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Competing Memories of the Anglo-American Conflict) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2812 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Whose War of 1812? Competing Memories of the Anglo-American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Conflict)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1387)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 28 February, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sidney Hart)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachel Penman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781935623090)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(296pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Washington)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hugh Howard)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781608190713)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.427 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 221.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.915 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.403 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 164.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(384pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.891 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bloomsbury)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.379 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 107.123 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.611 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicole Eustace)] TJ ET BT 34.016 50.099 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? 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P. Stacey once remarked that the War of 1812 is ?an episode in history that makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everybody happy, because everybody interprets it differently?. Americans believe they gave their former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mother country a good drumming, Canadians pride themselves in turning back ?the massed might of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States?, and ?the English are happiest of all, because they don?t even know it happened?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 497.924 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 497.924 158.067 m 511.916 158.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 511.916 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competing perspectives are the result of the different functions the Anglo-American conflict served in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respective nations? historical master narratives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the immediate aftermath of the conflict, Americans celebrated the War of 1812 as America?s ?Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War of Independence?, in which Americans allegedly repelled the former mother country?s attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subdue its lost colonies in North America back into the British imperial system. 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Grodzinski)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780806143873)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(400pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Oklahoma Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.oupress.com/ECommerce/Book/Detail/1787/defender%20of%20canada)] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman, OK)] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gene Allen Smith)] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780230342088)] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.35)] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.789 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 340.277 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://us.macmillan.com/theslavesgamble/geneallensmith)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.765 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, Ny)] TJ ET BT 34.016 283.253 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jasper Trautsch)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 497.9237 158.3815 511.9157 170.2615 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R 39 0 R 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 9101 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime anecdotes, icons, and heroes to provide Americans with a national identity. Two generals active in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the War of 1812 ? Andrew Jackson and William Henry Harrison ? used their wartime victories to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successfully run for the Presidency. With the sectional controversy intensifying and the outbreak of the Civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War, however, memories of the unifying War of 1812 faded. Today, only three per cent of Americans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believe that the War of 1812 was the most important war for the emergence of an American nationalism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taking place between the epic War of Independence and the Civil War, which Americans hold to be the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most important wars in the formation of American national identity \(50 per cent and 25 per cent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectively\), the War of 1812 occupies a middle ground and hence it has become one of the most neglected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of America?s wars.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 126.980 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 126.980 681.027 m 140.972 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 140.972 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Donald R. Hickey called it ?the forgotten conflict?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.260 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.260 681.027 m 404.252 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 404.252 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In some states which saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military encounters, such as Arkansas and New York, memorials to the conflict were erected but the capital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not have a national site for commemorating the fallen soldiers in this conflict and Congress declined to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create a national bicentennial commission.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canadian nationalist narratives ? by contrast ? appeared only after 1867, since there was no independent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canadian nation to celebrate before that date. 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Karim M. Tiro asked ironically.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.632 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.632 469.443 m 257.624 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 257.624 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In a recent opinion poll, Canadians therefore ranked their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victory in the War of 1812 as the second most important part of their identity \(25 per cent\) after free health )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(care \(53 per cent\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 121.304 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 121.304 440.931 m 135.296 440.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 135.296 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As a result, the current Canadian government under Prime Minister Stephen Harper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decided to spend more than $28 million on celebrations for the bicentennial, i.e. for exhibits, historic sites, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical re-enactments, and a new national monument, to make Canadians aware that the ?end of the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laid the foundation for Confederation and the emergence of Canada as a free and independent nation?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.552 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.552 398.163 m 538.544 398.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike the Canadians, the British have never been particularly interested in this conflict. The English-born )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canadian historian William Kingsford commented in 1895 that ?the events of the War of 1812 have not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been forgotten in England for they have never been known there?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.596 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.596 343.395 m 365.588 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 365.588 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While his quip might carry the point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too far, it is clear that the Napoleonic Wars have played a much larger role in British memory than the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the former colonies on the outskirts of the European world. When it comes to the year 1812, Britons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think of Napoleon?s invasion of Russia. The Anglo-American conflict of the same year was merely an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwelcome distraction. British identity was not formed in the conflict with America but in the titanic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle with Napoleonic France. While Americans celebrated the Battle of New Orleans as if the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States had won the War of 1812, the British hardly noticed it, as news of the battle coincided with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon?s escape from Elba. The subsequent showdown with the French Emperor resulted in the Battle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Waterloo, which the British remember to this day as a defining moment for their nation. Victory over France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is viewed as one of Great Britain?s greatest achievements, paving the way for Great Britain?s global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominance until the 20th century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 195.668 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 195.668 200.835 m 209.660 200.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 209.660 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The War of 1812 does not make sense in this powerful historical master )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative. As a result, it is either ignored or described as an irritating diversion, forced on Britain by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States, from the more important struggle on the Continent. Not surprisingly, British historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never shown a keen interest in this conflict. In comparison to the European wars of the late 18th and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th centuries, the War of 1812 was relatively bloodless and short in duration. Fewer than 4,000 soldiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(died in combat in North America between 1812 and 1815, while the wars against Revolutionary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleonic France caused millions of deaths in Europe. It is for all these reasons that the War of 1812 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually plays little role in histories of Great Britain.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 281.672 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 281.672 101.043 m 301.664 101.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To date, the various collective memories of the conflict are still largely premised on national historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives and the bicentennial of the war sparked yet more books on the conflict which reaffirm the national )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 126.9797 681.3415 140.9717 693.2215 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 390.2597 681.3415 404.2517 693.2215 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 234.9677 512.5255 248.9597 524.4055 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 243.6317 469.7575 257.6237 481.6375 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 121.3037 441.2455 135.2957 453.1255 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 524.5517 398.4775 538.5437 410.3575 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 351.5957 343.7095 365.5877 355.5895 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 195.6677 201.1495 209.6597 213.0295 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 281.6717 101.3575 301.6637 113.2375 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 53 0 R 56 0 R 59 0 R ] /Contents 51 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Length 7777 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trajectories. Some of the new works, however, set out to deconstruct the celebratory national paradigms and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcend the national focus in order to analyze the War of 1812 either from a more global point of view or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the perspective of marginalized groups within the nation-states.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The catalog )] TJ ET BT 93.332 715.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1812: A Nation Emerges)] TJ ET BT 212.324 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? accompanying the exhibition of the same name that was being shown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the National Portrait Gallery in Washington, D.C. from June 2012 through January 2013 ? presents the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional American narrative. It is edited by Sidney Hart, the senior historian of the National Portrait )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gallery, and Rachael L. Penman, the assistant curator of the exhibition. Three introductory essays by two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading experts in the field ? J. C. A. Stagg and Donald R. Hickey ? and by the curator open up the catalog. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main part features 115 large-scale color images of the objects displayed in the exhibition. Published for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 200th anniversary of the War of 1812, the book gives an overview of the conflict, the most important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actors, and the major battles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The artifacts displayed in the exhibition include portraits of American statesmen such as Thomas Jefferson, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Madison, Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun, and James Monroe as well as portraits of the numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American war heroes such as William Henry Harrison, Winfield Scott, Oliver Hazard Perry, Thomas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macdonough, and Andrew Jackson. Great Britain is represented by portraits of Lord Castlereagh and King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George IV as well as British commanders such as Isaac Brock, Robert Ross, George Cockburn, and Edward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pakenham. Besides portraits, the catalog includes numerous paintings of battle scenes such as the encounter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the USS Chesapeake and the HMS Leopard, the clash between the HMS Macedonian and the USS )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States, the burning of Washington, the bombardment of Fort McHenry, and the Battle of New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orleans. Moreover, reprinted are cartoons depicting British atrocities or British defeats or mocking the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hartford Convention and uniforms of the contestants, contemporary maps, the American flag of 1812 that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flew on the American privateer Blockade, Dolly Madison?s dress, a model ship of the USS Constitution, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congreve Rocket as used in the bombardment of Fort McHenry, the original manuscript of ?The Star-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spangled Banner?, a copy of the first edition of Noah Webster?s )] TJ ET BT 346.616 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An American Dictionary of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Language )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 85.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 85.016 402.675 m 105.008 402.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 105.008 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and a copy of the flag which inspired Francis Scott Key to write what would later become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the text of America?s national anthem are shown as well.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 308.624 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 308.624 388.419 m 328.616 388.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 328.616 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Brief but accurate descriptions complement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the images.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The major claim of the exhibition and the catalog is that an American nation emerged in the War of 1812 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that the war provided Americans with a set of symbols, heroes, and legends on which to build their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national identity. Aside from giving a boost to American westward expansion and growing political support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a large standing army and a sizable navy, federally sponsored internal improvements, and a national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bank, the war also produced symbols of national identity such as ?The Star-Spangled Banner? and ?Uncle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sam?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 63.680 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 63.680 276.627 m 83.672 276.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 83.672 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ?It is perhaps only a modest exaggeration to say that in the course of that conflict, America )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completed its struggle for independence?, Martin E. Sullivan, the Director of the National Portrait Gallery, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(asserts in his foreword \(p. ix\). The catalog demonstrates in particular the importance of art works for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American nation-building. During and after the war, numerous American painters such as Charles Willson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peale, Rembrandt Peale, John Wesley Jarvis, Thomas Birch, and William Charles ?responded to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American public?s demand to see their heroes and, in Charles? case, castigate their enemies?, Sidney Hart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains in his introductory essay \(p. 21\). Art works thus contributed to the nationalist narrative of the war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The catalog recounts the standard narrative of the War of 1812 as the ?Second War of Independence? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlights its effects on American nationalism, thus not offering new insights into the War of 1812. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selection of artifacts is also not very revealing or daring. The exhibition displays objects not only from its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own collection but also from the British National Portrait Gallery, the McCord Museum of Canadian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History, the Canadian War Museum, the National Gallery of Canada, the National Maritime Museum in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, and private collectors in Ireland. Despite the international origin of numerous objects, however, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibition?s story is solidly American in outlook. Since the catalog tells the story of how the War of 1812 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved to be a nationalizing event, moreover, it does not give much room to the domestic opposition to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict except explaining that revolutionary war hero Henry Lee who opposed the war was crippled in the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 52 0 obj [50 0 R /Fit] endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 85.0157 402.9895 105.0077 414.8695 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 55 0 obj [50 0 R /Fit] endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 308.6237 388.7335 328.6157 400.6135 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj [50 0 R /Fit] endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 63.6797 276.9415 83.6717 288.8215 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 64 0 R 67 0 R ] /Contents 62 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Length 7248 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baltimore riot or that war opponent John Randolph was forbidden to bring his dogs into the halls of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congress.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hugh Howard?s popular history of the War of 1812 ? )] TJ ET BT 293.960 729.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mr. and Mrs. Madison?s War: America?s First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Couple and the Second War of Independence)] TJ ET BT 250.640 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? also follows the national trajectory. Calling himself a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?narrative historian? seeking ?story lines? \(p. vii\), he uses an anecdotal approach to the War of 1812, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstructing particular episodes of the war in colorful detail. His claim, however, that his book will be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?corrective? to the fact that the War of 1812 is ?perhaps the least understood of America?s wars? \(p. viii\) is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misplaced, since he neither provides a complete historical overview of the entire war nor does he examine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and bring forward his own argument about why the United States declared war against Great Britain in 1812.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 628.515 m 54.008 628.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 54.008 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He simply finds that the war was inevitable, as British foreign policy gave Madison no other choice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than to ask Congress for a declaration of war \(pp. 20?6\). His historiographical contribution is to retell the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story of the War of 1812 from the President?s and the First Lady?s perspective. Unlike most other accounts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the conflict, which largely ignore Dolly Madison, Howard finds that she ?was a principal actor in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events that unfolded between the war declaration in June 1812 and the Treaty of Ghent? \(p. viii\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 498.584 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 498.584 571.491 m 518.576 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 518.576 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she played no direct role in the actual war effort \(apart from her often-told rescuing of Gilbert Stuart?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painting of George Washington that hung in the President?s House as well as of government and personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(papers when the British invaded and burnt the capital\), she fulfilled an important function by organizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bipartisan social gatherings in the nation?s capital. By describing the First Lady?s ceremonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibilities, Howard provides us with a portrait of Washington?s social life in the early 19th century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, his judgment that ?[i]n the nation?s collective memory, Mr. and Mrs. Madison?s War was better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembered for her role than his? might carry his point a bit far \(p. 305\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book includes insightful portrayals of Richard Rush, James Monroe, William Winder, Isaac Hull, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Decatur, James Lawrence, Oliver Hazard Perry, and Joshua Barney as well as readable summaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of major battles such as the battle of York or the battle on Lake Eerie, and naval encounters such as those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the USS Constitution and the HMS Guerrire or between the USS Chesapeake and the HMS )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shannon. Of great interest is also his discussion of more unknown episodes such as the naval encounter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between a squadron of American barges and British warships on the Patuxent River in June 1814. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thorough discussion of the British invasion of Washington in August 1814, however, comprises the main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mr. and Mrs. Madison?s War)] TJ ET BT 177.344 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is written in vivid prose, with colorful details of the battles. A distinct strength )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this monograph is the inclusion of the First Lady?s role in the social life of the capital, which is mostly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlooked in monographs on the War of 1812. However, it does not provide fresh insights into the conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but takes a rather traditional American perspective on the war. As a result, Howard?s judgments are strongly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biased. He characterizes the British burning of Washington ?an act of international terrorism? \(p. vii\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismissing any comparison to the American burning of York \(capital of Upper Canada at that point in time\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the grounds that the ?destruction of several wooden structures in a regional capital? was different from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?wholesale destruction of a nation?s monumental public buildings? \(p. 232\). He also considers the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcome of the war in an entirely positive light. The British practice of searching American merchant vessels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for British deserters on the high seas was discontinued, since the Napoleonic Wars ended at about the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time as the Anglo-American War of 1812 and thus the Royal Navy?s need for tars decreased \(it was not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War of 1812, however, that led to the end of impressment\). He further emphasizes that American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacturing had received a boost through the war, foreign trade was resumed, and Republicans abandoned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their hostility to the federal government sponsoring internal improvements, the U.S. Navy, and a national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bank. Finally, he celebrates the westward expansion as a result of the war. Unfortunately, however, he fails )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to consider the consequences of yet another chapter in the history of Indian displacement in his discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war?s results \(p. 294\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET endstream endobj 63 0 obj [61 0 R /Fit] endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 628.8295 54.0077 640.7095 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 66 0 obj [61 0 R /Fit] endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 498.5837 571.8055 518.5757 583.6855 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 70 0 R >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Length 8547 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The traditional American narrative of the War of 1812 is cut to pieces by Andrew Lambert, Professor of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Naval History at King?s College, London, in )] TJ ET BT 252.332 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Challenge: Britain Against America in the Naval War of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1812)] TJ ET BT 58.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Finding fault with the claim ? frequently made by Americans ? that the war was caused by Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maritime policies and ended in a U.S. victory or at least a draw, Lambert deliberately takes a ?British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective, focusing on the development of policy and strategy in London and the conduct of war at sea? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3\). According to him, the Madison Administration declared war against Great Britain in 1812, believing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? in view of the calamitous situation she was in after Napoleon had invaded Russia ? it was ?a golden )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity to seize land from the British? \(p. 3\). He claims that Republicans used British interference with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American trade and the impressment of American sailors merely as an excuse to seek territorial conquest \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13\). If America?s war aim was the conquest of Canada, Britain clearly won the war, Lambert concludes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since she repelled the American invasions of its provinces in North America, destroyed the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital, defeated the American navy, and established such an effective blockade of the U.S. ? import customs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being the primary source of its revenue ? that the American government found itself bankrupt in 1814. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, immediately after the war, Americans would boast that they had been victorious ? promoting a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalistic narrative of the conflict based on myths, which Lambert seeks to expose as such in his book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lambert dismisses America?s three early naval victories in 1812 ? the )] TJ ET BT 373.616 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(USS Constitution)] TJ ET BT 456.632 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( versus )] TJ ET BT 493.292 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(HMS )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Guerrire)] TJ ET BT 82.004 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in August, the )] TJ ET BT 155.672 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(USS United States)] TJ ET BT 243.668 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( versus the )] TJ ET BT 297.992 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(HMS Macedonian)] TJ ET BT 385.640 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in October, and the )] TJ ET BT 483.620 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(USS )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Constitution)] TJ ET BT 93.368 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( versus the )] TJ ET BT 147.692 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(HMS Java)] TJ ET BT 198.008 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in December ? since they were unequal contests: the U.S. 54-gun frigates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fought against smaller and more lightly armed British vessels of only 46 guns. According to Lambert, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was little glory in these battles, since the American frigates were superior to their British equivalents in size, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firepower, and crew. Moreover, the outcome of these encounters did not have an influence on the outcome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the war. ?They did not affect the balance of power at sea, impede the reinforcement of the Canadian army, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or raise British insurance rates? \(p. 102\). The Republican Administration, however, used these naval exploits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to arouse patriotic sentiment at home, which had suffered because of the failed invasions of Canada, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trumpeted the glory of the U.S. Navy. Furthermore, they downplayed the fact that Napoleon?s invasion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia had met disaster and French forces were in retreat at the end of 1812. As a result, Britain would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequently be in a position to redeploy forces from Europe to North America and effectively blockade the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American coast with its superior navy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next year, 1813, moreover, witnessed British defeats of American frigates. The turning point in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naval War of 1812 came, according to Lambert, in June 1813 when the )] TJ ET BT 378.272 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(HMS Shannon)] TJ ET BT 447.932 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( defeated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(USS Chesapeake)] TJ ET BT 115.664 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, restoring British naval prestige in the North Atlantic. As Lambert found that the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frigate won the encounter because of superior seamanship, he is very critical of Americans? excuses for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeat. In an attempt to turn the American captain James Lawrence into a martyr, the court martial blamed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the defeat on bad luck and thus transformed it into a moral victory, making the words Lawrence ushered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when dying in battle into a national rallying cry: ?Don?t Give Up the Ship? \(p. 184\). By that time, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British naval superiority had resulted in a close blockade of all important American harbors bottling up the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remainder of America?s small navy as well as its merchant marine. As a result, in 1814 only a 12th of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America?s merchant vessels were able to get out to sea and the customs revenues of the federal government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plummeted, depriving it of the means to pursue the war effort on a meaningful level. American privateering, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moreover, increasingly lost in importance on two accounts: the Royal Navy established an effective convoy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system protecting British merchant vessels, and an increasing number of American privateersmen ended up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in British prisons. At this point, according to Lambert, the U.S. had de facto lost the war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In March 1814, U.S. naval operations in the Pacific came to an end when the U.S. frigate )] TJ ET BT 464.600 149.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Essex)] TJ ET BT 491.924 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrender to a superior British force. According to Lambert, the American captain David Porter was to blame )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the loss of his frigate since ? in search for glory ? he had deliberately sailed into the Chilean port of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Valparaiso, even though he knew that the port was a trap in which a superior British force could easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blockade him. When he tried to escape, the )] TJ ET BT 243.968 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(HMS Phoebe)] TJ ET BT 307.616 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( wrecked his ship such that he had to surrender. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead of admitting his mistake in sailing into the Chilean dead end, Porter blamed a series of misfortunes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for his loss of the )] TJ ET BT 120.344 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Essex)] TJ ET BT 147.668 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The Republican Administration ? eager for good news to make up for the renewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure to invade Canada ? adopted Porter?s version and hailed the battle as an exemplary display of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 74 0 R ] /Contents 72 0 R >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Length 7888 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American heroism. Instead of chastising Porter for irresponsibly taking up a fight with a superior force, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republicans ? desperate for a new national hero ? emphasized his unprecedented bravery. Consequently, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republicans prevented a court of enquiry from ascertaining the facts of the naval battle. Lambert is equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical of Stephen Decatur who commanded the )] TJ ET BT 268.964 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(USS President)] TJ ET BT 338.624 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In January 1815, he had to surrender to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(HMS Endymion)] TJ ET BT 110.336 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( after a fair fight in which the British gunnery had proven superior. However, Decatur would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsequently spread the lie that he had actually beaten the )] TJ ET BT 315.296 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Endymion)] TJ ET BT 363.956 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and that he had only struck his colors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the )] TJ ET BT 76.664 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(HMS Pomone)] TJ ET BT 143.648 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( arrived and he was hence outnumbered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1814, America?s economy lay in shambles, the federal government was functionally bankrupt and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defaulting on public debt payments, its capital was in ashes, and its navy had either been beaten or was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bottled up in American ports. In consequence, the Madison Administration instructed its commissioners in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ghent to accept a peace upon the terms of the status quo ante bellum, effectively giving up all its war aims in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the face of defeat. Lambert principally ascribes British victory in the War of 1812 to the failure of American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasions of Canada, to the successful naval blockade of the American coast by the Royal Navy, and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability to put most of the U.S. Navy and American privateers out of action. Yet, since the War of 1812 was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mere sideshow to Great Britain, few British contemporaries bothered to investigate the conflict, leaving the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field open to American writers who, Lambert complains, have tended to distort the facts. As a result, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American historians have come to the erroneous conclusion that the War of 1812 had not been an American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeat but a tie between both countries or even a U.S. victory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is to be much commended that a British historian has made a major contribution to the bicentennial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature, as to date the literature has been dominated by American and Canadian historians. Lambert?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph represents a necessary correction to previous American interpretations of the naval engagements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the War of 1812. After all, while American historians can hardly deny that the invasions of British North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America were dismal failures, they have commonly pointed to America?s surprisingly apt naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance in the first months of the war to claim that the military balance sheet was about even. After his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fellow British historian Brian Arthur had, in 2011, shown that the Royal Navy won the naval War of 1812 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that Britain?s naval blockade of the U.S. in 1813 and 1814 decisively contributed to the Madison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Administration?s decision to drop the neutral trade and impressment issues in the peace negotiations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lambert now convincingly demonstrates that the emergence of American national heroes in the naval War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1812 had less to do with their accomplishments than with Republicans? need for glorious news to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generate support for the floundering war effort.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 260.948 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 260.948 357.651 m 280.940 357.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Lambert?s monograph is refreshing as it undermines some of the major assumptions of traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American narratives of the conflict, his account is also problematic as it is anything but neutral, seeking to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replace American readings of the conflict through a narrow British interpretation. On the one hand, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(displays his expert knowledge of maritime affairs in his detailed and eloquent analyses of the naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounters, and his verdict that the U.S. Navy lost the war on sea is well founded. On the other hand, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(larger framework in which he places his study is unnecessarily one-sided and fails to engage the substantial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature on the American political and cultural background of the conflict. For example, there is little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciation for the complexities of Republicans? ideology and the domestic context in the U.S. when he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writes that ?Jefferson was, at heart, authoritarian and anti-democratic? \(p. 22\) or when he detects in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jefferson?s policies a ?trend towards totalitarianism? \(p. 22\). Lambert also underestimates the effects the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British practice of impressing seamen from American merchant ships on the high seas had on American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism when he dismisses American complaints, observing that ?less than 10 per cent of the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maritime workforce suffered? impressment and that ?No more than half the men impressed from American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ships were actually Americans? \(p. 27\). While Britain?s blatant violations of America?s sovereignty alone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might not have constituted imperative and immediate grounds for an American declaration of outright war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were certainly not irrelevant to the outbreak of armed hostilities. Lambert is too quick to discount )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republicans? moral outrage at British maritime practices as mere rhetoric disguising their actual land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hunger. The ?expansionist thesis?, originally brought forward by American historians such as Louis Morton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hacker and Julius Pratt, has been thoroughly repudiated by scholars such as Bradford Perkins and Donald R. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hickey who each found little evidence for territorial ambitions as a cause of the war, but Lambert does not )] TJ ET endstream endobj 73 0 obj [71 0 R /Fit] endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 260.9477 357.9655 280.9397 369.8455 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 79 0 R 82 0 R ] /Contents 77 0 R >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Length 7828 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(address this literature.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.664 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.664 795.075 m 159.656 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 159.656 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Therefore his claim that Republicans declared war to annex Canada and that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view of their failure to accomplish this goal the U.S. lost the conflict ? an interpretation most popular among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British historians ? is not very convincing.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.680 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.680 766.563 m 257.672 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 257.672 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Finally, one could add that had Lambert incorporated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battles fought on the Great Lakes and interior waterways into his analysis of the ?Naval War of 1812? a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more nuanced picture would have emerged, since the U.S. Navy defeated the British squadron on Lake Erie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in September 1813, giving Americans control of the lake for the remainder of the war. The defeat of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royal Navy in the Battle of Lake Champlain in September 1814, moreover, spoilt the British invasion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Major John R. Grodzinski, Assistant Professor of History at the Royal Military College of Canada, made the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major Canadian contribution to the bicentennial literature. In )] TJ ET BT 328.976 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Defender of Canada: Sir George Prevost and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the War of 1812)] TJ ET BT 111.680 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he provides us with an in-depth account of the military leadership of Sir George Prevost, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Captain General and Commander in Chief of British North America, in the War of 1812. Grodzinski argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that historians have treated Prevost unfairly ? portraying him either as overly cautious and hesitant or as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(utterly incompetent, instead attributing Canada?s successful defense against the American invasions to other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures such as Major General Isaac Brock, Lieutenant General Gordon Drummond, or Commodore Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Yeo, whose deeds have been repeatedly praised and used to promote Canadian nationalism. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grodzinski takes issue with this interpretation that has come to shape the public perception of the War of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1812 in Canada and criticizes previous scholarship for failing to distinguish between strategic and tactical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels. Historians only blamed Prevost for his short-term failures, as in the Plattsburgh campaign in northern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York in 1814, but overlooked how, in the long-run, he successfully managed to organize the defense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a border that stretched over half a continent, even though he had little manpower and resources. ?Far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home, with irregular communication and responsible for the defense of a massive and complex theater, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed a mix of regular soldiers, sailors, locally raised forces, and indigenous peoples with prudence and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy that magnified the stresses on his opponents, defeating most of their plans and preserving British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North America?s existence? \(p. 8\). According to Grodzinski, Prevost?s reputation suffered badly in the wake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the war, since many of his subordinates did not appreciate the pressures he was under and the limitations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British government had placed on his leadership. Moreover, the war ended for him with the defeat at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Battle of Plattsburgh, after which he was recalled. His opponents in Canada used the occasion of Prevost?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aborted campaign to accuse him of weak leadership, incompetence, and even mixed loyalties \(Prevost?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancestors were French Huguenots and he had been born in New Jersey\), even though, according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grodzinski, Yeo deserved the blame for the failure of the 1814 invasion since he had refused to adequately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support the naval squadron on Lake Champlain and therefore left Prevost?s army without a reliable supply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(line once the naval squadron had been defeated. As Prevost unexpectedly died before his court-martial, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, he did not have the chance to defend himself and answer his critics. As a result, historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually followed the vituperative attacks directed against Prevost at the time, such that Grodzinski?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography of him is meant to right an historiographical wrong.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grodzinski first traces Prevost?s early career, stressing the military and administrative experience he gained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first as lieutenant governor of St. Lucia, Dominica, and Portsmouth \(chapter one\) and then as governor and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commander of the forces in the Maritime Provinces of North America and subsequently as lieutenant general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the successful 1809 campaign to conquer the French colony of Martinique \(chapter two\). As governor in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chief of British North America ? a post assumed in 1811 ? Prevost organized defensive preparations for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible war with the U.S., realizing that effective logistical arrangements were key to military success, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since weapons, ammunition, and most other military supplies had to be imported from the mother country or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depots in the West Indies and then had to be transported over the vast expanse of the Canadian territory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapter three\). Since British resources were tied up in the European conflict, Prevost would hardly receive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any reinforcements. As a result, he had to adopt a defensive approach, because the U.S. possessed superior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manpower. To make up for his insufficient numbers of troops, Prevost would seek support from Native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American tribes and Canadian militias. To win the loyalty of the French-speaking populace in Lower )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Quebec, he improved their political representation and elevated the status of the Catholic bishop. Chapter )] TJ ET endstream endobj 78 0 obj [76 0 R /Fit] endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 80 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 139.6637 795.3895 159.6557 807.2695 ] >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 81 0 obj [76 0 R /Fit] endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 83 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 237.6797 766.8775 257.6717 778.7575 ] >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 87 0 R ] /Contents 85 0 R >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Length 7736 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four covers the first months of the war in 1812 and Grodzinsiki criticizes Isaac Brock, whom historians have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usually praised for bravely defending Canada against the first American invasion, for prematurely and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impulsively seeking to retake a battery in the Battle of Queenston Heights ? a mistake that cost him his life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unnecessarily. Next, Grodzinski analyzes how the British government?s decision for the Royal Navy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(instead of the Provincial Marine\) to take charge of the naval affairs on the Great Lakes complicated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooperation between land and naval forces, since Prevost?s relationship to Commodore James Yeo, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumed command of the inland naval forces, was strained \(chapter five\). Grodzinski also defends Prevost?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(May 1813 decision to abort the attack on Sackets Harbor in the state of New York: the British infantry had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken heavy casualties and could not break through Americans? effective defenses, and the American fleet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Lake Ontario could have arrived at the battle scene at any moment which would have given the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combatants a decisive advantage.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the sixth chapter, Grodzinsk examines how British North America repeatedly and successfully repelled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American invasions in the second half of 1813, before, in 1814, reinforcements ? four artillery companies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one cavalry regiment, and fourteen infantry battalions ? would be sent to North America. With Napoleon?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abdication, the European conflict was temporarily halted, allowing the British to take the offensive against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the United States. Vice Admiral Sir Alexander Cochrane took command of the North American Station in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(April 1814 and subsequently conducted raids along the American coast and captured Washington D.C. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapter seven\). Prevost, for his part, was to use the augmented manpower to invade America along Lake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Champlain, and his preparations for the campaign are detailed in chapter eight. Grodzinski acquits Prevost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from any blame for the invasion?s failure. Given that the British squadron on the lake had been defeated by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the American navy it would have been not only too costly to try to conquer Plattsburgh ? located on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southwest shore of the lake ? but also pointless \(chapter nine\). Without naval superiority on the lake, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alone would have ensured steady supply and communication lines, Prevost could have hardly stayed deep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inside American territory. Grodzinski instead holds Yeo responsible for the naval defeat, since he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refused to send additional ships and seamen from his fleet on Lake Ontario to Captain Downie on Lake )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Champlain to assist in the campaign. The author does admit, however, that Prevost had left too much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coordination of the naval and land forces to his aides, who were overwhelmed by the task. In the end, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prevost was never able to effectively defend himself against the charges brought up against him, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grodzinski explains in the last chapter. Yeo complained to the British government that Prevost allegedly had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressed Downie to commence the naval campaign even though his squadron was not yet ready for combat, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Prevost had failed to begin the land attack in time to conquer the American batteries at Plattsburgh and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then use them against the American ships at Plattsburgh Bay, and that Prevost could have regained the lost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(squadron if he had finished his attack on Plattsburg instead of withdrawing. Moreover, the Duke of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wellington, wishing to uphold the reputation of his troops that had been sent to North America after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon?s defeat to take part in the campaign, reaffirmed Yeo?s charges. As a result, Prevost was recalled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? even though, as Grodzinski shows, Yeo?s allegations were unfounded: the land attack on Plattsburgh had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begun as scheduled and the American squadron had been too distant for any captured batteries at Plattsburgh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to reach them. Before he could defend his conduct at the court-martial, however, Prevost died leaving his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation tarnished.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In view of the multiple biographies that exist of other important actors in the War of 1812 such as Isaac )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brock, a monograph on Prevost was long overdue and Grodzinski thus filled an important void in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 107.012 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 107.012 186.579 m 127.004 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 127.004 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In his meticulous and detailed study, Grodzinski convincingly rehabilitates Prevost?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation showing that he was a competent wartime leader and successful defender of Canada, under whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall command repeated invasions by a superior American army were repulsed. He correctly reminds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critics of Prevost?s conduct during the Battle of Plattsburgh that he might not have achieved a great field )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victory as Brock did, but that Prevost proved himself as a capable administrator and prudently managed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tremendously difficult preparatory and logistical operations, which were necessary to defend British North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America with limited resources, irregular communication with the home government, and with wildly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heterogeneous troops. In this work, Grodzinski demonstrates an in-depth knowledge of the British command )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure, military codes and regulations, logistical requirements, and rivalries between the navy and army. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Military historians will therefore find his study an insightful guide to military operations along the border. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 86 0 obj [84 0 R /Fit] endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 88 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 107.0117 186.8935 127.0037 198.7735 ] >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 92 0 R ] /Contents 90 0 R >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Length 7612 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, since most recent works by Canadian scholars only consider regional aspects, particular battles, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other specific topics concerning the war, Grodzinski?s monograph is also the only broader examination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spanning the entire war years from a Canadian perspective that has appeared of late and is therefore of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular significance.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 143.984 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 143.984 752.307 m 163.976 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As impressive as Grodzinski?s specialized knowledge of the military aspects of the war is, the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally interested reader will find little information on the larger political, diplomatic, and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background of the conflict. In fact, we do not even learn very much about Prevost himself. How did he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpret Anglo-American relations, British foreign policy, and the American declaration of war? What were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prevost?s political views? Did he have sympathies for the young nation, having been born in New Jersey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself, or did he come to despise the young republic in view of the atrocities committed in Canadian towns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along the border? Did his view of the U.S. shape his military approach to the war? Was his conciliatory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy towards the French-speaking population in Canada informed by his own family roots in French-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speaking Switzerland? Unfortunately, Grodzinski avoids questions about personality, identity, perception, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ideology, such that the lead character of his book appears strangely impersonal and static, void of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes of his own towards the issues at stake determined far afield. He comes across as an unimaginative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucrat who dutifully followed rules and orders, reacted professionally to outside pressures, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competently improvised to make up for insufficient means at his disposal. To a neutral observer who would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not automatically sympathize with the objective of Prevost?s exertions, it therefore remains difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluate Prevost as an historical character.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the previously discussed books clearly interpreted the War of 1812 from national vantage points, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bicentennial also witnessed the publication of new studies that approach the conflict from a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international perspective. With )] TJ ET BT 185.324 446.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War of 1812: Conflict for a Continent)] TJ ET BT 388.340 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, J. C. A. Stagg ? Professor of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History at the University of Virginia, author of numerous works on the War of 1812, and editor of )] TJ ET BT 507.944 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Papers of James Madison)] TJ ET BT 158.336 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? has provided us with a concise 200-page synopsis of the Anglo-American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict. Besides giving a diplomatic, political, administrative, and military overview of the conflict, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph?s particular contribution to the literature is that it situates the war in the larger international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context which was dominated by the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. He connects the developments of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European war with those in the American theater. How were, for instance, American and British war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategies adjusted after the defeat of the Grand Army in Russia and Napoleon?s subsequent retreat and final )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expulsion from France? How was the British and American diplomacy at Ghent ? to give another example ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affected by the outcome of military encounters in the war?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first chapter, Stagg discusses the way the War of 1812 has been remembered in the United States and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canada. The second chapter gives an excellent overview of the international context and the events leading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the declaration of war. According to Stagg, the U.S. attacked Canada because its navy was too tiny to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up a real fight with the British, not because the acquisition of Canada was a war aim. Since America?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manpower greatly surpassed that of Canada, it was simply an easier target. The following three chapters ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being structured by the years 1812, 1813, and 1814 ? examine the war years. The last chapter analyzes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic negotiations leading to the Treaty of Ghent and Stagg draws conclusions about the ramifications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the outcome of the war. He accurately outlines the wider diplomatic strategies and goals of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments and explains how the military events in both North America and Europe played into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions. He does not agree with historians who ? given that the U.S. did not achieve its stated war aims ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider the War of 1812 an American defeat. Great Britain also did not accomplish its goal of permanently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(securing Canada from a future American attack by readjusting the American-Canadian border, demilitarizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Great Lakes, and creating an Indian buffer state in the Northwest, as Stagg argues \(pp. 154?5\). If anyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be considered the victor it was the Canadians. With the help of British troops and the Royal Navy they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were able to repel an American invasion and thus maintain their membership in the British Empire. Had the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States successfully conquered Canada, ?there could have been no Canadian confederation of the sort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was formed in 1867? \(p. 155\). If there was an outright loser in this conflict, it was the Native Americans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(residing within the territory of the United States. They lost significant amounts of land and were never again )] TJ ET endstream endobj 91 0 obj [89 0 R /Fit] endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 93 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 143.9837 752.6215 163.9757 764.5015 ] >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 97 0 R 100 0 R ] /Contents 95 0 R >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Length 7739 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to form a united resistance against American expansionism \(p. 155\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why then did the United States fail to take Canadian territory during the war, even though its larger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population and resources gave it a distinct advantage over its northern neighbor? Again, Stagg disagrees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with most of the explanations historians have given to this question. Madison was not as weak a wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leader as some scholars have claimed. Stagg also does not consider war strategy the most salient reason for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America?s failure to conquer Canada and he does not credit the British troops with superior performance. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once they took the offensive ? as they did when they invaded the state of New York and marched down the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Champlain Valley in 1814 ? ?the British were no more successful than the Americans? \(p. 159\). Recruiting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also not the cause of the army?s failure to take Canada, since the United States Army was far larger than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the number of British regulars in North America. At the root of the army?s problems was its poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organization and training. There was a high rate of turnover in the officer corps giving it little cohesion. Few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officers had military experience and education. The War Department also promoted three ?incompatible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems of drill? during the war \(p. 163\). Finally, the U.S. Army did not employ most of its soldiers long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough to properly train them to march, to load and fire their weapons, and to practice battlefield maneuvers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?In short, the United States between 1812 and 1815 created the skeleton of an army, but it could never put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flesh and muscle on that skeleton? \(p. 164\). ?The result was a largely untrained and haphazardly organized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army, led by too many manifestly inadequate generals, that was in no condition to fulfill the strategic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requirements of the Madison administration, namely that it seize enough Canadian territory to compel Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain to respect American neutral rights in a peace treaty? \(p. 164\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stagg?s )] TJ ET BT 74.348 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War of 1812 )] TJ ET BT 137.348 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides an excellent analysis of the international and domestic political context. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presenting the viewpoints of the various influential actors and drawing from his extensive research on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War of 1812, he makes very judicious and fair judgments. The large bibliographical section at the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book is very helpful and points to the important literature on various aspects of the war \(unfortunately there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are few footnotes referring to secondary literature in the text\). The book is therefore to be highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recommended to students since it succinctly presents and analyses the policy choices, administrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(requirements, military events, and relevant actors. The general reader however might find that there are too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many details on the administrative aspects of the war and military campaigns, such as the in-depth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recapitulation of the disputes between Armstrong and Harrison over military strategy in the Northwest \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(89?91\), and between Armstrong and Wilkinson over where to attack Canada in 1813 \(pp. 99?101\). Stagg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writes in detail about the mismanagement of financing the war, recruiting soldiers, and decisions about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military personnel, but little about the cultural and social change surrounding the war. Nonetheless, together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Donald Hickey?s account of the War of 1812, which appeared this year in a bicentennial edition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stagg?s book is the most authoritative general study of the conflict.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 357.656 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 357.656 314.883 m 377.648 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Stagg aptly outlines the international context of the War of 1812, he himself admittedly takes an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American perspective concentrating on U.S. politics, diplomatic and military strategies, and the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration of the war efforts. ?Ideally ? the historian of the War of 1812 must acknowledge and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesize the political histories of three, if not more, nation-states?. To give the monograph a narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure, however, Stagg organized his ?new history of the War of 1812 around the story of the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States? \(p. 16\). For a more global approach we therefore need to look at another work published for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasion of the war?s bicentennial, which also gives the British perspective its due attention.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Troy Bickham, Professor of History at Texas A&M University, is the first to provide an account that pays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equal attention to both the American and the British side of the conflict.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 378.980 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 378.980 136.323 m 398.972 136.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 398.972 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( He thus supersedes the usual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national perspective that focuses on only one country?s motivations and perceptions of international events. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A glance at the table of content of )] TJ ET BT 199.976 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Weight of Vengeance: The United States, the British Empire, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War of 1812 )] TJ ET BT 97.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes his balanced approach clear. ?The American case for war? is followed by ?The British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire?s case for war? and ?Wartime opposition in the United States? is complemented by ?British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposition to the War?. He does not narrate the military history of the war, nor is his monograph a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological account of the conflict. He rather scrutinizes why both nations found themselves at war with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 96 0 obj [94 0 R /Fit] endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 98 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 357.6557 315.1975 377.6477 327.0775 ] >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 99 0 obj [94 0 R /Fit] endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 101 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 378.9797 136.6375 398.9717 148.5175 ] >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 103 0 R >> endobj 103 0 obj << /Length 7381 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each other in 1812 and why the war ended in a peace treaty, which did not address the issues the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States had originally declared war for. His study is based on an analysis of an impressive array of primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, mainly contemporary newspapers and state papers from Great Britain, Canada, the British West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indies, and the United States.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bickham?s account places the War of 1812 in a more global context, emphasizing how intimately the War of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1812 was tied to the European conflict, and that the Anglo-American war transcended bilateral issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the United States and Great Britain. American proponents of a declaration of war against Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain hoped that ?giving Britain a good drubbing would send an equally effective message to any other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European power thinking of interfering with the United States? \(p. 8\). Many Britons considered the War of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1812 an extension of the European conflict. They were concerned about ? what they perceived to be ? the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?favoritism? Republicans showed to France. The U.S. provided France and her colonies with foodstuffs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other vital products, thus helping France keep up her war against Great Britain. The United States had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(furthermore bought Louisiana from France and thus provided Napoleon with fresh money to resume warfare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against Great Britain. The Madison administration seemed to accept French restrictions on American trade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while it refused to compromise with Great Britain over neutral rights during wartime \(pp. 65?6\). British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonists in Canada also considered the United States a ?de facto ally of France, thereby linking their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle in North America to the empire?s global struggle? \(p. 8\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bickham also addresses the transnational linkages between both the United States and Great Britain and how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they influenced the unfolding war. He emphasizes that Americans were not only heavily dependent on trade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Great Britain but that Americans also relied on British culture: ?fashion, news, literature, and music? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 11\). This desire for British cultural products, ?along with the snobbish refusal of Britain?s social elite to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept Americans as equals, helped to create an enormous chip on the shoulder of America?s elite that bled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into Anglo-American foreign relations? \(p. 11\). But the transatlantic flow of culture went both ways. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America exported its republican ideology. ?In consequence, the British elite knew and resented, if not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feared, the export of republicanism to the discontented peoples of the British Isles? \(p. 12\). British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers frequently quoted American papers to inform their readers what transpired on the other side of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Atlantic, and excerpts from British articles filled the columns of America?s press. When they read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American opposition papers, British policy-makers got the wrong impression about public opinion in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America and assumed America would not go to war. ?Anyone reading a British newspaper in early 1812 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be forgiven for concluding that the United States was on the verge of breaking up, or at the very least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the vast majority of Americans opposed the war?, since they mostly read Federalist papers from New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England as a result of ?the structure of trade networks? \(p. 94\). U.S. policy makers on the other hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading British opposition papers, wrongly assumed there was widespread opposition to the orders-in-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(council in Britain, such that economic coercion or threats of war would make the British government relent. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?The close, and often selective, coverage in the American press of Britain?s domestic opposition to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orders in Council led many in the United States to believe that the pressure of a looming war would lead to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeal? \(p. 89\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bickham?s original contribution to the discussions about the causes of the War of 1812 is that he does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only look at American policy makers? motivations and goals but also holds Great Britain responsible for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outbreak of war: ?the British government was not a spectator. Rather, it had a postcolonial agenda with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard to the United States that did not include its rise as the undisputed power in North America or as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial rival to Britain, and the War of 1812 was Britain?s opportunity to advance that agenda? \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9?10\). The British government was aware that America might declare war because of the orders-in-council )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the practice of impressment \(p. 90\). If the British government had wished to avoid war, it would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had ample opportunity to do so before June 1812 \(p. 79\). ?To a great extent, Britain?s failure to yield has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been dismissed by historians as a combination of British ignorance and arrogance, but such explanations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriously undermine the depth of British interests in the conflict?, Bickham argues \(p. 90\). ?In fact, for many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britons war was preferable to the status quo, because a wartime setting would allow Britain to thwart more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aggressively the rise of the United States?. As soon as war was officially declared, the Royal Navy would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a position to capture American merchant vessels and sailors without having to follow peacetime )] TJ ET endstream endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 105 0 R >> endobj 105 0 obj << /Length 7412 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulations. American trade with the British Empire could be prohibited, benefitting the West Indian interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and British North America. American expansionism could be effectively stopped, and ?perhaps greatest of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all, the United States would at last be put in its proper place? \(pp. 90?1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Bickham, the War of 1812 was both a power struggle over dominance in North America and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an ideological struggle between American republicanism and British imperialism. ?American supporters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war argued victory would signify that the United States had shed its colonial past once and for all, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placing Americans in control of what they increasingly believed was their destiny: dominance of the North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American continent? \(p. 10\). Furthermore, a successful war against the former mother country would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vindicate the American experiment in republicanism, which had been subject to severe criticism after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French Revolution had turned radical and resulted in the dictatorship of Napoleon \(p. 10\). For Great Britain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the War of 1812 offered the chance to put a halt to American expansionism, which was viewed as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly threatening. The British government and British colonists in Canada feared that land-hungry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans had ?set their sights on the remnants of the British and Spanish North American empires? \(p. 74\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that the United States thus had to be subdued before it became too powerful. Had Great Britain won the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war, she would have placed insurmountable barriers against further American westward expansion. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace negotiations, the British demanded an Indian buffer state in the Northwest and a readjustment of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American-Canadian border \(pp. 10?11\). ?Thus for Britain the War of 1812 became a gamble for renewed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire in North America and the retention of British hegemony over the Atlantic world? \(p. 11\) Defeating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the American upstart republic was, moreover, a welcome opportunity to discredit republicanism. ?The long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war with Revolutionary France and fears of similar upheaval at home had clarified and entrenched British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antipathy for republicanism and democracy? \(p. 52\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At face value it appears as though America lost the War of 1812 as the Treaty of Ghent did not settle the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues for which the United States had gone to war in the first place: neutral rights, impressment, and alleged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British assistance to Indians on the frontier. In the end, America could be content to have survived the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict which had increasingly turned in Britain?s favor. Bickham, however, does not consider the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States the ?loser? of the War of 1812. For him the major issue of the War of 1812 was ?whether or not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States would be respected as a sovereign nation rather than humbled as a quasi-part of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Empire? and by this account ?Britain had lost? \(p. 263\). Bickham claims that the British government was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just reacting to America?s ambitions but had itself pursued an aggressive agenda before and during the war. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?It went to war to crush an emerging rival? \(p. 276\) and in that endeavor it failed. British war aims became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visible in the peace negotiations at Ghent, when the British diplomats demanded territorial gains for British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North America and an independent Indian buffer state. Since the American negotiators were able to thwart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s goals, and the British government accepted a peace on the basis of the pre-war status quo, Bickham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes that Great Britain cannot be called the victor of this war. Great Britain was not able to decisively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beat the United States after the British invasion force was defeated at the Battle of Plattsburg, the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public demanded a reduction of war-time taxes, and the Vienna Conference did not proceed as smoothly as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British government had hoped. These factors forced the Liverpool ministry to give up their territorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitions in North America. As a result, the War of 1812 encouraged and made possible Americans? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aggressive expansionism in the antebellum period. ?Rather than humbling the United States, the war helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to create a nation that was far more powerful and resolute in its expansionist plans? \(p. 277\). Moreover, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convinced European powers that attempts to meddle in North American affairs would prove futile. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Bickham, the fact that the European powers did not intervene in America?s wars in the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century ? such as the Mexican-American War or the Civil War ? was a direct result of the War of 1812 \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(263\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bickham?s monograph is one of the most original reassessments recently published on the Anglo-American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict. He masterfully synthesizes the large body of scholarship on the War of 1812, uses a wide array of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary sources, and successfully weaves together the American, Canadian, British, and West Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives. His monograph is up-to-date, carefully researched, and well-written, and his claims are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed by a broad outlook. Relegating explanations that are exclusively concerned with American reasons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for declaring the war, his investigation into the perceptions of the British government in particular adds to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 109 0 R 112 0 R 115 0 R ] /Contents 107 0 R >> endobj 107 0 obj << /Length 7640 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the academic debate on the causes of the War of 1812.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At times, however, Bickham ? exaggerating his conclusions on British motives ? carries his case too far, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example when he insinuates that the British government actually wanted war and intentionally provoked the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States into declaring it: ?The British government had encouraged the United States into a war partly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in order to curtail its power? \(p. 243\). This reading ignores that Great Britain could not wish an additional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war with the United States, as she was tied up in a titanic struggle with Napoleonic France \(evidenced for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example by the fact that Great Britain hoped, for more than two months after the American declaration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war, that her repeal of the ?offensive? orders-in-council would cause the American government to revoke its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision to engage in armed conflict\), and that the American commencement of hostilities was not solely the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result of diplomatic disputes, but ? at least in part ? the result of an anti-British American nationalism, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British government certainly did not deliberately incite.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 318.656 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 318.656 640.515 m 338.648 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 338.648 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Bickham misinterprets his sources when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trying to back his claim of British responsibility for the war. Britain?s Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lord Castlereagh told Britain?s Minister in the United States, Augustus John Foster, that he should ?conduct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([himself] with the utmost Conciliation towards America? without giving up what Britain considered her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rights and essential for her national survival, such as the right to impress British subjects from American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merchant vessels on the high seas. If the American government concluded that this was grounds for war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foster was ?to throw distinctly upon the United States the option of War? \(p. 98\). The British government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferred risking war with America to compromising its naval superiority, but to infer from this that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actively sought war is too sweeping a conclusion. Bickham claims: ?America was intentionally being forced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a corner, leaving its government no choice but to yield or to fight its way out? \(p. 99\). One might more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accurately argue that the Jefferson and Madison Administrations had positioned the United States to either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give in or declare war, notably by refusing compromise in the abortive Monroe-Pinkney Treaty of 1806 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(waging ill-conceived economic warfare against Great Britain through the Embargo Act, Non-Intercourse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Act, and Madison?s acceptance of the Cadore-Letter. The fact that the British government wished to cast the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility of war onto the United States ? if the latter was to declare it ? is not tantamount to a British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire for war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his evaluation of the conflict, moreover, Bickham does not consider the fact that at the war?s beginning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many Britons and Canadians feared that Canada would be easy prey for the Americans. Yet one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(results of the inconclusive War of 1812 was that the United States never again attacked Canada or tried to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incorporate it into the union. In this sense, Great Britain was successful in convincing Americans that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to conquer Canada would be futile and would meet massive British resistance. His monograph will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in any event fuel the ongoing debate how to interpret the result of the Treaty of Ghent.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 448.940 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 448.940 329.139 m 468.932 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, one might add that a truly global history of the War of 1812 would have required an analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Napoleon?s policies, the positions and perceptions of the Spanish, and the situation, aims, and clashes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Native Americans on both sides of the United States-Canadian border as well. Generally, the bicentennial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature on the War of 1812 suffers from a lack of attention to Native Americans and their motives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategies, and intra-tribal conflicts, even though between 1812 and 1815 the U.S. waged war not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against Great Britain and its North American territories, but also against various Indian tribes. The Patriot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War between American filibusters and Spanish East Florida also took place at the same time and was linked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Anglo-American conflict. Furthermore, Lawrence S. Kaplan?s research on how Napoleon?s invasion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Russia in 1812 was connected to the American declaration of war deserves reconsideration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integration into a global account of the conflict.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 262.652 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(25\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 262.652 174.579 m 282.644 174.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As argued in the two preceding reviews, one way to go beyond the national narratives that have dominated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic discussions of the War of 1812 is to take a more international approach by integrating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives of the various participating nations into an interpretive thread. Yet another way to transcend the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation-state framework is to focus on marginalized groups whose roles and contributions have been largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignored by the scholarship that is concerned with governments, diplomatic negotiations, and military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encounters. Two such works examining the conflict from hitherto neglected points of view ? gender and race )] TJ ET endstream endobj 108 0 obj [106 0 R /Fit] endobj 109 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 110 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 318.6557 640.8295 338.6477 652.7095 ] >> endobj 110 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 111 0 obj [106 0 R /Fit] endobj 112 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 113 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 448.9397 329.4535 468.9317 341.3335 ] >> endobj 113 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 114 0 obj [106 0 R /Fit] endobj 115 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 116 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 262.6517 174.8935 282.6437 186.7735 ] >> endobj 116 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 117 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 120 0 R ] /Contents 118 0 R >> endobj 118 0 obj << /Length 7638 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? are particularly worthy of thorough discussion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While not focused on the experience of women during the war as such, )] TJ ET BT 377.936 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1812: War and the Passions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Patriotism)] TJ ET BT 84.692 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Nicole Eustace, Associate Professor of History at New York University, investigates how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American nationalism incited by the War of 1812 was linked with gender )] TJ ET BT 389.960 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(representations)] TJ ET BT 464.624 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.624 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(26\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.624 740.307 m 487.616 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 487.616 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became popular, she argues, since Republican writers and artists were able to link love of country to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participation in the war and to romantic affections \(p. xiii\). Examining primarily presidential speeches, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspaper editorials, political cartoons, novels, plays, poems, and tavern songs, Eustace shows that during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the conflict Republicans depicted the war ?as a romantic adventure, one in which dashing young men went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to war to win the hearts of patriotic maidens and in which the thrill of romantic love contributed directly to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the surge of patriotism? \(p. xiii\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since Eustace unravels many new fascinating aspects of the war and its cultural representation, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worthwhile recapitulating some of her arguments. In chapter one, she demonstrates that Republicans, before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and during the War of 1812, came to equate population growth with national power. Individual reproduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and national expansion were thus intrinsically linked. ?So long as population was )] TJ ET BT 427.652 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 445.316 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental source of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength for the country then anyone?s sexuality could not only foster personal happiness but also contribute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the very foundation of the nation? \(pp. 33?5\). In this way existing political inequalities could be fomented. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even though women were not allowed to vote, they could still become members of the nation: by producing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progeny for the nation and thus adding to the strength of the nation. In return, they would be protected from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America?s external enemies \(p. 30\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter two, Eustace shows that war proponents linked love of country to romantic ardor. Men should win )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hearts of women by taking part in the war and women should ?sport? with soldiers, ?for men who met )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their obligations to country would never fail to respect those to their sexual partners? \(p. 53\). By presenting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women as the reward for soldiers, war supporters ? for example, in songster books or broadside ballad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posters ? linked nationalism, war-making, and sexuality: ?all women were encouraged to incite in men the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual ardor that both spurred population and stirred acts of patriotism? \(p. 53\). Eustace comes to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion: ?the message for women was clear: they were to enter marriages as men entered military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service? \(p. 100\). The message for young men was that they could more easily find a woman willing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marry them if they first showed their devotion to the nation through military service \(p. 54\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Eustace, the issue of impressment allowed Americans to gain the upper hand in arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the British over who possessed more virtue, as laid out in chapter three. Whereas the British criticized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans? hypocrisy claiming liberty for themselves, while enslaving the black population and driving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians off their lands, American politicians and popular polemicists used the issue of impressment ?to tip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the scales of virtue back toward the United States? \(p. 78\). They insisted that American sailors forced into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the service of the Royal Navy not only lost their personal freedom and their freedom to choose a national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegiance; but also that they were violently separated from their families \(p. 78\). ?Portraits of gallant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husbands and dedicated fathers severed from their families and compelled to miserable toil in the floating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dungeons of an enemy nation proved highly effective in American efforts to dramatize the issue of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressment? \(p. 78\). Waging war against the former mother country, she explains, thus ?became a means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of reuniting lost lovers? \(p. 81\). Americans ? by contrast ? honored Britons? and Canadians? familial ties, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war supporters claimed. When Captain Oliver Perry defeated the British fleet on Lake Erie, he allegedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed Canadian sailor-husbands to reunite with their wives and thus displayed his respect ?for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage obligations of the Canadian men who fell into his hands? \(p. 80\). The Republican public could find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comfort in this ?sharp contrast between the American naval hero and the standard procedures of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press gang? \(p. 80\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter four, Eustace hones in on ?the key relationship between population expansion and territorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion? \(p. 119\). More land would allow American families to grow larger; more descendants would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allow America to seize more land from the Indians. In this context, captivity novels \(stories of white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans being abducted by Indians\), of which a dozen appeared during the war years, played an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in fostering pro-war sentiment. They warned about the dangers of ?illicit love between the politically )] TJ ET endstream endobj 119 0 obj [117 0 R /Fit] endobj 120 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 121 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 467.6237 740.6215 487.6157 752.5015 ] >> endobj 121 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 122 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 123 0 R >> endobj 123 0 obj << /Length 5993 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinct populations of the United States and Indian nations?, since it would undermine America?s position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this ?war for population domination? \(p. 123\). Novelists thus sought to elicit ?feelings of repulsion toward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indians? by depicting Indians as sexually unattractive and to stir ?domestic desires? at the same time in order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to promote American patriotism \(p. 124\). The happy ending of many of these captivity narratives consisted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a marriage between a returning captive and another white American. ?Patriotic white women did )] TJ ET BT 514.568 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 529.904 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to avoid sexuality altogether; but the sole focus was to be on forming a fruitful and faithful relationship with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a white husband? \(p. 131\). Patriotism, war-making, expansionism, and gender relations were thus bound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together in a powerful mix: ?The nation needed men to win the land and women to populate it? \(p. 138\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The War of 1812 was not only a military battle, as Eustace makes clear in chapter five, but also a symbolic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battle over whether the United States or Great Britain was the true ?land of liberty?. Given the existence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery in the United States, and the fact that Great Britain used her Royal Navy to put an end to the Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slave trade, the American republic ?lost significant moral ground to the [British] monarchy whenever anyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raised the issue of slavery? \(p. 169\). Abolitionists in the United States sought to gain the upper hand in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle by suggesting slavery should be abolished there. Most Republicans, however, did not embrace such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a solution in this symbolic fight with the British but instead came up with ways to defend American slavery. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One strategy was to depict the British practice of impressment as worse than American slavery. America?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charg d?affaires in London, Jonathan Russell, for example told Britain?s foreign minister that impressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(U.S. seafarers suffered more than enslaved Africans, ?because once Africans had been torn from their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homeland they had no chance of ever meeting kith or kin again, whereas American sailors forced into British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service might very well be put into the position of having to fight against members of their own families? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(174\). Not only did British press gangs sever American men from their families, but Britain?s Indian allies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(killed American women and children in the Northwest, they argued \(p. 170\). Yet another strategy to justify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery was to declare black slaves as part of the larger ?family? of the plantation owner. When the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tried to encourage slaves to escape, they were, in fact, breaking apart American households \(p. 203\). Finally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republicans depicted the British burning of the American capital in August 1814 as proof that the British ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegedly laying waste to the homes of American families ? were worse than Americans who incorporated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(black slaves into their own families \(p. 204\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Eustace explains how Republicans could proclaim the War of 1812 as a success, even though the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stated diplomatic war aims were not mentioned in the Treaty of Ghent. After the Battle of New Orleans, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republicans throughout the United States circulated the lie that the British soldiers had allegedly been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promised the women of New Orleans as their reward. This story, although untrue, ?helped validate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertions that American men fought for country because of the romantic ardor they felt for their wives and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sweethearts? \(p. 214\). Even though it had not resulted in diplomatic gains, Americans could thus celebrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Treaty of Ghent because, it seemed, ?American men had protected their women? \(p. 216\). This tale about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how American men had protected their women against sexual violence by British soldiers allowed men to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignore the issue of women?s citizenship and of gender inequality in marriage. ?Framing Jackson?s victory at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Orleans as a strike against sexual assault helped men maintain the proposition that, even in the absence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of any other economic or political rights, wives owed unquestioned allegiance to their husbands and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation in return for simple protection from rape? \(p. 218\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 124 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 125 0 R >> endobj 125 0 obj << /Length 7170 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Among the most significant results of the War, according to Eustace, was the defeat of Great Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian allies. As the Indians in the Northwest and Southwest had been beaten during the war and as Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain withdrew her demand for an independent Indian buffer state in the peace negotiations, the remaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barriers to Americans? westward expansion were lifted. ?The decision to do nothing at Ghent meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everything to the Indians who faced certain dispossession from that day forward? \(p. 227\). The exclusion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women from full citizenship was another important result. The war and its depiction as a fight between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtuous American husbands and English, Indian, and black rapists put the issue of whether women should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be given equal citizenship off the agenda \(p. 218\). Finally, the War of 1812 resulted in the marshaling of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriotism: ?it mattered less who took up arms to fight than who opened their hearts to feel. Sharing in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotional experience of patriotism created real and recognized contributions to the strength of the nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even in the absence of any concerted action? \(p. 220\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Probably no book published on the occasion of the bicentenary of the War of 1812 offers such an original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and refreshing perspective on the War of 1812 as Eustace?s. The role of gender in popular representations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war but also its relation to the burgeoning American nationalism in the war years had hitherto yet to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed in such a compelling manner. What could however have strengthened Eustace?s case is if she had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also investigated the causes of the War of 1812 through a cultural lens and thus been able to draw links )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the development of American nationalism and changes in gender relations to the outbreak of war. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is also not clear in what way the popular depiction of the war influenced either the decisions of federal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy-makers or the conduct of American soldiers in military encounters with the British. What effects the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skillfully unraveled narrative structures had on public policy is thus not clear. This is not so much a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism, however, but rather a call for scholars to build upon Eustace?s perceptive study to investigate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using a cultural approach, the origins and the course of the War of 1812 anew.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gene Allen Smith, Professor of History at Texas Christian University, examines the various responses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(African Americans to the challenges of the War of 1812 in )] TJ ET BT 318.944 406.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Slaves? Gamble: Choosing Sides in the War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of 1812)] TJ ET BT 70.352 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Both free blacks and slaves faced a multitude of options at the outset of the conflict and they chose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different sides. Some of them fought for the United States, some fled to the British lines, others supported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Spanish, formed maroon communities of their own, or joined Native American tribes. Whatever path )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they took, the War of 1812 offered them the chance to actively ?advance their own agenda? \(p. 2\). As all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parties taking part in the War of 1812 tried to leverage the African American population for their purposes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blacks in turn sought ?to better their material conditions? and to attain freedom by playing ?the competing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powers against one another? \(p. 3\). Several thousand free blacks enlisted in the U.S. Army and Navy. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous slaves in the South also fled to Spanish Florida, escaped to British outposts, or ran away to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(western frontier in order to found or join mulatto and Indian communities, which were out of the reach of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(U.S. government, in order to wrest their freedom from southern slaveholders.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the first chapter, Smith gives an overview of how black Americans had joined military forces in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial period and the American Revolution. Due to a shortage of white manpower, colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrations had frequently resorted to the inclusion of blacks in their troops in imperial wars and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflicts with Native Americans. During the War of Independence, the British had promised freedom to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaves if they enlisted in the British army. The Spanish government had also welcomed runaway slaves and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(free blacks in Florida, as it hoped they would help defend the peninsula from American incursions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main section of Smith?s monograph then covers the various theatres of the War of 1812, starting with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fighting along the American-Canadian border and on the high seas. Some of the former Canadian slaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? who had fled to the Michigan Territory, where prior to the war slavery was forbidden ? joined American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces. Still, blacks? participation on the American side of the war in the northwest was limited, Smith finds, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as there were no all-black units in the militia and enlistments in the regular army were not yet possible. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution of African-Americans to the American maritime forces was more important, as the U.S. Navy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recruited seamen from all races and nationalities ? an official policy of non-employment of ?any persons of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 126 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 127 0 R >> endobj 127 0 obj << /Length 7344 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(color? notwithstanding \(p. 52\). Despite the harsh life on the ships, blacks had an incentive to join the navy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since it allowed them ?avoid the overt racism and bigotry of the landed world.? \(p. 51\) They made up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 10 and 20 per cent of the crews of U.S. naval vessels and privateers; yet, they were mostly plain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seamen and cooks, and there was hardly any chance for them to be promoted. Blacks also served as soldiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Canadian side providing ?the necessary manpower that permitted Britain to withstand repeated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American onslaughts and hold on to Canada? \(p. 46\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next chapter examines the role African-American played in the Florida Patriot War ? an unofficial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict between Spain and American volunteers over the Spanish-American borderlands. Over the course of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early republic, many slaves in the South had fled across the border, as the Spanish colony offered them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom. The Spanish government had an interest in escaped slaves? immigration, since they could help )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defend the colony against aggressive Anglo-American settlers. Slave-owners in the U.S. on the other hand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feared that the example of free blacks across the border could inspire a slave revolt in the American South. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When war broke out, blacks and Native Americans in Florida joined the Spanish to fight off the white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American intruders. Without African Americans? contribution, Smith argues, Florida could not have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successfully defended. Unfortunately, their efforts proved to be in vain, as Spain would sell Florida to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(U.S. in 1821. Spanish officials had come to the conclusion that the colony could not be defended infinitely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against American expansionism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The British attacks on Washington and Baltimore are the topic of the next chapter, and Smith details how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British tried to take advantage of southern slave owners? fears of a slave rebellion by promising freedom to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaves who would make it to British lines when the Royal Navy raided the Chesapeake coastline and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established a post at Cumberland Island off the coast of southern Georgia. Thousands of slaves took the risk )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of being wounded or captured and punished or even killed to escape from bondage. What is more, numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slaves joined British forces and returned armed to fight their former slave masters. British commanders were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aware that the employment of former slaves did not only offset the manpower constraints problem faced by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain simultaneously embroiled in a war against Napoleonic France, the measure also sent shockwaves to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terrified slave-owners in the South. Yet, black slaves would only dare escape if the British operated in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediate vicinity. Otherwise, the risk of being captured would be too great. Most slaves, therefore, never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had the opportunity to flee. Free blacks, moreover, often chose to fight on the American side, such as in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defense of Baltimore in 1814, because they feared they had more to lose were a regime change to occur. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Their contributions to the American cause, however, would rarely be appreciated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next chapter on the war operations in the American South examines inter alia how the British reacted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(news of peace and how they dealt with the ensuing problem of what to do with the slaves that had escaped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them during the war. After all, southern slave-owners, pointing to the peace treaty?s stipulation that slaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be returned, now demanded them back. However, the British Admiral George Cockburn, who was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(command of the North American station, stalled proceedings in order to gain time to remove as many slaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Cumberland Island, where they had been assembled, as he could. When he finally transferred control of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the island back to American troops, only 81 slaves remained. News of the peace treaty not yet having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reached Louisiana, General Andrew Jackson, on the American side, meanwhile chose to accept free blacks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in his army?s ranks in order to defend New Orleans against a British attack, promising them bounty in lands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and money. He even welcomed slaves but later refused to reward them by giving them freedom, instead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returning them to their owners. Free blacks? military service also failed to elevate their social status. To the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrary, their contributions to the campaign had actually raised racial tension rather than built interracial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trust.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter investigates the fate of African-Americans in the aftermath of the war. The slaves whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British had evacuated to Bermuda during and at the end of the war to protect them from American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assaults were sent to Britain?s New World colonies. Most liberated slaves were moved to Canada, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most of them remained impoverished for the next decades, but at least they were no longer enslaved. Others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were relocated to Trinidad and Tobago where they helped the British expand their control of the islands and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became successful farmers. While a significant number of slaves died of hunger or diseases during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resettlement process, the British did not sell any of them back to American slave-owners and kept their )] TJ ET endstream endobj 128 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 131 0 R ] /Contents 129 0 R >> endobj 129 0 obj << /Length 7274 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promise of freedom. ?Many British officials in London were trying to dismantle the slave-based Old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colonial system and replace it with a modern free market empire where British commerce dominated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world. Those same officials ultimately saw the choices made by refugees as a method for taming harsh and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remote British colonial lands, creating British consumers and producers, and expanding the reach of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing British Empire?, Smith concludes \(p. 205\). For free blacks who had fought for the U.S., by contrast, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little changed for the better after the war. Promises of land and pensions would only be fulfilled decades later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? if at all ? and racial segregation and discrimination would become even more severe in the antebellum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South. Maroon communities in the U.S.-Florida borderlands would not be able to enjoy their freedom for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long, as American troops raided runaway-slaves? forts and re-enslaved their inhabitants in the immediate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-war years.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the next three years, the American and British governments would haggle over how many slaves the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British had evacuated and negotiate how much indemnification American slave-owners were due to receive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for their ?property? loss. In the end, the governments agreed that Great Britain would pay $1,204,960 to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(U.S. for 3,582 slaves taken from U.S. soil during the war. Based on reports of refugees arriving in Britain?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies and on their enlistments in the British Army and Navy, Smith estimates that the actual number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have been even higher. In view of the fact that there were more than 1.1 million slaves living in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(U.S. at the time, Smith, however, argues that the War of 1812 never really threatened the institution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery in the South.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nonetheless, the Anglo-American conflict substantially increased Southerners? fears of slave rebellions. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many slaves escaped during the war ? taking advantage of the fact that British forces were in the vicinity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the absence of the militias ? slave-owners became convinced ?of the need to tighten their bonds of control? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 3\). While Smith lays out in detail how African Americans sought to use the war to advance their status, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he also emphasizes that the War of 1812 would have profound repercussions on blacks who had not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achieved freedom by escaping to the British. White southerners would also force free blacks who they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed might foment a slave rebellion to migrate north. Of even greater impact would be the trouncing ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once and for all ? of concerted Native American resistance in the hinterland, which opened up the West to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement and thus allowed for the expansion of slavery, giving the institution a future which before the War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1812 many Southerners had started doubting. Before the War of 1812, slavery was a fragile institution, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Smith claims. In the North, it had been abolished or was about to disappear. In the South, slavery was not as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entrenched as at the time of the revolution and it regularly happened that individual slaves were set free. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-American war, however, reversed this trend. ?The results of the War of 1812 were undeniably for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery?, Smith concludes \(p. 214\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By analyzing a multitude of sources such as public records, personal memoirs, and diplomatic and military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence in archives throughout the U.S., Canada, and Great Britain, Smith provides an in-depth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the role of African-Americans in the War of 1812 and thus filled what might have been the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious gap in the literature on the conflict. Since ? with the exception of the Florida Patriot War that has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been examined in detail elsewhere ? he moved into terra incognita, it is not surprising that his monograph is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at times more descriptive than analytical.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 231.320 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(27\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 231.320 231.603 m 251.312 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 251.312 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Smith also does not discuss the role of slavery in the coming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the War of 1812 and ? by focusing on African-American experiences ? does not comprehensively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruct white Americans? reactions to the escape of black slaves. Since Smith?s book is a pioneering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work, this does not amount to a criticism of his research but is rather an expression of hope that future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars will use Smith?s meticulous study as a starting point to delve deeper into the cultural background of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the War of 1812 with a focus on race relations in the early republic. One could investigate, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether Southern slave-owners feared that black slaves? achievement of freedom through their escape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind British lines and the simultaneous ?enslavement? of white Americans by the British through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice of impressment would challenge the racial basis of slavery in the American South.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the occasion of the bicentennial has, on the one hand, seen the publication of monographs reaffirming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and adding new layers to the traditional national narratives \(Hart and Penman, Howard, Lambert, and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 130 0 obj [128 0 R /Fit] endobj 131 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 132 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 231.3197 231.9175 251.3117 243.7975 ] >> endobj 132 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 133 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 136 0 R 139 0 R 142 0 R 144 0 R 146 0 R 148 0 R 150 0 R 152 0 R 154 0 R 156 0 R ] /Contents 134 0 R >> endobj 134 0 obj << /Length 9413 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grodzinski\), it has, on the other hand, also witnessed the application of new approaches which transcend the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national perspectives. Eustace and Smith examined the war?s impact on gender relations and African-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans. The former demonstrated that the War of 1812 served to reaffirm traditional gender roles and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclude women from politics; the latter detailed how free blacks and slaves responded to the opportunities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and challenges the war offered them and emphasized that the war gave slavery a future by allowing for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion of this ?peculiar institution? to the west. More than simply a nationalizing event, the War of 1812 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus cemented existing gender and racial hierarchies. Future research could build on these studies to find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new explanations for the origins of the war. While it is understandable that scholars investigating the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women and African-Americans are initially little concerned with the causes of the conflict, as these groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had little influence on public policy in the early 19th century, it is possible that changes in and anxieties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about gender and race relations might have contributed to the larger cultural context of America?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declaration of war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bickham \(and to a lesser extent Stagg\) analyzed the War of 1812 from multiple national perspectives and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasively argued that, in order to understand why the war came about and why it resulted in the Treaty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ghent, one cannot simply look at American sources but must take into account how British and Canadian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actors perceived and shaped developments in the Euro-Atlantic world and which objectives they pursued. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truly encompassing interpretation of the War of 1812 would, however, also have to incorporate French, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spanish, Native American, and African American sides of the story. The various Native American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations? perspectives in particular are markedly absent from most general accounts of the conflict. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While they do mention that Native Americans took part in battles, they usually represent them as mere allies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or proxies of American and British forces with little to no agenda of their own. We still know too little about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the options they had, the pressures to which they were exposed, the goals they pursued, and thus why they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decided to participate in the conflict and chose a particular side. This interpretive framework that leaves the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian populations at the sidelines is all the more in need of revision, since it was them who were affected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most by the war?s outcome. Admittedly, excellent studies on Tecumseh and the Shawnees in the Old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northwest )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 87.008 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(28\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 87.008 426.675 m 107.000 426.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 107.000 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the role of the Iroquois in the War of 1812 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 319.628 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(29\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 319.628 426.675 m 339.620 426.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 339.620 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and the Creek Wars in the Old Southwest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do exist )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 74.684 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(30\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 74.684 412.419 m 94.676 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 94.676 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but they have not been integrated into a coherent narrative and their findings are rarely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connected to the larger story as to how the U.S. and Great Britain became embroiled in a war with each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other. Since scholars used the bicentennial to publish their individual research on specific topics related to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war, it is not surprising that no authoritative overarching study on the conflict has come out in recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years. One might hope, however, that in the near future the abundance of new literature will be integrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a compelling synthesis which would take into account the competing perspectives of all the groups that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(took part in the conflict.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 293.379 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. P. Stacey, ?The War of 1812 in Canadian history?, in )] TJ ET BT 336.980 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Defended Border: Upper Canada and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the War of 1812)] TJ ET BT 141.680 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Morris Zaslow and Wesley Turner \(Toronto, 1964\), p. 331.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.624 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.624 247.107 m 503.612 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The percentage numbers are the result of a poll on the War of 1812 conducted by Phoenix Strategic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perspectives for the Department of National Defence and the Canadian Forces.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 442.916 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 442.916 218.595 m 496.904 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald R. Hickey, )] TJ ET BT 157.004 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War of 1812: A Forgotten Conflict)] TJ ET BT 345.008 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Urbana, IL, 1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 441.644 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 441.644 204.339 m 495.632 204.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 191.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, given the large number of French Canadians and the ?late loyalists? ? U.S. Americans who had )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emigrated to Canada after the American Revolution in search for cheap land ? and also given the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensive family and trade relations between inhabitants on both sides of the border, Canadians? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegiances were not clear at all in 1812. For the personal ties between inhabitants on both sides of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(border see Alan Taylor, )] TJ ET BT 180.980 134.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Civil War of 1812: American Citizens, British Subjects, Irish Rebels, & )] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Indian Allies)] TJ ET BT 125.684 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.320 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.320 118.803 m 297.308 118.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 105.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karim M. Tiro, ?Now you see it, now you don?t: the War of 1812 in Canada and the United States in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1812?, )] TJ ET BT 99.344 91.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Public Historian)] TJ ET BT 179.684 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 35, 1 \(2013\), p. 90.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 277.676 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 277.676 90.291 m 331.664 90.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 77.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The poll was commissioned by the Historica-Dominion Institute and conducted by Ipsos-Reid in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(January 2012.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.336 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.336 61.779 m 185.324 61.779 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 48.922 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Government of Canada, )] TJ ET BT 181.988 48.917 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War of 1812, Historical Overview, Did You Know?)] TJ ET BT 449.324 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 34.661 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://1812.gc.ca/eng/1305743100762/1305743162190)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 33.267 m 328.016 33.267 l S endstream endobj 135 0 obj [133 0 R /Fit] endobj 136 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 137 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 87.0077 426.9895 106.9997 438.8695 ] >> endobj 137 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 138 0 obj [133 0 R /Fit] endobj 139 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 140 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 319.6277 426.9895 339.6197 438.8695 ] >> endobj 140 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 141 0 obj [133 0 R /Fit] endobj 142 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 143 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 74.6837 412.7335 94.6757 424.6135 ] >> endobj 143 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 144 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 145 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 449.6237 247.4215 503.6117 259.3015 ] >> endobj 145 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 146 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 147 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 442.9157 218.9095 496.9037 230.7895 ] >> endobj 147 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 148 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 149 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 441.6437 204.6535 495.6317 216.5335 ] >> endobj 149 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 150 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 151 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 243.3197 119.1175 297.3077 130.9975 ] >> endobj 151 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 152 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 153 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 277.6757 90.6055 331.6637 102.4855 ] >> endobj 153 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 32 0 R >> endobj 154 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 155 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 131.3357 62.0935 185.3237 73.9735 ] >> endobj 155 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 35 0 R >> endobj 156 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 157 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 33.5815 328.0157 45.4615 ] >> endobj 157 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://1812.gc.ca/eng/1305743100762/1305743162190) >> endobj 158 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 160 0 R 162 0 R 164 0 R 166 0 R 168 0 R 170 0 R 172 0 R 174 0 R 176 0 R 178 0 R 180 0 R 182 0 R 184 0 R 186 0 R 188 0 R 190 0 R 192 0 R 194 0 R 196 0 R 198 0 R 200 0 R ] /Contents 159 0 R >> endobj 159 0 obj << /Length 12434 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9])] TJ ET BT 78.008 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 2 August 2014].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 214.412 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 214.412 795.075 m 268.400 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Kingsford, )] TJ ET BT 161.012 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Canada)] TJ ET BT 250.352 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(10 vols., Toronto, 1887?98\), viii, pp. 579?80.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 475.676 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 475.676 780.819 m 529.664 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Linda Colley, )] TJ ET BT 133.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britons: Forging of the Nation 1707?1837)] TJ ET BT 337.364 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, NY, 1992\); C. A. Bayly, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Imperial Meridian: The British Empire and the World 1780?1830)] TJ ET BT 380.672 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 461.996 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 461.996 752.307 m 515.984 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Roy Muir, )] TJ ET BT 137.348 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain and the Defeat of Napoleon, 1807?1815)] TJ ET BT 367.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, NY, 1996\), p. 232. Boyd )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilton, )] TJ ET BT 100.688 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Mad, Bad, and Dangerous People? England 1783?1846)] TJ ET BT 381.668 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2006\), pp. 230?1. Arthur )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herman, )] TJ ET BT 108.668 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(To Rule the Waves: How the British Navy Shaped the Modern World)] TJ ET BT 438.968 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2004\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(p. 411.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 97.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 97.016 695.283 m 157.004 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Noah Webster ? engaged in efforts to promote American nationalism in the postwar period ? produced )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an American dictionary which distinguished American English from the British original.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 489.644 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 489.644 666.771 m 549.632 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The original flag can be seen in the National Museum of American History in Washington, D.C.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 526.616 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 526.616 652.515 m 554.276 652.515 l S BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 638.259 m 96.344 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 625.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Samuel Wilson, a supplier for meat to the Army from Troy, New York, stamped his barrels ?U.S.? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This abbreviation later evolved into the figure ?Uncle Sam?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.296 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.296 609.747 m 414.284 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More comprehensive popular histories of the War of 1812 are Walter R. Borneman, )] TJ ET BT 469.592 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1812: The War )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(That Forged a Nation)] TJ ET BT 169.028 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2004\). A. J. Langguth, )] TJ ET BT 366.992 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Union 1812: The Americans Who )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fought the Second War of Independence)] TJ ET BT 259.640 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 377.276 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 377.276 566.979 m 437.264 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 554.122 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Dolly Madison?s role in the War of 1812 also see Catherine Allgore, )] TJ ET BT 417.296 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Perfect Union: Dolly )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Madison and the Creation of the American Nation)] TJ ET BT 305.684 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 2006\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 423.320 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 423.320 538.467 m 483.308 538.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 525.610 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brian Arthur, )] TJ ET BT 131.672 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(How Britain Won the War of 1812: The Royal Navy?s Blockades of the United States, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1812-1815)] TJ ET BT 116.012 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Woodbridge, 2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.992 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.992 509.955 m 279.980 509.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 497.098 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jasper M. 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