%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 59 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150422022217+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150422022217+01'00') /Title (A Victorian Gentleman & Ethiopian Nationalist: the life and times of Hakim Warqenah, Dr Charles Martin) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4477 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Victorian Gentleman & Ethiopian Nationalist: the life and times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(of Hakim Warqenah, Dr Charles Martin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Garretson?s biography of Warqenah Eshete ? Ethiopian statesman, diplomat and occasional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(businessman ? is nothing if not meticulous: drawing extensively on Warqenah?s own autobiography and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diary, Garretson succeeds in gathering an enormous amount of detail on the myriad stages of the man?s life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and doings, personal and professional. And it was quite a life ? bizarre and individual in some ways, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative of his time and place in others. Warqenah was born in 1865 ? or 1864, according to Bahru )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zewde )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 69.668 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 69.668 193.521 m 83.660 193.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 83.660 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? to highland Ethiopian nobility, and spent his infancy in imprisonment at the hands of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emperor Tewodros who in the final years of his reign was distrustful of many such old aristocratic families. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His ?liberation? was an ambiguous one: abandoned \(apparently inadvertently\) by his parents on the field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battle in the face of the famous British assault on Tewodros? stronghold in 1868, he was picked up by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British officer and taken to India. The boy was shifted from guardian to guardian, ending up at the Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Missionary Society station at Amritsar, where he was named Charles Martin, an amalgam of the names of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the two men who had been most important in his ?rescue? and resettlement. He went on, as Garretson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronicles in painstaking detail, to become a denizen of the British Empire, living \(and serving as a colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(official\) in Burma, and studying to become a medical doctor in Britain, but also spending increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amounts of time in Ethiopia, the place of his birth but a place, too, with which he had not unproblematic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations. In Ethiopia in the 1920s, he became close to Ras Tafari ? the future Haile Selassie ? and served as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1388)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 7 March, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Garretson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781847010445)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Currey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Reid)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 69.6677 193.8355 83.6597 205.7155 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8955 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and economic advisor, regional administrator \(in Charchar province\), and ultimately as diplomat, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the highpoint in his career coming during Ethiopia?s nadir, the Italian invasion and occupation in the second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half of the 1930s. During that period, he was Ethiopia?s ambassador to Britain and one of its chief overseas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activists and fundraisers. Yet he was by no means immune from the vagaries of the personalised politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which characterised Haile Selassie?s court, and fell from the Emperor?s favour in the course of the 1940s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He died, in Addis Ababa, in 1952.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His was a remarkable life, and yet his footprint in much of the mainstream Ethiopian scholarship is faint. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent years the major treatment of Warqenah has been in Bahru Zewde?s work on Ethiopian ?reformist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectuals?, of which he is posited as one of the most important ? more on which below.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.300 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.300 669.027 m 481.292 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 481.292 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pankhurst awarded Warqenah considerable significance in his study of Ethiopian economic history )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 512.600 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 512.600 654.771 m 526.592 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 526.592 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while in Paul Henze?s survey of the Ethiopian past, he is reduced to a footnote, albeit quite a substantial one.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 626.259 m 48.008 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Otherwise, he makes fleeting appearances in more ?popular? histories of the Ethiopian-Italian war of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1935?6, where he is known by his English name, Charles Martin.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 347.648 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 347.648 612.003 m 361.640 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 361.640 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In terms of contemporary sources, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears in the )] TJ ET BT 103.664 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daily Mail )] TJ ET BT 158.996 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalist Geoffrey Harmsworth?s account of the 1935 crisis, in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Ethiopian Minister in London? is incorrectly \(and rather bizarrely\) described as someone completely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detached from the land of his birth and who had ?only revisited Abyssinia once or twice during the last thirty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 67.664 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 67.664 554.979 m 81.656 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 81.656 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The explorer Wilfred Thesiger, who dealt with Warqenah while the latter was governor of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charchar, recalled him as a man whose ?European background made him easier than most Abyssinian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials for foreigners to deal with?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.972 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.972 526.467 m 223.964 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 223.964 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Rather more interestingly, Emperor Haile Selassie himself, in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiography dictated in exile in 1937, mentions Warqenah only once, as his representative in London and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(special envoy to the US.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 151.004 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 151.004 497.955 m 164.996 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 164.996 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Warqenah?s relative invisibility is a little puzzling, given his supposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance as Haile Selassie?s advisor and representative overseas, although relations between the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would indeed deteriorate through the late 1930s, over money \(or more precisely the Emperor?s lack of it\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is a significant correction to this seeming neglect in the historical record, and certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstructs Warqenah?s life in exhaustive detail. There are some fascinating insights into the man?s career, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into critical passages of Ethiopian history, and into Ethiopian political culture. An otherwise highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descriptive third chapter, dealing with adventures in the Ogaden and a return to Burma, is punctuated \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(44?7\) by a discussion of Warqenah?s personal relations with some of the key Ethiopian figures of the age, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including Emperor Menelik and his redoubtable wife Taitu. This section offers some fascinating insights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the political culture of the age ? a culture based so much on sound personal connections, at which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warqenah worked assiduously. In chapter four there are intriguing glimpses into palace life, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(burgeoning town of Addis Ababa, in the early 1900s. Chapter five, dealing with his growing stature in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ethiopia, contains some useful material on the precarious nature of political favour in and around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial court. On pp.77?9, the description of Warqenah building his house in Addis Ababa illuminates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance, again, of political connections, and offers some nice detail on the logistical challenges involved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in getting hold of construction materials in Ethiopia in the 1910s. Amidst a fair amount of strictly narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detail in chapter six, there are again some useful insights into political life in what was a volatile and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncertain period in Ethiopian history. On pp. 115?23 we are offered an excellent account of Warqenah?s role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an advisor to )] TJ ET BT 112.004 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ras )] TJ ET BT 133.004 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tafari, and of the latter?s 1924 trip to Europe, in which Warqenah played a major part. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Students of Haile Selassie?s early regime, in the first half of the 1930s, will find the discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warqenah?s governorship of Charchar, and of the various political personalities of the era, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable; there are insights, too, into the operation of the slave trade and the institution of slavery, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolition of which Warqenah dedicated much of his time in the 1920s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arguably the most interesting section, and with perhaps the widest appeal, is that dealing with Warqenah?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role as ambassador to London in 1935?6, and thereafter as one of the main protagonists in raising Ethiopia?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profile during the Italian occupation. Some excellent detail is provided on the nature of the pro-Ethiopian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lobby in London. Inevitably, there was collaboration with the passionate Ethiophile Sylvia Pankhurst in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London. There was much unsuccessful lobbying of the British Foreign Office, but some support was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilised from Nazi Germany \(Hitler wanted Italy to win, but not too quickly, and was keen to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mussolini?s attention diverted for a time from European affairs\). This period is presented as the ?climax? of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 467.2997 669.3415 481.2917 681.2215 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 512.5997 655.0855 526.5917 666.9655 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 626.5735 48.0077 638.4535 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 347.6477 612.3175 361.6397 624.1975 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 67.6637 555.2935 81.6557 567.1735 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 209.9717 526.7815 223.9637 538.6615 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 151.0037 498.2695 164.9957 510.1495 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Length 7559 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warqenah?s career, yet it was a tragic time for him and his family: the Italians executed two of his sons in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1937 in the clampdown following an assassination attempt on Graziani. Notably, both men had left the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guerrilla struggle, returned to Addis Ababa, and become \(like many Ethiopians\) reconciled to Italian rule. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, while his family in Addis undoubtedly experienced great trauma, many of them ended up ?less anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian than their father? \(p. 255\) ? a rather guarded phrase, and a theme which surely begs closer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination. In the end, Warqenah fell out of favour with the capricious Haile Selassie, as the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggled to come to terms with impoverished exile and apparently blamed Warqenah for his reduced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances. And the accusation was not entirely unfounded, it seems, for when Warqenah sold a house at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prince?s Gate in London ? supposedly for the use of the Ethiopian cause ? he kept the money for himself. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even Garretson ? sympathetic to his subject throughout ? is compelled to note that Haile Selassie?s eventual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(granting of forgiveness was ?magnanimous? \(p. 245\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is certainly plenty here to get to grips with, in terms of Warqenah?s various challenges, projects and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements; his unhappy childhood; his struggles with identity and belonging. In some ways, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book is a reminder that good biography can be a tricky thing to pull off. At times the story is rather flat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the telling; there is much detailed description but often little in the way of analysis or reflection. In terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of context ? the world which Warqenah inhabited ? much is implied, but rarely is substantial analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided. In some respects the author has missed an opportunity to explore the imperial world in which his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject lived; even the Ethiopian politics and culture of the era are only occasionally, and at times seemingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inadvertently, glimpsed through the basic narrative. Opportunities to expand and reflect are often overlooked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? for example an early encounter with racism \(p. 27\), or the young Warqenah?s striking sense of his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreignness when he first returns to the embryonic but expanding settlement of Addis Ababa in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1890s \(p. 28\). This reviewer found especially frustrating the silence on Warqenah?s dealings with the India )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Office in London: What were colonial attitudes toward him? How was he perceived in official circles? It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been delightful to have more detail on his and his wife Qatsala?s life in Burma during the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War \(pp. 98?9\). In the intellectual realm, the man was clearly a pragmatist ? his views on ?practical? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education for the ?native? echoed that of his erstwhile colonial employers ? but his writings on various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects \(pp.260?8\) are presented in a rather summary and piecemeal form, and needed to be developed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little more carefully, if indeed the author believes these writings to be worthy of notice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the key issues here is that Garretson has essentially re-packaged Warqenah?s own autobiography and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his extensive diary, and seems rarely to move beyond what is to be found in these two core sources. Almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the whole of chapter four, for example, is based on Warqenah?s diary, with apparently little deviation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only the most basic elaboration. At times, indeed, this reviewer wondered if it might not have been better to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present an annotated and translated edition of Warqenah?s own work. The man himself remains oddly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elusive: there is little on his personality, his strengths and weaknesses, and the reader reaches the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warqenah?s life appreciative of the fascinating journey which that life represented, but with strangely little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of )] TJ ET BT 76.004 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(who)] TJ ET BT 96.008 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( he actually was ? despite the considerable detail, for example, on his various spousal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships. Much is made in the early part of the narrative of Warqenah?s ?evangelical Christian morals? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 55\) ? but he certainly does not appear to have been ?evangelical?, and in truth he seems at times to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreted his Christian morals pretty loosely. On p. 241 we are told that he could be ?stubborn? ? a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkably rare glimpse into his otherwise largely absent personality. Perhaps this is asking too much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source material, although presumably interviews of family members might have filled in some of the gaps; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but in the end, the story feels a little colourless.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On a rather more mundane note, the prose occasionally leaves something to be desired: the book sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reads like a first draft, complete with the grammatical slippages and clumsy expression associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rough early versions of text. The prose is episodically lazy, and the author reverts to clich: relationships go )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through ?highs and lows?; there are numerous ?turning points? in Warqenah?s life; events and periods are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently referred to as ?significant? and ?important?, without ever really being reflected upon at any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(length. Oddities in the text, which appear to have been missed at copyedit stage, include the repetition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abbreviated forms of key sources at the beginning of each chapter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As for the subject matter itself: how noteworthy a figure was Warqenah Eshete? Garretson describes an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 45 0 R 48 0 R 51 0 R 54 0 R 57 0 R ] /Contents 43 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Length 8807 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely busy man, involved in a dizzying number of projects, often simultaneously advising the future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haile Selassie on the abolition of slavery, representing Ethiopia overseas and building schools. In the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half of the 1920s, he is a judge, a businessman, a political advisor. He spreads himself pretty thin, and so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congested does his life appear to be that one wonders about the level of his actual involvement in these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various projects. But there is a somewhat larger issue here, which is the degree to which the biographer ends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up consciously or otherwise promoting his subject. There are points in the narrative where this book borders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on hagiography: Warqenah is the exemplar of the energetic, multi-talented reformer, involved in just about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all the important issues of the day and quite a lot else besides. Readers interested in human failure will find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively little to edify them here; there are few warts, other than those inadvertently and implicitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealed, in this telling of the story. On pp.184?91, indeed, the author simply lays out all the various reforms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and achievements worthy of note. Elsewhere, we are repeatedly reminded in the bluntest of terms just how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much Warqenah ?played a key role?. Sometimes this is presented in a rather odd fashion, as on pp. 233)] TJ ET BT 529.592 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ff)] TJ ET BT 536.264 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when we jump lightly from Warqenah?s ?key role? during the period of Italy?s aggression to his importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the RSPCA and the Masons. Garretson does seem, at times, to play the role of advocate rather than critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessor, or even critical friend.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the Ethiopian context, much is made of the Warqenah generation as comprising ?reformers? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?modernisers?. Bahru Zewde?s work, again, has characterised Warqenah and a number of his prominent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporaries as ?pioneers of change?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 228.284 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 228.284 540.723 m 242.276 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 242.276 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This reviewer has often struggled to understand quite how true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this description is. Warqenah and many of his peers were fascinated by some of the accoutrements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity, but it takes a leap of the imagination to see them as genuine ?reformers?. In the title of chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(six, he is referred to as a ?progressive? \(p.101\), but in truth Warqenah was a rather unconvincing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?progressive?. His intellectual life was fairly restricted, and he was, in Garretson?s own words, ?quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative and traditional? \(p. 264\). Warqenah and his contemporaries tinkered with bits of the system, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but in the end were implicated in the steady strengthening of neo-Solomonic power, a highly personalised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and profoundly unstable system of which many of the ?reformers? ? Warqenah included ? themselves fell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foul, at one time or another. Much vaunted anti-slavery activism aside, it is difficult to appreciate what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Warqenah and his peers actually achieved in terms of profound and enduring ?reform?. There was always an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eye for the main chance, certainly ? the occasional railway or mining concession, some business on the side, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the building of large houses. One is left with the sense, perhaps unfairly, that while Warqenah was indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something of a patriotic entrepreneur ? political, social and economic ? much of his frenetic activity was self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serving, and he was a rather self-possessed individual. One of the causes of his rift with Haile Selassie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Second World War, as noted earlier, was that he appeared to be feathering his own nest by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keeping the profits from a house sale ? with rather tarnishes the image of the great patriot. He was certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personally ambitious, and keenly aware of his own status in Ethiopian society. For sure, the sharpening up of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local administration, for example, might well involve some wider public benefit. Yet one might argue that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was precisely the )] TJ ET BT 119.660 285.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(failure)] TJ ET BT 151.664 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of that generation to achieve serious political or economic reform which meant that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was left to a later generation, coming of age a decade or so after Warqenah?s death in 1952, to lay their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives on the line in order to effect change, for better or worse.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 328.604 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 328.604 255.603 m 348.596 255.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Biography is an ill-developed genre in the field of African history, certainly in the context of the late 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and early 20th centuries. The few that exist are firmly in the ?life and times? tradition: in the Ethiopian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(region, one might point to Harold Marcus on Emperor Menelik, or Haggai Erlich on )] TJ ET BT 441.296 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ras )] TJ ET BT 462.296 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alula )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.960 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.960 200.835 m 511.952 200.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 511.952 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere in eastern Africa, examples include Norman Bennett on Mirambo, in nineteenth-century Tanzania )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 172.323 m 54.008 172.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 54.008 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and Michael Twaddle?s study of the Ugandan soldier and administrator, Kakungulu.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 465.944 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 465.944 172.323 m 485.936 172.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 485.936 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Otherwise, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relative lack of a biographical tradition in African historiography can be ascribed to some extent to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodological obstacles ? there is often simply not enough source material to facilitate full-length )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographical studies of individual Africans ? although in fact sources for this period \(between, say, c.1860 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and c.1940\) are actually reasonably good. Moreover, the 1970s and 1980s witnessed a sharp turn toward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?history from below?, in African history as elsewhere, which meant that there was a shift away from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of ?great men?. In that sense, the book under review represents something of a refreshing anomaly. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The real value of this story is the light it sheds on the ways in which exposure to outrageous fortune, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(education and putative ?modernity? opened up interesting choices for men like Warqenah Eshete. Although )] TJ ET endstream endobj 44 0 obj [42 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 228.2837 541.0375 242.2757 552.9175 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [42 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 328.6037 255.9175 348.5957 267.7975 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj [42 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 491.9597 201.1495 511.9517 213.0295 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj [42 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 172.6375 54.0077 184.5175 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj [42 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 465.9437 172.6375 485.9357 184.5175 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R 73 0 R 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R ] /Contents 60 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Length 7247 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he remains something of an enigma throughout this biography, and while one might have wished that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author had gone further in elaborating upon the ?times? as well as the ?life?, this detailed and occasionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insightful narrative illustrates much that is important about this turbulent period in Ethiopian, and indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global, history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.803 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bahru Zewde, )] TJ ET BT 134.996 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pioneers of Change in Ethiopia: the Reformist Intellectuals of the Early Twentieth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Century )] TJ ET BT 105.680 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2002\) p.36.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 205.328 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 205.328 672.531 m 259.316 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid., pp.36?42.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.676 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.676 658.275 m 193.664 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. Pankhurst, )] TJ ET BT 132.020 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History of Ethiopia, 1800?1935 )] TJ ET BT 338.684 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Addis Ababa, 1968\), for example pp. 648?9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 629.763 m 118.004 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Henze, )] TJ ET BT 113.336 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Layers of Time: a History of Ethiopia )] TJ ET BT 300.008 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2000\) pp. 202?3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.660 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.660 615.507 m 485.648 615.507 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 602.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example T. M. Coffey, )] TJ ET BT 214.316 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lion by the Tail: the Story of the Italian-Ethiopian War )] TJ ET BT 486.656 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1974\), p. 144; A.Mockler, )] TJ ET BT 195.668 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Haile Selassie?s War: the Italian-Ethiopian campaign, 1935?41 )] TJ ET BT 510.656 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1984\) p. 150.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.012 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.012 572.739 m 182.000 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(G. Harmsworth, )] TJ ET BT 144.668 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Abyssinian Adventure )] TJ ET BT 252.656 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1935\) p. 191.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 363.980 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 363.980 558.483 m 417.968 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W.Thesiger, )] TJ ET BT 126.332 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Danakil Diary: Journeys through Abyssinia, 1930?34 )] TJ ET BT 411.980 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1998\), p. 87.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 520.304 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 520.304 544.227 m 560.300 544.227 l S BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 529.971 m 84.008 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(My Life and Ethiopia?s Progress, 1892?1937: the Autobiography of Emperor Haile Selassie I)] TJ ET BT 519.332 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and tr. E. Ullendorff \(London, 1976\), p. 144.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 278.984 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 278.984 501.459 m 332.972 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bahru Zewde, )] TJ ET BT 134.996 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pioneers of Change in Ethiopia)] TJ ET BT 287.000 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 290.000 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 290.000 487.203 m 343.988 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example Messay Kebede, )] TJ ET BT 227.300 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Radicalism and Cultural Dislocation in Ethiopia, 1960?1974 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Rochester, NY, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.324 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.324 458.691 m 236.312 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 445.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H.Marcus, )] TJ ET BT 117.668 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Life and Times of Menelik II: Ethiopia 1844?1913 )] TJ ET BT 386.324 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 1975\); H. 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