. 13?14\). This is why David Bebbington?s famous description of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?quadilateral of priorities? common to evangelicalism \(conversionism, activism, biblicism, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucicentrism\) is so helpful. It effectively nullifies the need for debate about theological specifics and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflects lack of doctrinal precision within popular evangelicalism \(pp. 16?17\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 407.612 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 407.612 481.443 m 421.604 481.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 421.604 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Dr Hutchinson and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Wolffe, however, suggest that Professor Bebbington could also have stressed the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revivalism to evangelicals. The reviewer is not persuaded by this, as it tends to overlook the reality that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various self-confessed evangelicals either rejected revivalism or dissented from various aspects of revival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excitement.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 89.672 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 89.672 424.419 m 103.664 424.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 103.664 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While not denying that Professor Bebbington?s definition could eventually be improved, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer is of the opinion that it is the best working definition of evangelicalism currently available to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians. It is thus interesting that the authors recognise that ?even scholars apparently less than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comfortable with Bebbington?s definition have nevertheless tended to defer to it? \(p. 17\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 529.2677 652.8295 543.2597 664.7095 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 260.3117 610.0615 274.3037 621.9415 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 407.6117 481.7575 421.6037 493.6375 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 89.6717 424.7335 103.6637 436.6135 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R 46 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 8564 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adopting David Bebbington?s definition of evangelicalism is also useful in relation to correcting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reactionary notion that evangelicalism does not exist. The authors? correctly recognise that ?[i]ntelligent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of evangelicalism needs to start from the recognition that it is a fluid and diverse phenomenon, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(boundaries that cannot be rigidly defined? \(p. 18\). However, this does not justify Nathan Hatch?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposition that ?there is no such thing as evangelicalism?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 317.660 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 317.660 726.051 m 331.652 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 331.652 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nor would it substantiate Darryl Hart?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument, that ?[e]vangelicalism needs to be relinquished as a religious identity because it does not exist?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 544.940 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 544.940 711.795 m 558.932 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although we can understand why a confessional Presbyterian such as Dr Hart would want to encourage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who share his theological outlook to jettison their attachment to a movement as latitudinarian as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evangelicalism, nevertheless, as an empirical and objective historian one cannot deny the reality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evangelicalism?s existence. The advantage of the present study is that it considers evangelicalism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worldwide terms rather than in relation to its manifestation in late 20th-century America, which renders it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easier to understand why evangelicalism has a much broader significance and should be seen as a legitimate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical category. Conversely, it could be argued that the fact that evangelicalism has always had an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambivalent relationship to Calvinism and advocates unity in diversity, as opposed to doctrinal, liturgical, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiological uniformity, certainly does appear to lend weight to Dr Hart?s view that ?being evangelical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often includes a number of doctrines and practices to which Presbyterians and Reformed Christians might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plausibly object?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 118.676 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 118.676 554.979 m 132.668 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 132.668 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Another interesting aspect to the definition of evangelicalism in this book is that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors? have chosen to include fundamentalists and Pentecostalists as representing varieties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evangelicalism as opposed to completely distinct categories. In response to George Marsden?s claim that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?[a] fundamentalist is an evangelical who is angry about something? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 365.960 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 365.960 512.211 m 379.952 512.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 379.952 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the authors? suggest that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pentecostal might be defined as ?an evangelical who is happy about something? \(p. 22\). Although amusing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these descriptions are useful ways of summarising the priorities and emphases of such groups.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remaining chapters provide an overview of the movement at various stages of its history. Accordingly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter two considers the emergence of evangelicalism in the English-speaking world beginning with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revival at Northampton, Massachusetts \(1734?5\) up until the 1790s. While these occurrences were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unique to Northampton, it is argued that Jonathan Edwards \(the town?s pastor\) viewed this ?surprising work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of God? as something new \(p. 25\). Indeed, it was described as ?a great and wonderful event, a strange )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution, an unexpected, surprising overturning of things, suddenly brought to pass; such as never has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen in New-England, and scarce ever has been heard of in any land?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 369.236 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 369.236 371.907 m 389.228 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 389.228 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Notwithstanding their recognition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that evangelicalism began in the 1730s, the authors seek to chart a middle course between those who argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it was a completely new movement and those who contend that it is merely part of a continuous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant tradition. Such approaches suffer from either being too schematic or else insufficiently aware of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discontinuities. Evangelicalism was new up to a point, but it had its antecedents in English Puritanism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish Presbyterianism, and even in High Church Anglicanism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 347.000 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 347.000 300.627 m 366.992 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 366.992 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The chapter moves on to consider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George Whitefield?s role in promoting revivalism on both sides of the Atlantic, with the authors viewing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him as the personal link between the awakenings in Europe and America, rifts between Whitefield and John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wesley over Calvinism, the growth of evangelicalism within the Church of Scotland, the Old Side-New Side )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(split over revivalism among the American Presbyterians, and the determination of evangelicals to cross class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and racial boundaries. In terms of assessing the impact of the Great Awakening in America and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evangelical Revival in Britain, the authors claim that the impact of such movements should not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overstated. Assertions that the revivals led to the moral transformation of English society or served as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source for American nationalism which culminated in the War of Independence are considered to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unhelpful exaggerations \(p. 36\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three considers the growth of the movement from the watershed moment of William Wilberforce?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speech in the House of Commons demanding the abolition of the slave-trade to the 1840s. Wilberforce?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speech was emblematic of the evangelical desire, not only to save souls, but to transform society. Hence the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter is entitled ?Volunteering for the kingdom?, which reflects the activism which grew out of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evangelical conversion experience. It examines the growth of Methodism \(arguing that its growth was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curtailed in places like Scotland where the Reformed Protestant faith was integrated with a regional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity\), the emergence of premillennial eschatology and dispensational futurism \(making the necessary )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 317.6597 726.3655 331.6517 738.2455 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 544.9397 712.1095 558.9317 723.9895 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 118.6757 555.2935 132.6677 567.1735 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 365.9597 512.5255 379.9517 524.4055 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 369.2357 372.2215 389.2277 384.1015 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 346.9997 300.9415 366.9917 312.8215 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 54 0 R 57 0 R 60 0 R ] /Contents 52 0 R >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Length 8112 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctions between various strands of premillennial thought\), the triumph of evangelicalism within Ulster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterianism, the rise of Charles G. Finney?s brand of revivalism, evangelical commitment to education, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bible distribution, moral reform, and global mission. Some particularly noteworthy points raised in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter include the assessment of evangelical concern for Sunday observance. Dr Hutchinson and Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wolffe note that campaigns to legally enforce the observance of the Christian Sabbath might appear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oppressive to those who disagreed, but it must be kept in mind that such views reflected wider concerns for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the humanisation of industrial society \(p. 73\). As Andrew Holmes has pointed out in relation to the context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of industrial Ulster, ?[f]or many factory workers and other exploited groups, sabbatarianism offered a means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by which they could guarantee a day?s rest?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 248.624 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 248.624 681.027 m 268.616 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 268.616 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The authors also reject the view that evangelical missions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were always pretexts for advancing European imperialism. They maintain that, in certain cases, missionaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did seek to advance the cause of empire, but in other situations they could be very critical of colonialism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 538.604 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 538.604 652.515 m 558.596 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four, ?The kingdom enlarged and contested: 1840s to 1870s?, examines the period in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evangelicalism achieved unprecedented cultural dominance in the English-speaking world. Attention is paid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to key events such as the Disruption of the Church of Scotland in 1843, outbreaks of revival, the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Famine, the clash with Darwinism, and the American Civil War. It is helpfully pointed out that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evangelicals who opposed Darwin did so on the basis that his theories contradicted Baconian empiricism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Common Sense Realism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.024 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.024 554.979 m 175.016 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 175.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This, however, did not mean that they were opposed to science )] TJ ET BT 482.960 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per se)] TJ ET BT 511.952 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(pp )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(106?7\). The authors assessment of the Civil War in the United States properly recognises that abolition had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been a minority report among the Northern clergy prior to the commencement of the conflict, and that it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not until the war began that the majority of evangelicals in the North began to support coercive abolition \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(111\). The authors? argue that the overall failure of evangelicalism in this era to lead to the incremental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of society led not only to a swing towards premillennialism among evangelicals, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributed to a search for non-Christian millennial visions such as those advocated by Marx and Engels \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(113\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters five and six \(which cover the period between 1870 and 1945\) consider how evangelicalism adapted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in an age where nationalism became a quasi-religion. It was also an age in which the secular philosophies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures such as Friedrich Nietzsche and Sigmund Freud presented radical alternatives to traditional Christian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs. Important themes addressed include the Boer War, the First World War, the emergence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamentalism, the Great Depression and the Second World War. It is interesting that while the First World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War can be seen as a disaster for evangelicalism, with many potential leaders and adherents dying in battle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and others forsaking the churches in favour of secular socialism, the Second World War appears to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been accompanied by signs of religious revival in Britain with an increase in church-going and receptivity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Billy Graham?s preaching in the decade subsequent to the conflict \(p. 175\). One notable aspect of this period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the increased \(though probably subconscious\) emphasis on religion as a form of leisure. Evidence of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is seen the resemblances between C. H. Spurgeon?s Metropolitan Tabernacle in London and the theatre, D. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. Moody?s employment of the singer Ira Sankey in his evangelistic campaigns, the link between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keswick conventions and bourgeois concerns about rest and health, and Thomas Cook?s contribution to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organised tourism. Although it is also interesting to note that the authors? claim that sport and leisure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became a vehicle for secularisation in the long run \(p. 148\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven \(which covers the period from 1945 to the 1970s\) devotes considerable attention to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministry of Billy Graham, with analysis of his critique of communism as ?a religion that is inspired, directed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and motivated by the Devil? \(p. 182\), his political influence, calls for the abandonment of racial segregation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in American society, and his links with youth culture. Other themes addressed in this chapter include the rise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Christian schooling movement, the divergence between conservative evangelicalism \(as represented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Inter-Varsity Fellowship\) and fundamentalism, the resurgence of young-earth creationism, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between popular music and evangelicalism. The authors? draw attention to one of the ironies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the more recent history of evangelicalism is that while secularisation has increased in the West, the influence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of evangelicalism on mainstream Western Christianity has also increased \(p. 199\). Secularisation may, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore, ultimately transpire to have been good for the cause of evangelicalism as more formalistic variants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Christianity collapse. This appears to be true in the case of England, where in 2005 evangelicals )] TJ ET endstream endobj 53 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 248.6237 681.3415 268.6157 693.2215 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 538.6037 652.8295 558.5957 664.7095 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj [51 0 R /Fit] endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 155.0237 555.2935 175.0157 567.1735 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 65 0 R 68 0 R 71 0 R 74 0 R 77 0 R 80 0 R ] /Contents 63 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Length 8761 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprised 40 per cent of churchgoers as opposed to 30 per cent in 1989 \(p. 213\). Chapters eight and nine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider developments within evangelicalism at the end of the 20th century, noting the recent rapid advance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the movement in regions such as France, Latin America, Africa, and China. However, modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments have not all been positive for evangelicals. For instance, the shallowness of much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary evangelical theology \(if it exists at all\) and approaches to the doctrine of the church has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompted some evangelicals to convert to Eastern Orthodoxy in a quest for a deeper theology and a greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of ecclesiological belonging. How evangelicalism will adapt to cope with the challenges it faces in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global context remains to be seen.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reviewer found certain aspects of the analysis within the volume to be particularly strong. First, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction between evangelical voluntaryism and the Calvinist notion of a godly commonwealth is clearly a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sound one. Whereas the Reformed tradition called for a state-funded church and government intervention in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education and poor relief, evangelical voluntaryism rejected the notion of public assistance for the needy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?out of hand?. It believed that financial assistance for the destitute ?must never be the result of compulsory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exactions?, as the poor were to be left to the tender-mercies of the better-off.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.576 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.576 597.747 m 421.568 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 421.568 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( One of the strangest things )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that Thomas Chalmers, the champion of the godly commonwealth and the establishment principle, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocated such an approach. This is especially peculiar, because Chalmers? position involves a fundamental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(redefinition of what the Reformed originally meant by the establishment principle.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.304 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.304 554.979 m 450.296 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 450.296 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Second, the authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are correct to draw attention to the reality that there is no single evangelical response to socio-political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues, but a range of responses \(p. 114\). For example, the existence of an evangelical left in the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States, centred on individuals such as Jim Wallis, serves to correct the crude suppositions of ?secularist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideologues? who have ?tended to portray evangelical politics as universally conservative? \(p. 250\). Third, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they also correctly point out that not all variants of premillennialism automatically lead to quietism, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain forms of historical premillennialism have sought to create end-times communities in order to present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the church to Christ as a ?spotless bride? \(p. 115\). Fourth, the authors are more modest concerning the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth of Christianity in China than some. The claim that there are as many Christians in China as members )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Communist Party is rightly dismissed as an invidious comparison. As they point out, there are also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more politically conservative evangelicals in the United States than members of the Democratic Party, yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that did not stop Barack Obama being elected as president \(p. 227\). Likewise, even if Chinese evangelicals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do clearly overtake the Communist Party in terms of membership, they will still be a long way from being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dominant influence in the nation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are, nevertheless, a few places where the reviewer would dissent from the conclusions of the authors. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, the comment that evangelicalism in Ulster was ?initially limited to seceding groups? could be open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misunderstanding \(pp. 41?2\). It should be kept in mind that the Seceders, despite being unashamedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evangelistic, disciplined those who joined evangelical societies.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 339.980 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 339.980 300.627 m 359.972 300.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 359.972 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This, of course, raises the question of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether everyone who is evangelistic should be pigeon-holed as an evangelical. Second, the endeavours of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Free Church of Scotland in building over 700 new church buildings merely four years after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Disruption is described as ?a particularly striking manifestation of evangelical voluntaryism? \(pp. 66?7\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 535.940 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 535.940 257.859 m 555.932 257.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In one sense this is correct, because the Disruption Worthies had relinquished the resources of the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church. On the other hand, the use of the word voluntaryism in this context could create confusion. The Free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church had not \(in theory\) abandoned the principal of religious establishments and endowments. As Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chalmers put it, ?though we quit the Establishment, we go out on the Establishment principle ? we are the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advocates for a national recognition and national support of religion ? and we are not Voluntaries?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 509.252 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 509.252 186.579 m 529.244 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 529.244 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fairness, however, the authors do suggest elsewhere that the term voluntaryism can be used to describe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earnest activism and self-sacrificial giving \(p. 56\). Hence it is perhaps appropriate to employ this term to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describe the activities of the Free Church in the wake of the Disruption. Third, the authors? claim that D. L. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moody?s campaign in England, Scotland and Ulster built upon the memory of the 1859 Revival \(p. 123\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one sense this is correct, as revivalists thought that Moody was the instrument to usher in another year of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grace. However, in Ulster at least, some of Moody?s supporters hailed his revivalism precisely because it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was absent of the more spectacular outbursts of religious excitement that occurred in 1859.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.600 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.600 86.787 m 490.592 86.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 490.592 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Fourth, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would like to see more evidence to justify the claim that Tony Blair reinvented the British Labour Party in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order to win over evangelicals \(p. 249\). Although it seems reasonable to suppose that evangelicals and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 64 0 obj [62 0 R /Fit] endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 401.5757 598.0615 421.5677 609.9415 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 67 0 obj [62 0 R /Fit] endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 430.3037 555.2935 450.2957 567.1735 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 70 0 obj [62 0 R /Fit] endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 72 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 339.9797 300.9415 359.9717 312.8215 ] >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 73 0 obj [62 0 R /Fit] endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 535.9397 258.1735 555.9317 270.0535 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 76 0 obj [62 0 R /Fit] endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 78 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 509.2517 186.8935 529.2437 198.7735 ] >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 79 0 obj [62 0 R /Fit] endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 470.5997 87.1015 490.5917 98.9815 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 84 0 R 86 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R 92 0 R 94 0 R 96 0 R 98 0 R 100 0 R 102 0 R 104 0 R 106 0 R ] /Contents 83 0 R >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Length 10155 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christians in general would be attracted to centre-left socio-economic policies, as opposed to either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcherism or socialism, it would be interesting to find out if there is any hard evidence to justify such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumptions. Fifth, in discussing mega-churches, the authors? argue that many such churches hold views )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which put them beyond the pale of ?evangelical orthodoxy? \(p. 265\). Considering, however, that some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professed evangelicals consider views as radical as open theism to be viable options \(p. 266\), it is doubtful if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a thing as evangelical orthodoxy presently exists. Nevertheless, it is fair to say that )] TJ ET BT 458.960 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Short History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Global Evangelicalism)] TJ ET BT 144.344 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( achieves its purpose in providing the reader with an overview of worldwide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evangelicalism from its beginnings to the present. The book is very well written and interacts with the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent scholarly literature relevant to the time-periods under consideration. Owing to the fact that it is both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively brief a wide-ranging survey, not to mention the low price of the paperback edition, Dr Hutchinson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Professor Wolffe?s work would thus serve as a suitable text-book for those wishing to teach an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undergraduate module on the history of evangelicalism. It is perhaps only to be regretted that the publisher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not include a full bibliography, though the suggested further reading is still useful. Those looking for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solid introduction to the history of evangelicalism, as well as others with more specialist interests in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious history, will find that )] TJ ET BT 183.356 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Short History of Global Evangelicalism)] TJ ET BT 384.356 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( repays careful reading.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 561.987 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. P. Thompson, )] TJ ET BT 147.356 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the English Working Class)] TJ ET BT 348.692 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Harmondsworth, 1968\), pp. 385?440. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a thorough analysis of such theories see David Bebbington, )] TJ ET BT 371.648 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Religious Revivals: Culture )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Piety in Local and Global Contexts)] TJ ET BT 254.684 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2012\), pp. 21?52; Daniel Ritchie, review of)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian Religious Revivals: Culture and Piety in Local and Global Contexts)] TJ ET BT 438.680 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(review no. 1342\) <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1342>)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 472.947 m 294.428 472.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 297.428 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 311.420 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [accessed: 15 December, 2012].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.032 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.032 472.947 m 522.020 472.947 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 460.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Wolffe, ?The evangelical alliance in the 1840s: an attempt to institutionalise Christian unity? in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Church History 23: Voluntary Religion)] TJ ET BT 302.684 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. W. J. Sheils and Diana Wood \(Oxford, 1986\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 333?47; idem, ?Unity in diversity? North Atlantic evangelical thought in the mid-nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century? in )] TJ ET BT 120.668 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Church History 22: Unity and Diversity in the Church)] TJ ET BT 431.324 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. R. N. Swanson )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1996\), pp. 363?75.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 198.992 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 198.992 401.667 m 252.980 401.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 388.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Isaac Nelson, )] TJ ET BT 131.660 388.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavery Supported by the American Churches, and Countenanced by recent Proceedings )] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in the Free Church of Scotland. A Lecture Delivered at the request of the Free Church Anti-Slavery )] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Society)] TJ ET BT 98.672 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Edinburgh, 1847\), p. 14.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 223.328 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 223.328 358.899 m 277.316 358.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 346.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. W. Bebbington, )] TJ ET BT 158.012 346.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evangelicalism in Modern Britain: A History from the 1730s to the 1980s)] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1989\), pp. 2?17.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 189.668 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 189.668 330.387 m 243.656 330.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 317.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Ritchie, ?William McIlwaine and the 1859 Revival in Ulster: a study of Anglican and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evangelical identities? in )] TJ ET BT 186.332 303.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Ecclesiastical History)] TJ ET BT 344.660 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(forthcoming\); A. R. Holmes, ?The Ulster )] TJ ET BT 64.016 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revival of 1859: causes, controversies and consequences?, in )] TJ ET BT 361.952 289.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Ecclesiastical History)] TJ ET BT 520.280 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 63, 3 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(July 2012\), p. 505.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.012 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.012 273.363 m 212.000 273.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 260.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. O. Hatch, ?Response to Carl F. H. Henry?, in )] TJ ET BT 299.312 260.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evangelical Affirmations)] TJ ET BT 419.648 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. K. S. Kantzer and C. F. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H. Henry \(Grand Rapids, MI, 1990\), p. 97.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 269.648 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 269.648 244.851 m 323.636 244.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 231.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 231.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. G. Hart, )] TJ ET BT 120.668 231.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deconstructing Evangelicalism: Conservative Protestantism in the Age of Billy Graham)] TJ ET BT 64.016 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Paperback edn, Grand Rapids, MI, 2005\), p. 16.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 298.304 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 298.304 216.339 m 352.292 216.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 203.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 203.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid., p. 10.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 119.348 203.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 119.348 202.083 m 173.336 202.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 189.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. M. Marsden, )] TJ ET BT 143.336 189.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Understanding Fundamentalism and Evangelicalism)] TJ ET BT 396.992 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Grand Rapids, MI, 1991\), p. 1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 174.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 173.571 m 118.004 173.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 160.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 160.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jonathan Edwards, ?A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God, in the Conversion of Many )] TJ ET BT 64.016 146.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hundred Souls, in Northampton, and the Neighbouring Towns and Villages of New-Hampshire, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 132.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New-England; in a Letter to the Rev. Dr Colman, of Boston?, in )] TJ ET BT 374.984 132.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Works of President Edwards)] TJ ET BT 533.648 132.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(10 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 117.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vols, New York, 1830\), iv, pp. 120?1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 245.996 117.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 245.996 116.547 m 305.984 116.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 103.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 103.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An interesting case has been made for strong continuities between the Dutch Further Reformation and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 89.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18th-century evangelicalism in J. R. Beeke, ?Evangelicalism and the Dutch Further Reformation?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 75.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Emergence of Evangelicalism: Exploring Historical Continuities)] TJ ET BT 396.668 75.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. M. G. Haykin and K. J. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 60.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stewart \(Nottingham, 2008\), pp. 146?68.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 261.332 60.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 261.332 59.523 m 321.320 59.523 l S endstream endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 473.2615 294.4277 485.1415 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1342>) >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 87 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 468.0317 473.2615 522.0197 485.1415 ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 89 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 198.9917 401.9815 252.9797 413.8615 ] >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 91 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 223.3277 359.2135 277.3157 371.0935 ] >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 93 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 189.6677 330.7015 243.6557 342.5815 ] >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 95 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 158.0117 273.6775 211.9997 285.5575 ] >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 97 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 269.6477 245.1655 323.6357 257.0455 ] >> endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 99 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 298.3037 216.6535 352.2917 228.5335 ] >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 101 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 119.3477 202.3975 173.3357 214.2775 ] >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 39 0 R >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 103 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 173.8855 118.0037 185.7655 ] >> endobj 103 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 42 0 R >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 105 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 245.9957 116.8615 305.9837 128.7415 ] >> endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 45 0 R >> endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 107 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 261.3317 59.8375 321.3197 71.7175 ] >> endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 48 0 R >> endobj 108 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 110 0 R 112 0 R 114 0 R 116 0 R 118 0 R 120 0 R 122 0 R 124 0 R 126 0 R 128 0 R 130 0 R ] /Contents 109 0 R >> endobj 109 0 obj << /Length 6573 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A. R. Holmes, )] TJ ET BT 136.016 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Shaping of Ulster Presbyterian Belief and Practice, 1770?1840)] TJ ET BT 462.332 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2006\), pp )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75?6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 90.344 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 90.344 780.819 m 150.332 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See S. J. 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Holmes, ?Presbyterians and science in the north of Ireland before 1874?, )] TJ ET BT 465.260 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Journal for )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the History of Science)] TJ ET BT 169.664 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 41, 4 \(December 2008\), 547?8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 325.292 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 325.292 723.795 m 385.280 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 710.938 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bebbington, )] TJ ET BT 126.020 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Evangelicalism)] TJ ET BT 200.012 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 121. For the historic Reformed view of the link between social )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welfare and the establishment principle, see Martin Bucer,)] TJ ET BT 347.288 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Regno Christi)] TJ ET BT 431.288 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1550\) in )] TJ ET BT 481.616 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Library of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Christian Classics: Melanchthon and Bucer)] TJ ET BT 275.348 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Wilhelm Pauck\(Philadelphia, 1969\); ?The first )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helvetic confession \(1536\)?, trans. J. T. Dennison, in)] TJ ET BT 322.976 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reformed Confessions of the 16th and 17th )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(centuries in English Translation)] TJ ET BT 219.032 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. J. T. 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Brown, )] TJ ET BT 244.004 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Chalmers and the Godly Commonwealth)] TJ ET BT 481.004 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1982\), pp. 367?9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.340 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.340 566.979 m 208.328 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 554.122 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Acts & Proceedings of the Associate Synod of Ireland \(Antiburgher\))] TJ ET BT 391.652 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 29 July 1800 \(Public Record )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Office of Northern Ireland, Belfast, D/3815/D/4\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 301.292 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 301.292 538.467 m 361.280 538.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 525.610 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For more on the Free Kirk?s achievements in this regard, see S. 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