%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140801185946+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140801185946+01'00') /Title (Abolition and Empire in Sierra Leone and Liberia) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4755 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Abolition and Empire in Sierra Leone and Liberia)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The past year has seen an embarrassment of riches for those interested in the history of slavery and abolition. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The complexity of connections between the British Empire and anti-slavery have come to the fore-front, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while in the US the cinema releases of )] TJ ET BT 221.312 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lincoln)] TJ ET BT 257.984 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 281.312 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Django Unchained)] TJ ET BT 372.968 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have launched a new popular interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the legacies of North American slavery and abolition.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 303.632 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 303.632 229.161 m 317.624 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 317.624 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A new volume on the origins of international law )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the abolition of the slave trade highlighted the transnational nature not only of the humanitarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements, but also of government activity and pro-slavery lobbying.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 371.984 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 371.984 200.649 m 385.976 200.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 385.976 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The history of the abolition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement has benefited from the ?new imperial history? approach, which takes empire and colony in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?single analytical field?, first proposed in 1951 by George Balandier, but elucidated and popularised in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent years by Catherine Hall, Ann Laura Stoler and Frederick Cooper, among others. These ?new imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories? have intersected with some of the preoccupations of identity politics, producing interest in how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas about race, class and gender were constructed in empires.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The publication of )] TJ ET BT 125.672 104.507 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Abolition and Empire)] TJ ET BT 229.676 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which takes a comparative approach to the colonisation schemes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 19th?century British and American abolition movements, is therefore timely, and this detailed archival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study fits well into this landscape. The broad topic of the study, anti-slavery colonisation, is not a new one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but, as Bronwen Everill argues, the entanglements and competition between Liberia and Sierra Leone have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1385)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 28 February, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bronwen Everill)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978-1137028679)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(248pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christine Whyte)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 303.6317 229.4755 317.6237 241.3555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 371.9837 200.9635 385.9757 212.8435 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7920 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gone almost unmentioned ? despite their geographical and political proximity. Her main argument for re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examining their 19th;?century history together is the importance of the interaction between the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlements as well as their impact on metropolitan politics. Neither settlement fits comfortably into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional imperial conceptual framework: Sierra Leone ?has frequently been treated as an anomaly?, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberia ?is generally rejected outright? \(p. 7\). These fascinating questions: why these colonies have been left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of imperialist narratives and how \(or indeed, if\) they fit into the story of empire are, necessarily, glossed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over in one page. Further study of these theoretical questions would add greatly to our understanding of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of the ?humanitarian interventions? like these colonies in African history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main research questions of the study reflect the interest of the past two decades in reworking imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history to demonstrate the impact of the colony on metropole \(p. 8\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 359.648 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 359.648 654.771 m 373.640 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 373.640 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Everill?s questions add complexity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and nuance to the idea of a monolithic anti-slavery movement, asking how Sierra Leone and Liberia served )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to fracture consensus and intensify competition amongst anti-slavery networks. These questions are served )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well by the comparative approach, which emphasises the interaction between the colonies. The second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach explicitly laid out in the introduction is Frederick Cooper?s suggestion to use processes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?identification?, rather than the more flat and worn-out concept of identity, to explain how the settlers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped their respective colonies.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 189.980 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 189.980 569.235 m 203.972 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 203.972 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( More detail on this section would have been appreciated ? since Cooper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Brubaker?s article first came out, academics have tiptoed around the minefield of identity, but more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precision is needed about what ?processes of identification? means and how it substantially differs from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply analysing identity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In terms of source material, students and researchers of West African colonisation will find much useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guidance. The book is based on the author?s PhD thesis, with some minor changes to the content and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure. The bibliography reflects her empirical approach, and while the secondary literature list may seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less weighty than comparable volumes, the four-country archival range and extensive use of published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary material more than compensate. Her archival work took advantage of the wide range of resources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(available in American archives on Liberia, to balance the sad lack of archival material in Liberia itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following the civil war. Both local newspapers and letter collections are also used to give an idea of settlers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views. The wide range of archives consulted reflects the diversity of actors and contexts touched on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the work, which ranges freely from Freetown to Washington, from Monrovia to London and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even as far as Texas. The difficulty in this kind of wide-ranging approach lies in the danger of obscuring or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eliding elements of resistance, co-operation and interaction between different groups within the settlements, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Everill takes time to make it clear that she focuses solely on those who ?)] TJ ET BT 402.296 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(do)] TJ ET BT 414.296 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( engage with the imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government?. This is particularly pertinent in the case of Liberia, where relations between settlers and local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities were especially fraught in ways that had long-lasting repercussions. However, this declaration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left the question hanging of what happened with those who, like West Indian Pan-Africansist Edward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blyden, rejected the Western models of the colonisers and sought a more ?authentic? African lifestyle or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work is divided into two sections: ?Foundations? and ?Interactions?. The first three chapters detail the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make-up of ?Transatlantic anti-slavery networks?, the emergence of ?An African middle class? in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial history of Sierra Leone and the first, less directed, emergence of settlements of ?Americans in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa? in Liberia. The second section is structured more ambitiously. Its four chapters each deal with both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies on the themes of ?The abolitionist propaganda war?, ?Slave trade interventionism?, ?Commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rivalry and Liberian independence? and ?Arguments for colonial expansion?. These two sections together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cover the period from 1822 to 1861 in detail. A brief epilogue looks forward to ?1861 and beyond?, and lays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out some future research questions and potential areas of study.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first chapter on ?Transatlantic anti-slavery networks? sets the scene for the rest of the book by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlighting the conflicts between the British and American projects in West Africa. She emphasises the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic threat a second colony posed to Freetown, though the level of antipathy towards the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlers seems extraordinary, for example, she quotes the )] TJ ET BT 308.624 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sierra Leone Gazette)] TJ ET BT 410.612 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as early as 1822 as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemning the ?fatuity? of both the settlers and their American sponsors \(p. 29\). Further conflicts emerged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from religious, organisational and personal differences between the two competing networks. The strange )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 359.6477 655.0855 373.6397 666.9655 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 189.9797 569.5495 203.9717 581.4295 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7624 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographic proximity of the two colonies, Everill argues, is due both to this rivalry and pre-existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks of knowledge and trade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next two chapters sketch a picture of settler life in the early period of each colony. Chapter two, ?An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African middle class? largely confirms, in great archival detail, the image of the Freetown Afro-Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described by Christopher Fyfe and others. She defines this emerging ?Sierra Leonean identity? as ?pulling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together elements of British identity with an amalgamation of West and Central African traditions? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(33?4\). At the same time, the Freetown colonists are characterised as developing ?a hardening of moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectations linked to a fear of ?going native?? \(p. 41\). This fear, surely exacerbated by the shared skin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colour of the settlers and the indigenous population, led Freetonians to an obsession with the outward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance of ?Britishness?, which Everill demonstrates through the use of material culture evidence. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British imperial values of ?civilisation, Christianity and commerce? were then institutionalised and passed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on to new settlers through a well-organised and near-seamless educational system and used to apply pressure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the British government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third chapter, ?Americans in Africa?, applies the same kind of institutional and material culture analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to settler society in Liberia. Unfortunately, due to the relative paucity of sources in comparison, the coverage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is necessarily less detailed. The chapter also emphasises the contingent and ad-hoc nature of many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberian assertions of cultural difference in Africa ? most strikingly in the dearth of colony-wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation of education or missionary work. From the first section, then, the reader gets an impression of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two settlements differing not only in metropolitan goals, but also in the incipient settler culture and society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Later, in the concluding paragraph, Everill refers to these as ?cultures of modernity that were exported and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invented in colonial settings? \(p. 180\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part two of the volume launches into the more detailed comparative work. ?The abolitionist propaganda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war? concentrates on the metropolitan anti-slavery movements, emphasising the relative strength and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cohesion in Britain, compared with the fracturing of opinion in the United States. American anti-slavery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activists were forced to confront the risks of abolition in their own territory, while the British, more removed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the practice of slavery, were able to grant more effective support to the settlement. The failure of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Colonisation Society \(ACS\) to truly comprehend the regional differences within the United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides an insight into the unevenness, not just of imperial spaces, but within the metropole itself. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mirrored, though less sharply by the differences with the UK, between English, Scottish and Irish concerns.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five, ?Slave trade interventionism?, launches from the successes of 1838, the abolition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apprenticeships in the West Indies for the British anti-slavery movement and the ratification of a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution and unification of most state colonies in Liberia. The early 1840s also marked a period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renewed interest in slavery and the slave trade in Africa and the peak of Anglo-American co-operation. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curious case of the )] TJ ET BT 126.656 278.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Amistad)] TJ ET BT 165.992 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( forms a central part of this chapter. Everill rightly observes how impotent the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ACS appears to be when the Mende captives from the )] TJ ET BT 295.964 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Amistad)] TJ ET BT 335.300 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( are re-settled in Sierra Leone, instead of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberia. This resettlement accompanied the founding of the Mende Mission, later taken over by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Missionary Association. The chapter concludes with a seeming contradiction, that anti-slavery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity on the ground was revived ?as a result of the negative public perceptions of their efficacy? \(p. 127\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This renewed vigour and energy would ultimately lead to increased tensions between the colonies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In ?Commercial rivalry and Liberian independence?, Everill shows how the diverted focus away from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African intervention on the part of metropolitan actors, led to new, vibrant roles for settler leaders. From the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outset, anti-slavery colonies were intended to demonstrate the benefits of ?legitimate trade? )] TJ ET BT 476.264 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(with)] TJ ET BT 496.940 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Africans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the evil trade )] TJ ET BT 123.992 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in)] TJ ET BT 133.328 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Africans. The proximity and overlapping aims of Liberia and Sierra Leone naturally led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to conflicts between traders. However, while Sierra Leoneans remained firmly enmeshed in the networks of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British Empire, attending British universities, working up through the ranks of British trading houses and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serving ably in the Colonial Service; Liberians faced a period of rejection from the United States, prompted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a perceived lack of strategic value and exacerbated by growing racial tensions. This slow dis-coupling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was officially cemented by the Liberian declaration of independence in 1847. Again, the key theme of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work is clear, the development of distinct settler cultures in Sierra Leone and Liberia had a profound impact )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 7086 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the development of the colonies, their relationships with their respective metropoles and practices of anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final substantive chapter, ?Arguments for colonial expansion?, highlights the extraordinary efforts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sierra Leoneans to expand the British imperial remit in West Africa. These expansionist and imperialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visions were accompanied by even more organised and strenuous demands for rights and privileges within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the colony. Meanwhile, in Liberia, the declaration of independence seems to have marked continuity rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than dramatic change. While Liberian and American missionaries also embarked on expansionist missions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounding areas, the Liberian government was stymied by its lack of formal recognition on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international level. Again, the complex rivalries and divergent interests in the colonisation movement in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(US would result in a lack of effective support for the settlers. Only in their trade efforts did they receive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backing from Americans and, in that, they often lost out to British competition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In general, section two offers a strong argument regarding the diverging fortunes of Sierra Leone and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberia, which manages to incorporate metropolitan debate as well as the anti-slavery practice and settler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities in West Africa. Everill?s overall thesis, that a comparison of Liberia and Sierra Leone reveals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important lessons about the relationship between imperialism and humanitarianism, is convincingly argued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and this work not only builds on the current revival of interest in the settlements but also provides a launch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for further investigations into humanitarian intervention, civilising missions and the role of empire in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the African diaspora. The power of this argument, though, may overwhelm some of the interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and somewhat contradictory detail of the period. While, in the epilogue, she emphasises the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?civilisation, commerce and Christianity? as the metaphorical tools of imperialism for both Sierra Leone and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberia, the evidence suggests that not only was Christianity a ?broad church? but the role of Islam and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animist religions also figured prominently. The promotion of Islam, particularly, would form an interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thread with which to link these histories to later Pan-African discourses. Civilisation is also an umbrella )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term, and further attention to the different meanings of the word is needed. Reading the work, the reader also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might wish to add ?education? to the tool-box. New work on the history of transfers of knowledge about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education, child-care and training for work and domestic labour could provide useful insights.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work touches on a number of areas of concern to students and teachers of history. It adds to a growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical literature on humanitarian intervention in Africa, sheds new light on the early expansion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western colonial powers and, rightfully, focuses attention on settler communities that existed outside the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standard mould of white, elite adventurers. For those reasons it would work perfectly as a course reading on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial history and the history of humanitarianism as well as in West African studies. For students of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African history audience, though, it would need to be carefully contextualised in the broader historiography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Sierra Leone and Liberia, to balance the emphasis on settlers at the expense of indigenous inhabitants. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the notions of ?hybridity?, for example in religious belief, need to be handled with care in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevent the presentation of African ideas as an unchanging ?traditional? backdrop to the action in Freetown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Monrovia. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In proposing his co-operative scheme to the enslaved Django in )] TJ ET BT 342.632 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Django Unchained)] TJ ET BT 434.288 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, German bounty hunter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr. King Schulze says, ?On one hand I despise slavery, on the other hand I need your help, if you're not in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position to refuse, all the better.? His words illustrate the, sometimes murky, relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanitarian impulse and selfish expediency. The abolitionist cause in the mid-19th century was no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different. So many people?s lives were touched by slavery in the Atlantic World, that it comes as no surprise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the motivations and goals of abolitionists were complex and contingent. Breaking down the rigid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiation between ?humanitarian? and ?imperial? should not mean resorting to apologetics of empire, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but rather doing the most important work of history, explaining seeming contradictions and restoring the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vibrant detail of the past. )] TJ ET BT 156.668 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Abolition and Empire)] TJ ET BT 260.672 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( makes precisely this type of intervention, and illuminates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?the ideological, nationalistic, and practical forces that precluded international co-operation? \(p. 180\) on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universal moral imperative to end slavery and the slave trade.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 4573 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the British Empire, for example, R. L. Watson, )] TJ ET BT 309.992 745.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slave Emancipation and Racial Attitudes in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nineteenth-Century South Africa)] TJ ET BT 222.008 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2012\); Richard Huzzey, )] TJ ET BT 406.304 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Freedom Burning: Anti-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Slavery and Empire in Victorian Britain)] TJ ET BT 257.012 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2012\); )] TJ ET BT 341.672 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New York Times)] TJ ET BT 441.344 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( editorial, ?Movies in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Age of Obama? by A. O. Scott and Manohla Dargis, 16 January 2013, places both movies into the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of recent film releases.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 211.640 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 211.640 686.787 m 265.628 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jenny S. Martinez, )] TJ ET BT 157.004 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Slave Trade and the Origins of International Human Rights Law)] TJ ET BT 488.348 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 658.275 m 149.000 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reviews of some of the collected works exemplifying this trend are available on this site: Professor )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Bush, ?Review of )] TJ ET BT 193.652 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Imperial Histories Reader?)] TJ ET BT 370.976 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(review no. 989\) <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/989)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 615.507 m 281.660 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 284.660 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 298.652 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 30 January 2013]; Dr Elizabeth Buettner, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Review of )] TJ ET BT 122.000 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultures of Empire: Colonizers in Britain and the Empire in the Nineteenth and Twentieth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Centuries: A Reader?)] TJ ET BT 168.668 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(review no. 235\) <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 261.080 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/235)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 261.080 586.995 m 478.724 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 481.724 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 495.716 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30 January 2013].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 150.332 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 150.332 572.739 m 204.320 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frederick Cooper,)] TJ ET BT 151.328 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Colonialism in Question: Theory, Knowledge, History)] TJ ET BT 414.668 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, CA, 2012\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Identity?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.004 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.004 544.227 m 168.992 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author would like to thank the reviewer for this review.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 502.639 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 484.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 484.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1385)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 483.465 m 328.316 483.465 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 458.488 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/51677)] TJ ET BT 34.016 429.688 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/989)] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.288 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/235)] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 211.6397 687.1015 265.6277 698.9815 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 658.5895 148.9997 670.4695 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 615.8215 281.6597 627.7015 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/989) >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 261.0797 587.3095 478.7237 599.1895 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/235) >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 150.3317 573.0535 204.3197 584.9335 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 115.0037 544.5415 168.9917 556.4215 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 483.7795 328.3157 495.6595 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1385) >> endobj xref 0 48 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000558 00000 n 0000000654 00000 n 0000005461 00000 n 0000005570 00000 n 0000005680 00000 n 0000005789 00000 n 0000009350 00000 n 0000009478 00000 n 0000009562 00000 n 0000009591 00000 n 0000009719 00000 n 0000009755 00000 n 0000009784 00000 n 0000009912 00000 n 0000009948 00000 n 0000010039 00000 n 0000018012 00000 n 0000018042 00000 n 0000018170 00000 n 0000018206 00000 n 0000018236 00000 n 0000018364 00000 n 0000018400 00000 n 0000018465 00000 n 0000026142 00000 n 0000026207 00000 n 0000033346 00000 n 0000033472 00000 n 0000038098 00000 n 0000038226 00000 n 0000038281 00000 n 0000038408 00000 n 0000038463 00000 n 0000038590 00000 n 0000038685 00000 n 0000038813 00000 n 0000038908 00000 n 0000039036 00000 n 0000039091 00000 n 0000039219 00000 n 0000039274 00000 n 0000039402 00000 n trailer << /Size 48 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 39498 %%EOF