%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150419194921+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150419194921+01'00') /Title (Popes and Antipopes: The Politics of Eleventh Century Church Reform) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4105 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Popes and Antipopes: The Politics of Eleventh Century Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Reform)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Stroll?s latest contribution to the history of the medieval papacy is a brave endeavour to illuminate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political factors the undergirded the successes and failures of the papal reform movement in the 11th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Stroll?s previous research has concentrated primarily on the effects of these reforms in 12th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical politics, and it is with an obvious sense of enthusiasm that she immerses herself in the 11th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century generative matrix of these later developments. The literature on the papal reform movement in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11th century is extensive and is written in several languages, and analysis of the primary sources is hindered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the many layers of polemic contained therein. Any attempt to synthesise both the primary and secondary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material is a monumental undertaking and Stroll?s contribution is commendable for attempting to make a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selection of this literature and debate accessible to a general English-reading audience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the outset Stroll explains that her study is to be differentiated from others by her efforts to emphasise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political positions of the various protagonists. Consequently her introduction explains that the book will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examine various geopolitical as well as personal factors that may have influenced the course of the reform. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More than an ideological investigation of the issues of simony and nicolaitism that lay at the heart of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform, Stroll wishes to concentrate on the )] TJ ET BT 241.316 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Realpolitik )] TJ ET BT 296.984 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind them. The structure of the book is hinted at by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1382)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 21 February, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Stroll)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9789004217010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(266pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brill)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leiden)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eimhin Walsh)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7893 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the title; it follows a chronological rsum of each pope and antipope from 1046 through to 1072.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Within the 15 chapters Stroll follows largely the same methodology. After a contextual introduction to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject matter of the chapter, various subheadings are offered. These generally enunciate Stroll?s reading of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the key primary sources, pointing out points of agreement and dissonance between the proponents and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opponents of reform. These summaries helpfully explain the content of the texts, but one is occasionally left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanting more critical context and analysis of their authors? positions. For instance, in chapter one the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relative reliability of the various sources is not discussed. Petrus Damiani?s letters, for example, provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more or less eyewitness accounts of events, while Bonizo of Sutri?s literary descriptions of the early reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement were written in the heat of the Investiture Contest of the late 1080s. Likewise, in chapter three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the re-creation of events relies on Amatus of Montecassino?s )] TJ ET BT 372.944 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the Normans)] TJ ET BT 485.948 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is not advised that the original text is lost and survives only in an Old French redaction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stroll?s analysis opens with a discussion of title )] TJ ET BT 266.684 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Patricius Romanorum)] TJ ET BT 373.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, by which Emperor Henry III claimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his right of authority over papal elections, and which led to the inauguration of the Reform Papacy after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Synod of Sutri in 1046. This theme governs the remainder of the book. Stroll details the changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentation of royal/imperial authority over the course of the reform. While in the 1040s the concept of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacral king, anointed to participate in the affairs of the church, was relatively unchallenged, the expansion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reform and the weakness of the German monarchy after the death of Henry III in 1056, caused this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept to fall into decline. The relationship between )] TJ ET BT 292.304 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Regnum )] TJ ET BT 334.628 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 354.956 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sacerdotium)] TJ ET BT 415.616 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was altered dramatically, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a new paradigm in how the secular authority related to the ecclesiastical dignity needed to be articulated. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stroll suggests, however, that personal and political ambitions were also responsible for the shifting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between the ?two powers?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stroll suggests that the exercise of imperial prerogative in installing bishop Suidger of Bamberg as Pope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clement II at Sutri in 1046, inaugurated the papal reform movement. Interestingly the first major reforming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(council, held in January 1047, was jointly presided over by the pope and the emperor, representing the unity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of empire and papacy. The second of the German popes, Damasus II, was also recruited from the imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapel. It was with Bruno of Toul, as Leo IX, that the reform movement began to develop impetus since Leo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lasted in post from 1049 to 1054. Leo established much of the infrastructure of the later reform such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lenten Councils and a chancery. Throughout his pontificate he continued as an imperial bishop and crossed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Alps on three occasions. These cordial relations were maintained under Victor II, Gebhard of Eichsttt, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who was pope when, in 1056, Henry III died. The death plunged the political affairs of the empire into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unchartered waters. Victor had been named as the protector of the boy-king Henry IV, but had also acquired )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial temporal duties as the guardian of the Duchy of Spoleto and March of Fermo. Thus, the pope was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well placed to play a political as well as spiritual role. While under a strong emperor the papacy had relied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the empire for its survival, under the weak regency, through the notional headship of the Empress Agnes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the papacy was in control of the empire; the balance of power had been reversed. Although this occurred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under Victor II, Stroll locates the pontificate of Stephen IX, born Frederick of Lorraine, as the moment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial change in direction, notably in the creation of new alliances for the papacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The power vacuum left by Henry III?s death led to multiple power plays where various factions exploited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the weakness of various institutions to maximise their own successes. The explorations of these geo-political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors are the most important elements of Stroll?s study. Within Rome the traditional dominance of the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobility like the Tusculani was threatened by the emergence of newer families such as the Pierleone and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frangiapani. The centrality of the bishopric of Rome for the reform movement was exploited by these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fledgling dynasties that allied themselves with the reformers during the schisms of antipopes Benedict X and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Honorius II. There was, however, resistance to the ?internationalisation? ? if such an anachronism may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used ? of the bishopric which had traditionally been dominated by local politics. Benedict IX is a case in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point; the Tusculani pope occupied the See of Rome on three separate occasions. The first schism which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stroll examines in detail is that of Benedict X from 1058 to 1059. This context is described in chapter five as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Romans versus reformers?. A faction of the Romans had acted swiftly to secure the election of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candidate before the reformers had a chance to elect Gerard of Florence as Nicholas II. The failure of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romans to secure \(even request\) imperial sanction for their candidate may have contributed to the failure of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7440 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benedict, and they did not make the same mistake again in 1061 when they requested imperial support for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cadalus of Parma, the antipope Honorius II. In any event, the efforts of the reformers to alter the papal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election protocols in 1059 took the papacy out of the local control of the Romans and placed it in the hands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the cardinalate, which was a trans-regional network of churchman generally \(but not always\) sympathetic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reform.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reformers assertion of a Roman basis for their movement was not universally accepted. Stroll details the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition of the Lombard episcopate to the attempted subjection of the Ambrosian Rite to Roman authority. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Lombard episcopate, she explains, felt a stronger identity as imperial bishops, rather than an allegiance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the bishop of Rome. The reformers support of the populist Patarini movement in Milan and enforced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjugation of the See to the Roman church enraged the Lombard episcopate which threw its weight behind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the antipope Cadalus of Parma who embodied the spirit of Lombard nationalism. Indeed, so strong was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support for Cadalus that even after he was decisively defeated at the Council of Mantua in 1064 he refused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to abandon his claims and continued to be recognised as pope in Parma and the surrounding area.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another significant political network was the emergence of a strong Norman infrastructure in southern Italy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having originally migrated to fight the Saracens, the Normans had taken root by the middle of the 11th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century and shown themselves to be a permanent fixture and a force to be reckoned with. The expansion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their holdings, however, was at the expense of the patrimony of St Peter. Leo IX?s effort to stop Norman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion ended with his defeat and capture at the Battle of Civitate in 1053. Stroll notes that the papal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objection to the Normans was largely influenced by the papal chancellor Frederick of Lotharingia, the future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen IX. Frederick?s brother, Godfrey duke of Lotharingia and, by marriage, margrave of Tuscany, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chief powerbroker in central Italy. The expansion of the Normans posed a direct threat to his House of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lotharingia/Canossa. In any event, )] TJ ET BT 204.656 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Realpolitik )] TJ ET BT 260.324 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated decision making under Nicholas II who, in 1059, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made peace with the Normans and created them as papal vassals, thus legitimizing their presence. Stroll )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes that this ?New Norman Policy? signalled a shift away from the traditional papal relationship with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire. The Normans, however, were not always reliable vassals, such as during the schism of Cadalus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the House of Lotharingia/Canossa came to rescue the reformers while the Normans were pursuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own preoccupations in the south.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The House of Lotharingia/Canossa provided a buffer zone between the empire to the north and the Normans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the south. The consolidation of these land holdings posed a threat to the empire. Stroll notes that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage of Godfrey to Beatrice of Canossa in 1054 led to Canossa holding ?Henry III in a pincer grip? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55\). Henry, in an effort to offset the growing influence of his rebellious vassal Godfrey, arranged the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage of his son Henry IV to Bertha of Turin thus creating an alliance of Savoy and Turin. He then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conferred on Victor II the Duchy of Spoleto and March of Fermo to prevent further expansion of Canossa. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His plan, however, backfired when Godfrey?s brother, Stephen IX, succeeded Victor II in 1057 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conferred the lands on Godfrey. Thus, the two brothers together controlled most of central Italy. The alliance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Canossa continued into the reign of Nicholas II, previously bishop of Florence in Tuscany. Godfrey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved a loyal advocate of the reformers during the schism of Cadalus, but Stroll points out that his stalwart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support can be explained by political necessity rather than ideological support for reform. The developing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship with the Normans from 1059 onwards threatened Godfrey?s position in Italy, which had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(safeguarded by the papacy. Godfrey?s ?energetic? defence of Alexander II was an attempt to demonstrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the papacy still needed him. His intervention reinforced his position in Italy. His efforts to secure his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position in Germany during the reign of Henry IV, however, show that Godfrey was backing away from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformers. In particular Stroll highlights how his association with Cadalus while on an imperial legation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1068 testifies to the fragility of the alliance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The weakness of the regency provided ample space for exploiting personal interests. Stroll details the effect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the abduction of the boy king Henry IV at Kaiserswerth in 1062. She convincingly argues that the transfer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of influence in the regency to archbishop Anno of Cologne changed the direction of the schism of Cadalus. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anno?s eventual support of Alexander II at Mantua realigned the two powers and paved the way for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial coronation by the hands of the pope. However, when Henry reached his majority at Easter 1065 he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sidelined Anno in favour archbishop Adalbert of Bremen. Adalbert?s opposition to the papal reform )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7107 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement is offered as the explanation for the German court?s abandoning its plans for an expedition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rome for an imperial coronation. Stroll suggests that by consenting to receive the imperial crown Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would implicitly recognise Alexander?s claims. She argues that these events highlight continued instability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after Mantua. It also illustrates a shift in the political landscape: in 1046 Henry III needed a pope to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimate his imperial authority, in 1066 the pope needed a king to legitimate his papal authority. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between )] TJ ET BT 136.664 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum)] TJ ET BT 173.324 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 196.652 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sacerdotium )] TJ ET BT 258.980 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not just ideological but was influenced by political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contingencies. Stroll?s comprehensive overview of this complex web of fragile alliances emphasises the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various parties? political motivations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stroll provides an analysis of the sources describing papal elections from Sutri to 1072. She describes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(method of election, highlighting how Henry III was presented with the )] TJ ET BT 375.968 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Patricius Romanorum )] TJ ET BT 485.300 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families in 1046 and that this title governed his involvement in subsequent elections. She outlines how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delegations of Romans requested an appointment from the empire in the cases of Damasus II, Leo IX and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibly, Victor II. The imperial mandate appears to have been of critical importance, as the case of antipope )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benedict X demonstrated. The reliance on primary sources could be seen as problematic to this assessment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as one must attempt to sift through the many layers of polemic that colour them. Nevertheless the exegesis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of papal elections helps to illustrate the operation of the )] TJ ET BT 303.980 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum )] TJ ET BT 343.640 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? )] TJ ET BT 351.968 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sacerdotium)] TJ ET BT 411.296 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( relationship in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform papacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stroll explains how matters changed in 1059 with the introduction a new canonical system governing papal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elections. The weakness of the regency necessitated new canonical procedures since the strong empire had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played such a significant part in recent elections. While the ostensible purpose was to prevent the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domination of elections by local interests, Stroll?s analyses of the role that Hildebrand, the future Gregory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(VII, played in the election of both Nicholas II and Alexander II shows that the archdeacon came to be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominant influence on elections.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(She offers an unusual take on the debate concerning the two texts of the decree. The scholarly consensus is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the papal version, which asserts the priority of the cardinal bishops and offers a more ambiguous degree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of involvement to the king, is the authentic decree and the imperial version, which ascribes a greater role to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the king and less to the cardinal bishops, is a later edition. This consensus has existed since before Detlev )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japser produced an exhaustive study of the decree in 1986. Stroll argues against this consensus by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrating a minor hole in Jasper?s thesis, but her subsequent argument that the scholarship of the 16th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Augustinian Panvinius demonstrates the priority of the imperial version could be accused of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throwing out the baby with the bath water. Stroll notes that some scholars disagree with Jasper but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonetheless accept the priority of the papal version, but, with the exception of a brief treatment of H. E. J. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cowdrey, she does not elaborate on the other arguments that support its priority. Although Stroll clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believes the imperial version is earlier she does admit that ?questions continue? \(p. 106\). Her account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decree is likely to be one of the more controversial elements of the book. The debate is quite complex, and it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been helpful to have the two texts reproduced for ease of comparison.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall Stroll?s book will be a useful textbook to students of the period. There are, however, two notable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omissions which, from the title, one would expect to be addressed. There is almost no discussion of 11th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century church reform before 1046. The role of the papacy in promoting reform in Cluny was surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced by political factors but it is not addressed. Neither is there any substantial discussion of Clement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(III, who was elected antipope in 1080 and displaced Gregory VII from Rome. As such the book is less than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the definitive study of the politics of 11th-century church reform. Nevertheless, in the topics it does discuss, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it manages to bring to life divergent opinions and political standpoints while maintaining an exciting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 118.735 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 100.955 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 100.955 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1382)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 99.561 m 328.316 99.561 l S endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 99.8755 328.3157 111.7555 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1382) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 226 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/50724)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000577 00000 n 0000000659 00000 n 0000004816 00000 n 0000004925 00000 n 0000005035 00000 n 0000005144 00000 n 0000008705 00000 n 0000008833 00000 n 0000008917 00000 n 0000008982 00000 n 0000016928 00000 n 0000016993 00000 n 0000024486 00000 n 0000024570 00000 n 0000031730 00000 n 0000031857 00000 n 0000031953 00000 n 0000032018 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 32296 %%EOF