%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818063414+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818063414+01'00') /Title (Exploring European Frontiers: British Travellers in the Age of the Enlightenment) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4196 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Exploring European Frontiers: British Travellers in the Age of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Enlightenment)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward Daniel Clarke, the primary British Traveller considered in this book, asked his readers to consider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the purpose of travel; Brian Dolan, the author of this book, asks his readers to consider how and why people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(write about travel. The breadth of these questions and the ingenuity with which Dolan explores them make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book relevant and interesting to a broad spectrum of readers interested in the issues surrounding cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dolan believes that an examination of eighteenth-century travel writing will facilitate a deeper understanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of how and why notions of "central" and "peripheral" were and are created. He takes Said's conception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("Orientalism" in the creation of a "European" identity and brings it closer to home. That is, he asks how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much more problematic the process of identity construction was when the "Other" that eighteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travellers and their readers relied upon to construct their notions of "British" and "European" were not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mysterious dwellers of the "Far East," but rather "Westerners" who inhabited the northern, eastern, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern borderlands of "civilised Europe.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historiographically, the book is meant to serve as a bridge between Linda Colley's )] TJ ET BT 432.788 99.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britons)] TJ ET BT 468.128 99.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which showed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the eighteenth-century constituents of England, Wales, and Scotland forged both new national identities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a patriotic sense of "Britishness" through collective military and religious opposition to their European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbours, and John Brewer's )] TJ ET BT 184.484 56.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pleasures of the Imagination)] TJ ET BT 323.480 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which explained how a burgeoning commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(138)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 September, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Dolan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780333789873)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(232pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeffrey Brautigam)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7727 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture transformed the market for aesthetic and literary enterprise, marking the appearance of a modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("high culture" in British Society. Dolan attempts to connect the two by providing an account of how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century British grew familiar with and defined "modern Europe" through the exploration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluation of their neighbours cultural achievements. Towards these ends, the book explores the travel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience constructed by Edward Daniel Clarke as he travelled the borderlands of Europe in 1799-1801 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his patron and student John Marten Cripps.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dolan's decision to structure the book around Clarke's travel narratives seems a wise one. Clarke was, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dolan argues, "exemplary of the new, modern European traveller, travel writer, and pedagogue." Focusing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Clarke's work also give this book a compelling narrative structure, and it allows the reader a close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of the ways in which a single author constructed an "experience" of these different regions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Relying so heavily on a single author does, of course, cause some difficulties; or rather, it raises some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting questions. For example, it must be asked whether the narratives that Clarke constructed \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travel narratives in general\) were a major source for British understanding of their neighbours' culture, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether or not they were central to the process by which eighteenth-century Britons fashioned their sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity. Additionally, one might ask how Clarke's narratives differed from other eighteenth-century British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travel narratives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dolan answers the first of these questions to some degree by pointing out that recent scholarship has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established that "travel books, being part and parcel of allied subjects such as history and geography, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the most frequently read books in Georgian Britain." Secondly, travel writers were becoming central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures in the growing profession of letters, and Clarke's narratives were among the most successful of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing genre. By 1848, six editions of Clarke's )] TJ ET BT 269.492 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Travels)] TJ ET BT 305.492 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had been issued and he was often simply referred to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as "The Traveller." Dolan tackles the trickier question of whether travel narratives were central to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashioning of new British and European identities by first arguing that the events preceding and following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the revolutionary ferment of 1789 constituted \(like those preceding and following the events of 1989\) an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("identity crisis." That crisis, Dolan argues, in some ways contributed to, and in some ways was solved by, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift in "the direction of all sorts of scholarship in the eighteenth century." Specifically there was a shift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards comparative analysis as applied in all of the human and social sciences ranging from comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anatomy to political economy. By showing that the writing and consumption of eighteenth-century travel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature was situated in the context of that shift, Dolan persuades us to read Clarke's narratives as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiments in comparative cultural studies and, therefore, as episodes in the reconstruction of a British and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a European identity. Dolan partially answers the question of the particularity of Clarke's narratives by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself adopting the comparative method, comparing Clarke's narratives to a few relevant contemporaries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So what do we learn from )] TJ ET BT 161.324 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exploring European Frontiers)] TJ ET BT 307.988 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? First, as we follow Clarke north through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scandinavia, we learn that the northern countries, particularly Sweden, were used by Clarke to investigate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rise and fall of a culture's intellectual and political power. Here Dolan offers two interesting comparisons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to uncover what is shared and what is unique in Clarke's narratives. First he compares them to Mary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wollstonecrafts's )] TJ ET BT 119.828 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Letters written during a short residence in Sweden, Norway and Denmark )] TJ ET BT 478.484 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(published in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1796\) to show that while both Wollstonecraft and Clarke crafted a view of Scandinavia as a place where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climate and natural geography had a therapeutic effect on the culture, Clarke went on to include an analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the conditions necessary for a high level of cultural achievement. Specifically, Clarke turned his travel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative of Scandinavia into a tale of the rise and fall of a modern state, and into a study of the socio-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural conditions that contributed to that rise and fall.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To flesh out the finer points of Clarke's analysis, Dolan contrasts it with that of Thomas Robert Malthus. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malthus and William Otter \(both, like Clarke and Cripps, members of Jesus College, Cambridge\) had begun )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the trip with Clarke and Cripps, but they chose to go their own way soon after arriving in Scandinavia. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malthus was collecting statistical information in preparation for the second edition of his controversial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Essay on the Principle of Population)] TJ ET BT 211.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. So travel in Scandinavia was for Malthus, as for Clarke, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to refine and seek evidence for an existing political philosophy. Through this comparison we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learn that both Malthus and Clarke observed a correlation between the rise, in the seventeenth century, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fall, in the eighteenth century, of government involvement in the promotion of science and medicine and the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7245 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level of a country's political and intellectual power. Secondly, while Malthus and Clarke disagreed on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular effects of specific governmental policies and actions, both of them fashioned narratives in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travel through Scandinavia provided historical lessons regarding how enlightened theories might work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the making of a modern society. Specifically, Sweden seemed to prove \(in contrast to the revolution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the third estate in France\) that through proper state support, natural philosophers could provide useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information about, and bring order to, the natural resources upon which national economies relied. When )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patronage and opportunity flagged, so too did cultural achievement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Clarke's narrative moved further north into the still largely unexplored culture of the Lapps, a different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sort of boundary was explored. Here Clarke combined his observations with current debates about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linguistics, philology, and anthropology to fashion a view of the Lapps as "Asiatic in origin"--as a race of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("pigmies." Here Clarke found his boundary between the modern and the primitive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To eighteenth-century British travellers, Dolan argues, Russia represented the antithesis of Scandinavia; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead of a once-great civilisation in decline, Russia represented "a rapidly expanding empire, conquering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its northern, eastern and southern neighbours with apparent ease." Accordingly, travellers' exploration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia was guided by questions of whether Russia represented a threat to Western powers, and whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia could be counted amongst the enlightened nations of Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eighteenth-century reader interest in Russia was especially high since Russia was a rapidly emerging power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with an expanding empire, an ally against Napoleon, and an increasingly important trading partner. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia that readers of Clarke would experience was not a hospitable place. Clarke's account of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience in metropolitan Russia gave the Russian nobility and cosmopolitans low marks for manners and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conduct. During the five-years of Tsar Paul I's reign \(1796-1801\), Clarke became Britain's most outspoken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critic of Russia. Citing "the madness and malevolence of a suspicious tyrant," Clarke condemned "the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(villainy of the police, public reprimands, physical punishment, bribery and murder as standard elements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian life.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through a brief tour of the other available British travel narratives of Russia, Dolan establishes that, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century, "two broad perspectives [on Russia] emerge in British travellers' accounts. On the one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, Russian society was ostracised for its Asiatic barbarity in contradistinction to Western, Occidental, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and European civility.. On the other hand, some travellers admired its enlightened rulers who pushed though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massive reforms, imitated the West and created a society well along the respectable path 'towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilisation'." Clarke's narratives clearly contributed to the first perspective, and as he publicised the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antidemocratic, authoritarian practices of Paul, the more critical of the two perspectives became the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant one. Rural Russian culture came no closer to passing the Western test of civility. As Clarke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travelled out of metropolitan Russia and into the eastern and southern provinces, he found an "expanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population no more civilised than the Lapps." In sum, Clarke and his contemporaries measured civility on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progress in reproducing Western literature, classical scholarship and democratic reform; by this test, Russia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not seen as making much progress towards modernity. So much is clear from Dolan's analysis; what is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less clear is whether or not this fact made British readers more or less fearful of the Russian Empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the chapter on Greece and the Levant, Dolan takes a slightly different approach - and for good reason. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural context of British and European interest in the "ancient civilisations" of the southern Mediterranean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was much richer than for Scandinavia and Russia, and the political context was much more highly charged. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarke travelled through the southern Mediterranean during a high point in Anglo-French conflict there. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(March of 1801, British forces defeated the remains of Napoleon's army in Alexandria. In April of that year, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarke sailed from Rhodes to Egypt. The battles between the British and the French that were fought on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern shores of the Mediterranean marked a contested imperial frontier, and Dolan argues that British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travellers' "expeditions and endeavours [there] were likewise implicated in a type of archaeological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism." More specifically, Dolan argues that, in this context of imperial conflict, "both French and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British commentators chose to represent ancient civilisation in such a way as to show that they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectively the inheritors of the ancient principles of virtue, liberty and democracy." And that "narratives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the ancient lands were invoked to make associations between the civility of the ancients and the self-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5477 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined civility of modern imperial rulers." To illustrate his point, Dolan situates Clarke's travel narratives in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the context of the eighteenth-century efforts in both Britain and France to build national collections of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antiquities in the British Museum and the Louvre. Situated in this context, both the museum collections and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarke's narratives can be read as exercises in the "fashioning [of] a cultural identity that was highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically charged.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The concluding chapter looks at the reception given to Clarke and his fellow travellers on their return to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, and here Dolan establishes that Clarke was generally praised as an important traveller, collector, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(after 1810 when the first volume of his narratives finally came out\) writer. But what Dolan is really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in is the reception that Clarke received at Cambridge. Soon after his return to Cambridge, Clarke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to acquire academic prestige and honours. In 1803, the University Senate awarded him an LL.D. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Degree. In 1806, the new Vice-chancellor of the University and new master of Jesus College, William )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pearce, granted permission for Clarke to display the remainder of his minerals, marbles and oil paintings to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the public in a lecture room in the Botanic Gardens, and, more crucially, to give public lectures. Through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these lectures and exhibits, Dolan argues, a pedagogy in which students would "be empirically stimulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly by the artefacts" of the ancient world was created. In 1808, the Cambridge fellows gave official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanction and encouragement to this pedagogy by making Clarke 'Professor of Mineralogy's - a loosely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined post that included the charge to continue to "inspect classical tests, antiquarian artefacts and foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(customs." From these facts and an analysis of Clarke's demonstrations and lectures, Dolan argues that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represent "an alternative ideal for a 'liberal education'." As far as Clarke's work at Cambridge is concerned, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the argument seems to hold, but one might reasonably ask for more evidence as to just how "new" this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pedagogy was, and how significant Clarke and Cambridge were in propagating it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is surely true that humans are moved to travel, to write about travel, and to read travel narratives in part by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an urge to define themselves and their culture in contradistinction to some "Other." Taken together, the five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters of )] TJ ET BT 89.996 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exploring European Frontiers)] TJ ET BT 236.660 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provide interesting and important reading for anyone interested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the questions and issues involved in that process. While, )] TJ ET BT 307.664 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exploring European Frontiers)] TJ ET BT 454.328 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( offers no new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theoretical contributions, it does take those questions and issues to new and under-explored territories and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts. There is, of course, another obvious reason that people read travel literature; they are often simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in search of vicarious adventure. )] TJ ET BT 193.304 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exploring European Frontiers)] TJ ET BT 339.968 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( greatest success may lie in the fact that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tempts us, through the use of perhaps too few gems from Clarke's narratives, to pick up a volume or two of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarke's )] TJ ET BT 75.836 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Travels)] TJ ET BT 111.836 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and read them just for the fun of it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 313.807 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 296.027 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 296.027 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/138)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 294.633 m 322.316 294.633 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 269.656 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.256 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/756)] TJ ET BT 34.016 240.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 294.9475 322.3157 306.8275 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/138) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000665 00000 n 0000004913 00000 n 0000005022 00000 n 0000005132 00000 n 0000005241 00000 n 0000008802 00000 n 0000008930 00000 n 0000009014 00000 n 0000009079 00000 n 0000016859 00000 n 0000016924 00000 n 0000024222 00000 n 0000024306 00000 n 0000029836 00000 n 0000029964 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30059 %%EOF