%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140724225145+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140724225145+01'00') /Title (Byzantium and the Other: Relations and Exchanges) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4296 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Byzantium and the Other: Relations and Exchanges)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This rich volume, )] TJ ET BT 122.012 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Byzantium and the Other: Relations and Exchanges, )] TJ ET BT 376.652 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is one of three collections of essays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(designed to bear testament to the legacy of the late Byzantine scholar Angeliki Laiou. The other two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes are entitled: )] TJ ET BT 137.672 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women, Family and Society in Byzantium)] TJ ET BT 338.312 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 361.640 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic Thought and Economic Life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in Byzantium)] TJ ET BT 97.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Together, these three volumes ably demonstrate Laiou?s intellectual abilities and scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests in Byzantine social and economic history. The present volume begins with an introduction by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Jacoby followed by 14 essays derived from various edited volumes and journals dating from 1982 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012. They are divided into three sections: ?Byzantium and the Other? \(three essays\); ?Byzantium and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusades? \(four\); and ?Long distance trade and relations \(seven\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first article, ?The foreigner and the stranger in 12th?century Byzantium: means of propitiation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acculturation?, Laiou concentrates particularly on the Byzantine concept of the ?foreigner? in 12th?century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople. She asks the important questions of what defines a foreigner? How does this concept )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop? Conversely, how was the concept of ?self? understood by the Byzantines? The primary foreigners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered are the Crusaders and Venetians, while Laiou especially relies upon Anna Komnene and Nicetas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Choniates in her discussion of both ?perceived exclusion? and the means of inclusion. Rather than defining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1386)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 28 February, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Angeliki Laiou)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781409432067)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(90.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(344pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ashgate.com/default.aspx?page=637&calcTitle=1&title_id=11092&edition_id=11435)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Farnham)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scott Parker)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7556 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreigners in religious terms, secular definitions evolved from ?Romans? \(?Helenes?\) and non-Romans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?Barbarians?\) and other factors became more important ?based on a language, a shared classical past, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciation of the classics and the virtues of the Greeks? \(p. 78\). The Hellenisation process and the binding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by treaties, oaths, and mechanisms such as marriage helped in the assimilation of the foreigner. Laiou )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes her essay by noting that the rural and common people probably had a much weaker self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identification and could be less hostile to new Turkish and Latin rulers than to the imperial rulers themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The themes of this first essay are complemented by the next: ?L?tranger de passage et l?tranger privilgie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Byzance, XIe-XIIe sicles?. Laiou here analyses the self-perception of foreigners dwelling within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine Empire. Foreigners such as Armenians and Georgians ? both Chalcedonians and non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chalcedonians, often in imperial service ? generally acculturated well into Byzantine society even if still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identifying themselves by their foreign origin. The late 11th?century Georgian Gregorios Pakourianos is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary example. In contrast to this successful assimilation, however, are the Franks, who came into contact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Byzantium at this time especially via the Crusade. Whether a conscious difference of understanding or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a subconscious cultural conflict, the Crusaders largely did not assimilate as did the Armenians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Georgians. Whereas the Byzantines understood the legal relationship of the Crusader nobles as necessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subordinate to the emperor, the Crusaders themselves understood their relationship with the emperor as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feudal in nature with consideration of their special position as warriors of the Faith. Cultural differences such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as this bred distrust and led to various degrees of conflict throughout the 12th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final essay in this section, ?Institutional mechanisms of integration?, approaches this discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integration and assimilation within the Byzantine Empire by analysing the methods utilised by the Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state and church for this purpose. These include the more obvious means such as Christian conversion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek language, imperial service, and intermarriage. Here, however, Laiou looks at the role of the judicial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system as a mechanism for integration and, also in this context, at taxation. She discusses self-consciously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separate communities \(for example, Jews\) and foreign merchants, summarising government pragmatism by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quoting the jurist Demetrios Chomatianos that ?sometimes it is necessary to permit even barbarian, foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(customs? \(p. 166\). Privileges granted to Venetian, Genoese, and other merchants from the tenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grew invariably to the detriment of the Byzantines. By the end of the 12th century, as Laiou concludes, ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loss of jurisdiction over ? the foreign merchants ? was an institutional defeat; and it went hand in hand with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the declining authority of the state over its own subjects in terms both of justice and of finance, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth of private jurisdictions and financial immunities? \(p. 178\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second section of this collection begins with an article entitled ?Byzantium and the crusades in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twelfth century: why was the Fourth Crusade late in coming??. As the title suggests, Laiou here examines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why a century passed before Latin Christians attacked Constantinople proper despite a spirit of antagonism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having existed from the 11th century. Normans from Sicily and southern Italy ? especially Robert Guiscard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1081\) and Bohemond of Taranto \(1101\) ? attacked Byzantine lands and this led to fears of an attack against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the imperial city. Indeed, such plans were considered after Crusader failures against Muslims following the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First and Second Crusades. Laiou argues that there were three primary reasons that this did not occur, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however. Firstly, the Crusade leaders lacked the determination, especially when facing a confident empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the Komneni dynasty. Secondly, as fellow Christians and potential supporters of the Latin Kingdom, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was opposition to an attack against Byzantium. Finally, the Komneni actively worked to divide their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin enemies and to counter any support for such an attack, especially via propaganda and diplomacy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much had changed by 1204, however, with the loss of Jerusalem, a new and generally incompetent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine dynasty in the Angeli, and, of course, an increased suspicion of the Byzantines as treacherous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schismatics following a century of contact, the massacre of the Genoese and other Latin residents of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Golden Horn in 1182, and, most recently, open provocation of Frederick Barbarossa?s crusade army in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1189?90.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fifth essay treated by Laiou is ?On just war in Byzantium?. Just war theory is a topic featured more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically in Latin sources, of course, but Laiou?s primary reliance on the )] TJ ET BT 399.272 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alexiad)] TJ ET BT 435.932 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Anna Komnene )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a late 11th? and early 12th?century setting where neighbouring concepts of ?holy war? and )] TJ ET BT 518.240 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(jihad)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were prevalent, if evolving. Was there a concept of ?just war? in Byzantium? Based upon the military )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7500 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of Alexios I \( ?the master of the science of government?, per Anna Komnene, p. 165\), Laiou argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that war was fought and justified as a means of obtaining peace. It was, in effect, fought \(1\) in self-defence; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\) for the recovery of lost territory; \(3\) when agreements or treaties were broken; \(4\) to avert a greater evil; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and \(5\) in pursuit of peace. Laiou demonstrates that Anna Komnene?s and other Byzantine authors? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justification for war was centred in Aristotelian and Roman thought. Thus, while Latin Christianity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciled the Christian ideas of peace and the Greek and Roman concepts of war via ?holy war? and just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war theory, in the Byzantine world these two contrasting ideas were squared by the argument that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Empire and emperor sought peace but were forced into war? \(p. 166\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next essay in this section, ?The just war of eastern Christians and the Holy War of the crusaders?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complements the preceding paper. Laiou makes the case here that war as understood in the Byzantine and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eastern Churches was a secular concept and thus the domain of the state. Even if necessary, of a defensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature, and ?just?, war was still sinful in that men fought and killed other men, and was not, therefore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compatible with ?holiness?. In contrast, the idea of ?holy war?, as developed by the Latin Church during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusader period, centred around the idea of a Christian army fighting for Christ and the Church, directed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Church, and rewarding death in battle with automatic forgiveness of sins. Laiou argues that ?elements? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the concept of ?holy war? might be found in Byzantine rhetoric of the seventh and tenth centuries, but in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no way was this a fully developed ideology. For the 12th century, the foreignness of the two concepts of war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in many ways reflects the nature of the two societies, one bureaucratic with power devolving from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperor and the other feudal with wealth and power derived via warfare. Indeed, the incompatibility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between these two ideologies ? argues Laiou ? was an underlying cause of the breakdown in the Latin-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine alliance during the 12th century and, in effect, led to the Fourth Crusade and thence to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permanent hostility between the Byzantine East and the Latin West over succeeding centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the final essay in the second section, ?The many faces of medieval colonization?, Laiou reflects upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what she terms the ?first phase? of European expansionism in the late 11th century \(the ?second phase? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being to the Americas from the late 15th century\). This movement had two underlying and not unconnected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facets: economic and religious, the latter especially realised in the Crusades. Her concern in this essay is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the development and institutionalisation of the Latin perception of ?the Other?, ?of a particular way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking at the enemy, and of a particular concept of how to deal with those who did not wish to become a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the Christian commonwealth? \(p. 15\). ?The Other? was necessarily evil, and the papacy consciously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to substitute wars against the evil foreigner for domestic Western European wars. Thus, at different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times and places, Jews, Muslims, Slavs, and others filled this definition. In contrast to this intolerant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach was the missionary effort, revived again in the 13th century, and a movement not unconnected to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of exploration. As for colonisation, Laiou identifies three general approaches towards the indigenous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population: assimilation, eradication, or separation. Colonisation that was trade-based ? such as that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally practised by Venice and Genoa ? tended to be more integrative and assimilative, as illustrated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the example of Venetian Crete. In stark contrast is the example of Germanic expansion into Slavic lands, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where an uncompromising religious ideology led to a mixed response of annihilation, expulsion, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assimilation of the indigenous Prussian tribes. Finally, Laiou?s third model is illustrated in the Latin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingdom of Jerusalem, in which the Frankish immigrants created a closed society separated from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indigenous population in order to preserve their Latin identity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third section of this collection deals with economic matters and begins with ?Byzantine trade with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christians and Muslims and the crusades?. In this article, Laiou seeks to analyse the effects of the Crusades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Crusader states on Byzantine commercial relations, primarily prior to 1204. What economic changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? if any ? did the Crusades have upon the Empire? She begins by considering the problems of provisioning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the vast Crusader armies while utilising various currencies during their journey across Byzantine territory. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the near term, this was remedied by imperial donations, the localised purchase of provisions via free )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterprise, and through plunder. The longer term effect of the Crusade passage was a re-orientation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine trade with Muslim Anatolia and Egypt, a topic Laiou considers into the 14th century. Regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Italian mercantilism that became so dominant in Constantinople, the Byzantine response developed over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time. Finally, as to international economic institutions \(such as exchange and negotiation mechanisms and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7300 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the law of salvage\), Laiou argues that Italian merchants and Frankish residents of Outremer were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental to their establishment across the Eastern Mediterranean.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ninth entry in this collection is entitled ?Venice as a centre of trade and of artistic production in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thirteenth century?. Laiou?s focus here is on Venetian commercial relations with the Levant and with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantium in particular. Additionally, she discusses cross cultural exchanges, especially Byzantine-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influenced minor arts in Venice in connection with the creation of the Venetian commercial empire. Rapid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Venetian expansion into Byzantine lands after the Fourth Crusade led to their dominance in this sphere vis--)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vis Genoa, but also in their chief importance as a conduit of Byzantine artistic influence upon Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe. Venetian Crete is held up as a key example of an integrated economic and artistic society, while the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth of the production of luxury items \(e.g. glass and crystal\) by Venice was at the expense of Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next article, ?Italy and the Italians in the Political Geography of the Byzantines \(14th Century\)?, is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical inquiry \(based upon the Byzantine historians George Pachymeres, John Cantacuzenus, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nikephoros Gregoras\) into the question of how much ? if anything ? contemporary Byzantines know about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy as a geographical and political area outside of its classical context. Whereas Pachymeres refers to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western Europeans and Roman Catholics as ?Italians? and seems to know some of the inner political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial workings of the maritime cities \(especially Genoa\), 50 years later Kantakuzenos and Gregoras )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tend to generalise all Italians as ?Latins?. This is particularly interesting in context, given that Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anatolia had completely fallen and Constantinople, in particular, was dependent upon Genoese support for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its very survival despite the fact that in many ways much of Genoa?s dominance of Black Sea trade was at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the direct expense of Byzantium. Indeed, all of these authors blame the dissolution of the Byzantine navy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1285 \(on the promise of Genoese-Venetian peace\) for the ultimate inability to defend Byzantine lands and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople itself from aggressive Italians and Turks alike. Byzantine interest in Italy and the Italians was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in direct correlation to their own weakness as a vanishing state as well as to the colonisation of the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine Empire. Constantinople now orbited Italy, whose maritime republics were the centre of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mediterranean world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 11th contribution complements the preceding essay and is entitled: ?Monopoly and privilege: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine reaction to the Genoese presence in the Black Sea?. While the early Palaiologan emperors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supported and even assisted Genoese expansion into the Black Sea, many Byzantine merchants and others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resented their presence. It is upon this resentment that Laiou focuses, followed by an examination of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent to which the Byzantine government addressed the issues raised. As evidence, she introduces a letter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George of Cyprus, Patriarch of Constantinople in the 1280s, in which he complains how Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchants engaged in the Black Sea trade are forced by Genoese onto their ships along with all of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods in an overt effort to establish a monopoly on this trade. Additionally, the Genoese prevented the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine fleet from its regular patrols in the Black Sea, intimidating them into inaction. The Patriarch?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complaints are twofold: \(1\) a lack of respect for the imperial dignity and \(2\) a concern for safeguarding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights of the Byzantine merchant. It is this latter point that Laiou argues is novel and demonstrates a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trend, as reinforced by a letter of another patriarch, Athanasios I, 20 years later. He argued that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government should protect the grain trade for the benefit of citizens against a potential Italian monopoly. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Later attempts in the 1340s attempted to lower the trade tax for Byzantine merchants in an effort to even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(playing field vis--vis Italian privileges. These efforts on behalf of the Byzantine merchant are noteworthy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even if in the end they were unsuccessful.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Monopoly and Privileged Free Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean \(8th-14th century\)?, the next essay, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complements the previous entry while covering a much expanded period. As trade in the eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mediterranean dramatically increased from the 11th century, new mechanisms and institutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrangements were needed to facilitate the further development of international trade. Laiou here seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow this process and interplay of monopoly, protected trade, privilege, and free trade, arguing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Mediterranean exchange in the East took place in conditions where the restrictiveness imposed by political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entities ? played an important role, there occurred a liberalization in the term of trade ?? \(p. 511\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Byzantine state acted as a restraining agent until the 11th century \(e.g. the silk industry\), while in the 12th )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5370 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century it yet maintained a protectionist policy on certain commodities in the interest of its citizens. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13th and 14th centuries, however, the increase in trading privileges and a common law of the seas promoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an increasingly integrated Mediterranean market. This emphasis on freed trade and competition eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eroded national sovereignty by the middle of the 14th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 13th essay is entitled ?Regional networks in the Balkans in the middle and late Byzantine Period?. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the title suggests, this study is concerned with the local commodities trade within the regional area of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Balkans, a subject Laiou considers particularly neglected. Specific attention is paid to Thrace and Macedonia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their respective primary cities of Constantinople and Thessalonike, as well as the Peloponnese and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adjacent Greece. The land route of the Crusade armies and their economic effects upon the surrounding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions \(including Serbia and Bulgaria\) is considered, as is the establishment of Venetian trading posts. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imperial chrysobulls issued to the Venetians provide an important source for trade in this period, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laiou also depends upon the foundational charter \(1083\) of the Monastery of the Theotokos near )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philippopolis and analyses the distribution of ceramics throughout the Balkans. Laiou concludes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?regional trade occupies a nodal place in a society?s economic development. It is the point where both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demand and production become differentiated and specialisation sets in; where the productive forces of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large segment of the population become active; where demography, urbanisation, and monetisation meet and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforce each other; it is the point at which products become commodities? \(p. 34\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final essay in this collection is 'Byzantium and the neighboring powers: small-state policies and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexities?. Laiou?s focus is upon the Palaiologan period, arguing that even though there was a Byzantine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state with ?more or less discernible boundaries? between 1261 and 1340, under the surface fragmentation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was already occurring. This fragmentation had begun in the late 12th century and was ?accelerated? by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fourth Crusade. At the same time, an economic unification was effected in the eastern Mediterranean, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely due to the Italian trade networks and for their benefit. Byzantine and Balkan discord advanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the 14th century and increased instability and the probability of war to such a degree that the small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states became economically unviable. Marriage alliances were formed between Byzantium, Serbia, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trebizond, and others, but in the end they were not enough to stop the fragmentation process. Conversely, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic integration was furthered by the lack of a large political entity \(until the Ottoman conquest\), while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the end Genoa and Venice profited the greatest of all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As this collection of papers worthily represents, Angeliki Laiou?s scholarship deserves wide dissemination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and readership for those interested in Byzantium, the Crusades, and Mediterranean economic history. Her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insightful interaction with numerous sources both Byzantine and otherwise coupled with her originality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach make for both interesting and essential reading. The editors, Ccile Morrison and Rowan Dorin, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as Ashgate, deserve our gratitude for bringing these articles together and making them accessible.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 287.551 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 269.771 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 269.771 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1386)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 268.377 m 328.316 268.377 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 243.400 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 229.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/51681)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 268.6915 328.3157 280.5715 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1386) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000558 00000 n 0000000640 00000 n 0000004988 00000 n 0000005097 00000 n 0000005207 00000 n 0000005316 00000 n 0000008877 00000 n 0000009005 00000 n 0000009089 00000 n 0000009154 00000 n 0000016763 00000 n 0000016828 00000 n 0000024381 00000 n 0000024446 00000 n 0000031799 00000 n 0000031883 00000 n 0000037306 00000 n 0000037434 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37530 %%EOF