%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819021710+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819021710+01'00') /Title (To Follow in their Footsteps: the Crusades and Family Memory in the High Middle Ages) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1875 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(To Follow in their Footsteps: the Crusades and Family Memory in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(the High Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1384)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 28 February, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas Paul)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(368pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cornell University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ithaca, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guy Perry)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7991 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main charateristic of Crusade studies in the post-Runciman era has been expansion and diversification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(much like the crusading ?movement? itself\). One of many new ways into the topic is to focus on how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusades and crusading were received, understood and interpreted by different social groupings. Perhaps the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most interesting of these groupings, naturally enough, is the Latin aristocracy, the military backbone of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement. In the English-speaking world, at least, the key work in shaping the nature of this particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate has probably been Marcus Bull?s seminal )] TJ ET BT 271.640 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Knightly Piety and the Lay Response to the First Crusade)] TJ ET BT 548.636 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 697.539 m 48.008 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But there are many other contributions that one could list ? for instance, by Jonathan Riley-Smith, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Purkis, and so on and so forth. In )] TJ ET BT 238.340 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(To Follow in their Footsteps)] TJ ET BT 375.692 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Nicholas Paul aims to tackle a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental question head-on: how aristocratic ?family memory? of the Crusades was constructed, and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expose the variety of forces that went into creating, shaping and transmitting it. A chief strength of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the range of unusual elements that, he discovers, fed into this: from the impact of tangible memorials of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusades, to the paramount importance of possession of crusader remains, to the characteristic role of women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as repositories of ?family memory?. \(Women, it seems, have been the ?kin-keepers? ? the ones who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remember to send out the birthday cards ? for a very long time.\) From such a broad diversity of sources ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, it has to be said, some of this looks distinctly unpromising at the start of the book! ? Paul paints a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling picture of aristocratic beliefs and culture in relation to the Crusades.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It has long been recognized that dynastic traditions and kinship ties were crucial in shaping aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses to the call to crusade. The book shows how such traditions were created, reshaped and transmitted, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both to the noble family in question and to the wider world. Paul demonstrates conclusively that individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families? traditions of crusades and crusading were as ?constructed? as any other form of collective memory. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And the process by which such memories were fashioned, reformulated and conveyed was a profoundly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological one. There is much more to it than a given dynasty?s desire for prestige or renown, or even for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the aura of holiness that crusading could bring with it. Having an ancestor or ?avatar? as a crusader could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well lumber his family with the desire ? or even the obligation ? to live up to his reputation and standing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which could be done most effectively by fighting for the same sacred cause. Paul is particularly strong on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(atmosphere of heightened rhetoric about good and bad knights ? the celebrated )] TJ ET BT 415.268 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(militia)] TJ ET BT 446.612 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(/)] TJ ET BT 449.948 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(malitia)] TJ ET BT 483.956 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( pun ? which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was doing the rounds in the late 11th and early 12th centuries. There is surely much more to say, though, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about how far this rhetoric shaped activity, and how far it was a purely literary trope.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul suggests that it was women, in particular, who bore the burden of commemorating the crusading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitments and achievements of their menfolk. That said, his favourite example, St Elisabeth of Thuringia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(whose image appears on the cover\), represents a rather extreme case. Paul stresses that medieval aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(families were not simply a strictly ?lineal sequence of male lords? \(p. 16\). Rather, the medieval sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family could be much more fluid and inclusive than that, incorporating members, quite happily, from a range )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of connected branches. It is worth stressing the importance that women could have in this respect.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, of course, how ancestors were seen was not solely the preserve of the family in question. Physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objects often served as powerful local reminders of the ?pull? of crusades and crusading to society at large. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, as might be expected, Paul trots out the usual discussion of relics, but he goes much further than this. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The range of ?other trophies? he has discovered is fascinating: an exotic topaz presented to St Thomas at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canterbury, a prized Arab steed in Fife, a range of rings from Jerusalem and Constantinople ? and the list )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goes on \(pp. 103?10\). Such spoils of war were often received and displayed by clergy with impressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceremonial. One of the most remarkable case studies explains how King Fulk of Jerusalem allegedly sent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back an object called an ?ivory )] TJ ET BT 185.972 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(tau?)] TJ ET BT 207.308 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(?thau eboreum?\) to the canons of Saint-Laud at Angers, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instructions on how to use it \(pp. 125?8\). In many ways, of course, the best artefacts of all were the actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodies of crusader forebears \(and here Paul neatly dismisses the strangely persistent myth that crossed legs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a tomb signifies a crusader\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul is at his best, though, when he turns to commemoration in the form of writing history: a field in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monastic authors were so prominent. The secular and cloistered spheres are often considered very separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(in part, a legacy of the ecclesiastical reform movement\), but Paul shows just how closely linked they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually were. This brings us back to the old idea of Cluny as an ultimate expression of aristocratic values, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 697.8535 48.0077 709.7335 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7516 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for all that it proclaimed its independence and difference from them. Paul is right to emphasize that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monasteries were as involved in discourse about custom and tradition as they were about sin, punishment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and redemption. Perhaps his most fascinating idea, though, is the notion that the ?social memory? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusaders, in the form of written texts, was gradually overtaken by the ?chivalric imagination? \(pp. 83?9\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul does not miss his opportunity to mention the obvious example: that is, how the legend of the Swan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knight came to overshadow the far more fascinating career of Godfrey of Bouillon.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is divided into two parts. The first is labelled ?Family Memory: Form and Function?, but it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually far more comprehensive than this. Moving on from his introduction, Paul looks, by turns, at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of crusader ancestors \(chapter one\); how memories were shaped by being written and re-written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapter two\); and the role of physical remains \(above all, noble bodies and what happened to them\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapters three and four\). In the fifth chapter, Paul looks back on the curious fact that many aristocratic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pilgrims were later refashioned in the guise of proto-crusaders, and a variety of tales sprang up around them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In many ways, this is the most interesting chapter of the book, but it is also the only one that does not hang )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together particularly well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This first section is, beyond any doubt, the heart of the book. Almost all of the key ideas are enunciated here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and we move clearly from theme to theme. The first section is illuminated with a remarkable range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples, and some particularly effective case studies. Fulk of Anjou?s ?tau? has already been mentioned. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book also introduces us to Gouffier I of Lastours. An almost completely forgotten figure today, he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hero at Ma?arrat an-Nu?man in 1098, and a crusading exemplum )] TJ ET BT 367.268 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(par excellence)] TJ ET BT 436.904 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the early 12th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. There is also a particularly fine section devoted to crusading ?souvenirs in context? at the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter three \(pp. 128?33\). In it, the well-worn story of the Young King?s revolt against his father, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1182?3, is told in an exhilarating new way, through means of the crusading memorabilia scattered around )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Limousin. No less enjoyable is the scatalogical story of Fulk Nerra on pilgrimage in 1035 \(which I will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not describe further, here, so as not to offend any delicate readers\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, the book as a whole is littered with interesting ideas. Building on the work of James Naus, Paul )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows us how quickly the Capetians moved to ally themselves, through marriage, with the new First Crusade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroes. Paul is equally good, if not better, on a perennial problem that faced Anglo-Norman historians of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusades in the 12th century. Robert Curthose was, on the one hand, the greatest Anglo-Norman figure in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusading movement before Richard the Lionheart. On the other hand, though, Robert?s memory reminded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyone of rival claims to the Anglo-Norman )] TJ ET BT 259.640 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regnum)] TJ ET BT 296.300 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that Henry I had suppressed. Paul offers us an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascinating whistle-stop tour of the process by which various 12th-century chroniclers tried to fudge the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem ? with only a limited degree of success, despite the best efforts of William of Malmesbury, Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Huntingdon, Wace and Benot of Sainte-Maure. In fact, by the end of the first section of his book, Paul is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the edge of a remarkable question: why some aristocrats )] TJ ET BT 321.956 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did not )] TJ ET BT 358.628 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take the cross, despite ? in some cases ? a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable pressure of ?family memory? bearing down on them, driving them towards doing so.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naturally, there are some weaknesses too. Some of the examples and asides are good; others are not so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(useful. To some extent, the book is ?bulked out? with extra details that do not advance the basic thesis all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that much. Attention could be drawn here, in particular, to part two: that is, to the case studies devoted to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Angevin, King Henry II of England, and to King Alfonso II of Aragn. Paul admits that these are ?special )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases? \(p. 18\), and he is right to stress that their common features make them all the more easily comparable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But perhaps it would have been better to select two more dissimilar figures when choosing case studies. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more varied aristocratic duo could have illustrated, in a much better way, the main points that Paul wants to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make in this book. A final and more serious complaint is the comparative neglect of crusades and crusading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 13th century, and later, in the book as a whole. Paul almost concedes this point when, at the end, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses the changes that were taking place in around 1200. But in a book that has ?High Middle Ages? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its title, one would have hoped for something a little less ?12th-century-centric?. However, it has to be said )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this is a problem in Crusade studies more broadly, and this charge is not directed against Paul?s work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alone.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul writes both well and engagingly, and some of his phrases stick in the mind. For example, ?whether the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 2763 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scene was set at the siege of Antioch in 1098, Almera in 1147, or Acre in 1190, the crusade provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universally established contexts, as recognizable as Roncevaux, for the establishment of a legacy of honor in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the increasingly competitive and exclusive cultural world of nobility? \(p. 74\). The book is well presented, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly laid out, and has a thorough index. Maps and genealogies are provided at the pertinent points in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text. There are four appendices in total. The first and second briefly list the relevant dynastic narratives that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contain references to crusades and crusading, and which can be found within local and monastic chronicles. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third and fourth provide a description and transcription of particular documents used in the case study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alfonso of Aragn.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The real achievement of this book is not so much that it is the ?last word? on aristocrats and the Crusades. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather, in the sheer variety of the themes that it tackles, it broadens scope for discussion of this crucial issue. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul?s book may well follow in Marcus Bull?s footsteps, and set the agenda for the ?next generation? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation into the topic. That is no mean achievement for the author?s first book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.755 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marcus Bull, )] TJ ET BT 129.680 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Knightly Piety and the Lay Response to the First Crusade)] TJ ET BT 406.676 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 485.324 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 485.324 560.739 m 539.312 560.739 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 545.407 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 527.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 527.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1384)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 526.233 m 328.316 526.233 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 501.256 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 486.856 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/51674)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 485.3237 561.0535 539.3117 572.9335 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 526.5475 328.3157 538.4275 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1384) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000587 00000 n 0000000669 00000 n 0000002596 00000 n 0000002705 00000 n 0000002815 00000 n 0000002924 00000 n 0000006485 00000 n 0000006613 00000 n 0000006697 00000 n 0000006781 00000 n 0000014825 00000 n 0000014855 00000 n 0000014981 00000 n 0000015017 00000 n 0000015082 00000 n 0000022651 00000 n 0000022742 00000 n 0000025558 00000 n 0000025686 00000 n 0000025741 00000 n 0000025869 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 25965 %%EOF