%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221032327+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221032327+00'00') /Title (Patriotism and Propaganda in First World War Britain: the National War Aims Committee and Civilian Morale) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4020 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Patriotism and Propaganda in First World War Britain: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(National War Aims Committee and Civilian Morale)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this fine monograph, based almost entirely on his PhD thesis, David Monger assesses the propaganda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities of the National War Aims Committee \(NWAC\) during the First World War, a focus which has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already been supplemented by a number of journal articles in the last few years, relating to propaganda, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilian and servicemen's morale during this period. Though much consideration has been given to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic efforts to produce 'general' propaganda during the initial stages of the war by the likes of Sanders, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taylor, and Haste, as well as the efforts of Wellington House to influence public opinion abroad, little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic attention has been paid to the work of the NWAC during the course of its existence. This is despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it being an organisation that, in the last 15 months of the war, held thousands of meetings across Britain, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(top of distributing over 100 million publications.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first instance, Monger states that, at the basic level, the NWAC was a cross-party parliamentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation, similar to that of the earlier Parliamentary Recruiting Committee \(PRC\), which was established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to conduct propaganda within Britain, aimed at maintaining civilian morale in the last and most draining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months of the war \(p. 1\). In addition to detailing the activities of the NWAC and its impact, Monger seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(answer two wider questions: namely, what is the significance of the NWAC?s evocation of patriotism for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1383)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 20 February, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Monger)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781846318306)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(70.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liverpool)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Butler)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7750 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general understandings of patriotism and national identity in Britain and what does the NWAC?s story )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest about the war?s impact on British society and culture? As will be demonstrated throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of this review, he does this rather successfully, as the same time as detailing and scrutinising other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key aspects of this topic with confidence. This is done by splitting the book up into three parts. Firstly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development and the organisation of the NWAC are discussed within the context of British public opinion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the campaigns on the Somme in July 1916. Secondly, the types of propaganda that were produced are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examined, and this includes the different formats in which this propaganda was presented, along with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many, wide-ranging, themes covered by the work of NWAC propagandists. Importantly, the broader context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of British national identity is outlined in order to place the work of the organisation into the wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical debates surrounding national identity during the 19th and early 20th century. Finally, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of the NWAC both during and after the war is assessed, together with the responses of parliament, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressure groups and at a local level \(largely with reference to reactions by local newspapers ? 68 local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers have been consulted in total\). Crucially, although the work itself is set out into these three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinct parts, Monger ably ties them together, giving the thesis a natural flow and a logical direction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first task ahead of Monger was to outline the creation and mechanisms in which the NWAC operated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from its inception in mid-1917 and, in doing this, he seeks to dispel the view, put forward by Brock Millman )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 554.979 m 48.008 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that the propaganda of the NWAC had a ?secret repressive agenda?. Initially privately funded, but later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given funding by the Cabinet, the NWAC was able to use a variety of modes to disseminate propaganda, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as hiring local public speakers, holding meetings, setting up mobile cinemas, and producing written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material, both as pamphlets and for the press. These activities, particularly the public meetings in whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power and importance there was an ?almost devotional faith?, were carried out near factories, in rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(districts with perceived anti-war feeling, in military camps, and towards women, ultimately covering a large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proportion of the population \(pp. 42?3\). Monger sees it as important that this organisation was closely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with its predecessor, the PRC \(including a close parallel of personnel\), and also that it was an all-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party organisation, with much of the work being turned over to the local Conservative, Liberal and Labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Party machines, meaning that any question of party politics coming into play was dispelled. To Monger, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of central organisation with local knowledge meant that the NWAC could be more flexible and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locally responsive in its campaign, and the principle of local involvement meant that propaganda was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imparted to, rather than imposed upon, the public \(p. 63\). This is an important point, particularly in the light )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of previous failures to adapt propaganda dissemination to local circumstances, most notably in areas such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland \(which had a unique position within this context anyway\). It also shows a recognition of differing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances and motivations within urban and rural areas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In all, using the NWAC?s card index \(from records held at TNA\), Monger establishes that a total of 344 War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aims Committees were established, out of a total of 528 constituencies or regional areas \(p. 69\). With this in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind, he categorises these into a number of ?types? \(urban, mainly middle-class; urban, mixed class; urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainly working-class; urban/rural; mining\), demonstrating that local mechanisms were present in all of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?types? of areas during the course of the NWAC's existence \(pp. 70?3\). It is from these classifications, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as a further regional breakdown of North, Midlands/Wales, and London/South, that the selection of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case studies for further scrutiny and supporting evidence, were chosen. A total of 30 constituencies were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selected to provide the basis as case studies, decided upon by the calculation of proportions of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categories mentioned above, meaning that ten case studies were used for each region. It is with these case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies that a minor criticism might be cited, specifically that case studies of 30 constituencies out of a total )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 344, a little under 10 per cent, does not quite seem an adequate enough sample to be fully confident that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fair coverage has been given across the board. Having said that, the risk that any major conclusions or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis might have been missed due to this relatively small sample is low. Furthermore, the specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituencies are listed in an appendix \(pp. 275?8\), along with their respective party affiliations, and it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear from this that a fair representation of areas has been considered. In a sense, all of the ?bases? have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covered within the sample, especially with regard to the different classifications used, so as to be able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate responses to this propaganda from a cross-section of British society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second part of Monger?s work is perhaps the most important, as it analyses the imagery and oratory )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 555.2935 48.0077 567.1735 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7481 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used to convince the British public to continue to support the war. Monger seeks to identify the ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure of NWAC propaganda, and determines that the core narrative of the NWAC?s message revolved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around patriotic duty. This included a ?three-pronged? mixture, combining ?civic patriotism?, suffused with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rhetoric of ?sacrificial patriotism?, with an evocation of what he terms ?concrescent community?, growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together through shared sacrifice and acceptance of duty \(p. 86\). Monger asserts that there was nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatly original about the types of patriotic ideas and imagery as used by the NWAC, that the theme of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire was featured frequently within this propaganda, and that the propagandists working for the NWAC )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified several adversaries, both foreign and domestic, rather than ?a single, over-arching ?other? against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which to test British identity \(pp. 89?91\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crucially, what Monger affirms is that the NWAC utilised traditional propaganda methods and themes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present their goals, and points to the primacy of religious \(i.e. Christian\) imagery within their presentation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whilst also linking the continuities of this within representations of propaganda in France, Germany, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia during the 19th century \(pp. 101?2\). This is then taken further with an interesting, and contextual, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the theories of ?communities? and ?identity?, put forward by the likes of Peter Mandler and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Vickers in existing historiography on this subject \(pp. 103?5\), which assist in demonstrating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NWAC?s representations of ?Britishness? within their propaganda.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is then asserted that NWAC propaganda was represented in four crucial forms which sought to articulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the core message of patriotic duty, whilst conjointly conveying the idea of British identity. Firstly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of the presentation of adversaries at home and abroad is carried out. Importantly, it is established )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this ?adversarial patriotism? did not, and was not intended to, define British identity, but rather to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlight possible threats to it \(pp. 138?9\), including, most obviously, the threat of Germany, and to a much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lesser extent Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, but also highlighting the threat of pacifists and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strikers within British society. Secondly, the civilizational principles, or \(as Monger labels them\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?supranational patriotisms?, which celebrated Britain?s similarities with, and differences from, its allies are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed, particularly in relation to the USA, France, and the white Dominions \(p. 140\). This includes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(details of the celebration of ?France Day? on 12 July 1918, in which the tricolore was flown and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marseillaise was played in public places. He determines that ultimately ?in claiming that the war was fought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on behalf of civilisation, NWAC propaganda sought to elevate it above matters of national interests and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power politics, recognising that ? they were inappropriate for maintaining civilians? emotional investment in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a physically and mentally draining total war? \(p. 154\). Thirdly, what Monger sees as the narrative core of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NWAC propaganda is discussed, namely the presentation of ?patriotisms of duty?. This revolved around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(message that the British people not only had a particular national identity, but were duty-bound to maintain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it \(p. 169\). It is within this that Monger refers back to his idea of a ?three-pronged mixture? of civic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriotism, sacrificial patriotism, and concrescent community, creating the core message of duty. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believes, as it was a flexible concept, it was capable of use as an instrument of moral and emotional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blackmail, by stressing the sacrifices of servicemen, while also creating a communal tie between the civilian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and soldier by emphasising a common willing sacrifice \(p. 196\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The forth form of presentation used by NWAC propagandists was that of promises for the future, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?aspirational patriotism?, and this section of Mongers? work deserves a more detailed review. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established that the content of the propaganda ?prophesied a more harmonious and equitable society in post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war Britain, extending rhetoric about the social ameliorations already stimulated by the war?. Furthermore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues such as reconstruction, social and electoral reform, class and gender harmonisation ?were all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented as rewards for the patient wartime services and sacrifices of servicemen and civilians, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implicit corollary that any calls for such improvements before peace were selfish and short-sighted? \(p. 199\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this assessment Monger is correct, what is perhaps lacking within this section, however, is a contextual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of this form of propaganda, as displayed in previous chapters. In particular, it is not discussed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether a similar presentation was used in the propaganda of other counties, especially that of France, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(USA, or even within the Empire. This might establish, and further support, the notion that NWAC )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda was largely unoriginal, following standard patterns of representation. An additional comparison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might also have been carried out in relation to visions of the future displayed in the propaganda of agencies )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 5382 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Second World War. In particular, the activities of the Army Bureau of Current Affairs \(ABCA\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have been discussed, given the widely held view that the many promises of the future \(especially the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of a welfare state\) put forward in its propaganda, contributed, at least in a small part, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Labour Party election victory in 1945. Perhaps, in this particular section of the book, it was not the place to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discuss this kind of outcome, but certainly would have had some place in the final section of the book, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looks at the impact of the NWAC.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The impact of the NWAC is discussed by Monger in two different strands. The response of Parliament, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressure groups, and the national press is at first outlined. It is summarised that ?notwithstanding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally agreed importance of maintaining civilian morale, the existence of a publicly funded body )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended to persuade civilians to act and think in certain ways offered troubling possibilities of future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploitation?, or a premium on corruption \(p. 217\). Critics of the NWAC maintained that its establishment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a shambolic failure, while the press often portrayed general indifference, with occasional criticism of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly poor work. As Monger points out, however, these critics, paradoxically, demonstrated concern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about its influence, above all during the general election campaign \(p. 240\). Within this, the Committee was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also deemed to be an official organ, supporting the interests of the Coalition Government but \(as Monger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates throughout much of his work\) it was actually able to keep away from party politics for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority of its existence. Secondly, the impact of the NWAC at a local and individual level is assessed, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is here that Monger demonstrates that the Committee had its most important outcome. Primarily, what the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NWAC did, according to Monger, was to maintain a presence in small communities, linking them with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation by reminding them of issues outside of their immediate horizon \(p. 267\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ultimately, it is established that the perception of First World War propaganda is one centred on the cynical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manipulation of the public by the state, and that this has encouraged equally cynical interpretations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda \(p. 273\). What Monger does successfully in his study is to look at the NWAC and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda within the context of the period, whilst also contextualising it into a wider understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriotism and identity within the early 20th century, demonstrating that the sentiments expressed within this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda were considered valid and meaningful by large sections of the population at this time \(p. 274\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monger has been able to shed important light on a crucial propaganda organisation, existing during the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months of the war when the maintenance of morale had become so important, and successfully presents this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a fashion that would interest anyone concerned with the employment of propaganda in the early part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.147 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brock Millman, )] TJ ET BT 143.684 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Managing Domestic Dissent in First World War Britain)] TJ ET BT 412.688 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 494.012 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 494.012 292.131 m 548.000 292.131 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 276.799 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 259.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 259.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1383)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 257.625 m 328.316 257.625 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 232.648 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.248 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/50728)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 494.0117 292.4455 547.9997 304.3255 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 257.9395 328.3157 269.8195 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1383) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000608 00000 n 0000000690 00000 n 0000004762 00000 n 0000004871 00000 n 0000004981 00000 n 0000005090 00000 n 0000008651 00000 n 0000008779 00000 n 0000008863 00000 n 0000008947 00000 n 0000016750 00000 n 0000016780 00000 n 0000016906 00000 n 0000016942 00000 n 0000017007 00000 n 0000024541 00000 n 0000024632 00000 n 0000030067 00000 n 0000030195 00000 n 0000030250 00000 n 0000030378 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30474 %%EOF