%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140706122337+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140706122337+01'00') /Title (The Population of Europe) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4790 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Population of Europe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is one of a series entitled )] TJ ET BT 207.332 344.603 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of Europe)] TJ ET BT 315.656 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which aims 'to address crucial aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European history in every field - political, economic, social, religious, and cultural' \(p. xii\). In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to the series, Massimo Livi-Bacci attempts to produce a history of Europe's population from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(roughly\) the end of the eleventh century to the present day within the confines of a volume of about 200 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pages. This looks like a fairly ambitious undertaking, the more so when we learn that by 'Europe', Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Livi-Bacci means everywhere west of the Urals. Indeed one could question whether it is sensible even to try )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to generalise over such an extended period about a geographical area stretching from European Russia to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portugal. However, Livi-Bacci is experienced at painting big pictures. He is the author of )] TJ ET BT 465.608 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Population and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nutrition: an Essay on European Demographic History)] TJ ET BT 301.340 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1991\), and )] TJ ET BT 421.988 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Concise History of World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Population)] TJ ET BT 87.356 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(second ed., Oxford, 1996\). Someone who has tackled the world's population history in a book of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about 200 pages is surely well equipped to tackle Europe's in roughly the same amount of space.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How, then, does he set about the task? First, he erects a framework within which to set his narrative. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework sets individual or group choices against the constraints imposed by resources and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment. He argues that this allows the story to be simplified because the constraints \(space, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(availability of land, epidemiology, etc.\) change only slowly as a result of human intervention. The overall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story is then about how human populations have adapted to those constraints, gradually freeing themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more and more to behave as they choose. The beauty of this framework is that it can be used successfully for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the whole of the historical period with which he is concerned.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The way Livi-Bacci views the 'constraints', however, is different from that adopted in much of the literature, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially that on the population history of England. The latter has become embroiled in long debates about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(139)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 September, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Massimo Livi-Bacci)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780631218815)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blackwell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew Hinde)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7416 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relative importance of forces internal to the demographic system \(such as Malthus's preventive check\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and exogenous forces \(such as the 'autonomous death rate'\) in reining in population growth prior to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century. One of these debates followed the publication of E.A. Wrigley and R.S. Schofield's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Population History of England, 1541-1871: a Reconstruction)] TJ ET BT 350.012 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 1981\). But this is a relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newcomer compared with the long-running dispute \(not specific to England\) about whether the long period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of population expansion during the Middle Ages was brought to an end by a Malthusian positive check at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the thirteenth century or by the 'exogenous' intervention of the Black Death in 1347-50.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Livi-Bacci seems to me to be saying that these debates miss the main point. Whether the constraints are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('endogenous' or 'exogenous' is not really the interesting question. What is interesting is how they limited the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choices available to individuals and groups, and how populations responded to this. Populations in the past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were never completely impotent. Land reclamation and attempts to intensify agricultural production have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeatedly been made over the centuries. Similarly, even though they did not possess prophylactic or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therapeutic measures to combat diseases, populations did what they could to minimise their impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(sometimes successfully, as in the case of quarantine measures against plague in the seventeenth century\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Europe's population history is not a story of continuous progress. Right up to the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century there were setbacks, some of which were direct side effects of development. For example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in nineteenth-century Italy, public building projects and increased mobility of seasonal labourers facilitated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the geographical spread of malaria. Similarly, pellagra spread in southern Europe during the early nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century as more and more people became reliant on a diet based on corn.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Livi-Bacci's framework has another advantage. As he points out, 'the major factors of constraint - land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(availability, space, food resources, disease - are highly dependent not so much on the range of behaviours of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different segments of the population as on the acceleration, density, and growth of the population as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole.' \(p. 17\). In other words, the big story is of a clash between the)] TJ ET BT 366.116 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( aggregate )] TJ ET BT 420.776 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of individual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group demographic behaviour \(i.e. the consequences of choice\), and the factors of constraint. This justifies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his decision to step back quite a long way so as to be able to view Europe as a whole, and to avoid being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overwhelmed by geographical detail \(historical demographers have spent a lot of time during the last 40 or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50 years filling in this detail\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How does the story unfold? It breaks down into three periods, defined according to the rate at which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations were finding ways of expanding the demographic 'space' within which they could operate. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hence Livi-Bacci considers first the period up to 1800, when movement really was fairly slow and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constraints very strong. Then he considers the period between 1800 and 1914, when more rapid progress was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made, but the factors of constraint still exerted quite a lot of power. Finally he looks at the period since 1914 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the population of Europe largely freed itself from the forces of constraint, and the factors of choice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(won the battle. These three periods are treated in different ways in the book. The first period occupies four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters, and because the factors of constraint loom so large in this period, they drive the structure of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section. The second and third periods are each dealt with in a single chapter. That entitled )] TJ ET BT 467.264 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transformation \(1800-1914\))] TJ ET BT 172.352 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is conventionally structured, with a section on mortality decline followed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one on fertility decline. Finally, in the chapter on the twentieth century, the demographic developments are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treated more as a preliminary to a discussion of population policies and the impact of demographic change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on social and cultural attitudes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let us consider these chapters in a little more detail. Chapter Two, on space and the geographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment considers the various ways in which the European population has responded to the constraint of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the continent's limited territory. During the Middle Ages, Livi-Bacci says, the main response was to expand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the occupied territory by moving into new lands in the east and the south. This expansion was not, as has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often been asserted, due primarily to 'push' factors, but was more due to perceived opportunities in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destination areas followed by the powerful reinforcing effect of chain migration. Later, European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations intensified and consolidated settlements \(especially in the west of the continent\) and reclaimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land for cultivation \(though, away from the Netherlands, we should be wary of attributing too much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance to this\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7614 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter Three, on the role of nutrition in constraining population growth in Europe before 1800 is very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive. Livi-Bacci makes an elegant and powerful case for being sceptical of arguments that Europe's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population in the past was chronically undernourished. Historical demographers of England have long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted the fact that subsistence crises caused principally by malnutrition were very rare, and often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(localised: that the 'famine' part of Malthus's positive check was not really a runner except in a very few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptional years \(for example 1558 and 1559\). A plausible deduction from this is that general levels of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nutrition in 'normal' years were some way above the margins of subsistence. Livi-Bacci shows that this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed true for most people throughout the majority of Europe in 'normal' years. What did distinguish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions from one another was the impact of short-term subsistence crises, which seems to have varied quite a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lot: in England they had relatively little impact, yet in northern France their impact was severe, and they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were more frequent. In this chapter, Livi-Bacci also makes the crucial \(but often overlooked\) point that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between nutritional level and mortality is highly non-linear, so that only quite severe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(malnutrition is likely to inflate mortality substantially.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Half of Chapter Four, on mortality from disease, is devoted to the origins, demographic impact and eventual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappearance of plague. I agree with this emphasis. Historians have debated long and hard about the impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the plague on various aspects of social and economic life, on the economic position of the poor, and so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forth. These debates have tended obscure its enormous demographic impact, and Livi-Bacci's stressing of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this goes some way to redressing the balance. Moreover, his discussion of the likely causes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disappearance of plague in the seventeenth century is persuasive. Other diseases are not neglected, though, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and there is a very interesting discussion of the effects of syphilis, typhus fever and smallpox.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much European historical demography has, in recent years, become dominated by the analysis of Malthus's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preventive check, or the way in which variations in marriage practices influence the rate of population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth. Work on this topic stretches back to Hajnal's famous paper on 'European marriage patterns in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective' \(in D.V. Glass and D.E.C. Eversley \(eds\) )] TJ ET BT 294.452 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Population in History)] TJ ET BT 399.128 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1965\)\). In this paper, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hajnal drew a line across Europe from St Petersburg to Trieste to separate the area of late and non-universal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage \(to the west\) from the area of early marriage \(to the east\). A detailed consideration of this issue is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reserved for Chapter Five, in which Livi-Bacci looks at the different ways in which European population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth was kept within the bounds imposed by the factors of constraint. The overall population growth rate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the product of four components: fertility, nuptiality, mortality and migration. Prior to 1800, rates of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population growth varied little across Europe. They could not vary much, since they were largely limited by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the constraints outlined in the previous three chapters. Yet there was great geographical diversity in all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(components taken separately. Livi-Bacci provides an excellent illustration of the working out of different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combinations of the components in his comparison of the experiences of England, France and Germany in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. For me, the most striking conclusion to emerge from this analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relates to the divergent trends over time. Why was English population growth lower than that of France in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the seventeenth century, but much higher in the eighteenth? Livi-Bacci shows that it was principally due to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased nuptiality and reduced mortality in England. The trend in the age at first marriage differed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markedly between the two countries: it was falling in England throughout most of the eighteenth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereas it was rising in France. This temporal trend, and the fact that a high age at marriage had developed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in England as early as 1600, marked England out as exceptional within Europe. Therefore, the idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English exceptionalism, the spectre of which haunts so much of the historical demographic literature written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about England, receives some support. What is still unclear \(and Livi-Bacci has nothing concrete to offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here\) is when the pattern of low nuptiality originated in England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Chapter Six, Professor Livi-Bacci looks at the European demographic transition. Ever since the model of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the demographic transition was first put forward in the years between the world wars, demographers have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been struggling to make it coincide with reality. Progress on understanding what happened to European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies between the eighteenth and early twentieth centuries has been frustrated by a number of things. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, there has been a tendency to look at the decline of mortality and the decline of fertility separately. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, there has been a desire to seek monocausal explanations \(such as McKeown's thesis that a rising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standard of living was the main factor behind the mortality decline\). This desire has provided fuel for the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7381 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long-running debate between those who argue that the fertility decline was due to a falling demand for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children \(an 'economic' account\) and those who believe that ideational change \(notably the diffusion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idea of birth control\) was critical \(an 'cultural' account\). Livi-Bacci takes all of this confusion and tries to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organise it using his framework. In the case of mortality decline, he is only partly successful: in the case of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fertility decline, he is much more so.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Livi-Bacci argues that the mortality decline has to be seen as a weakening of the constraints. Whatever the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of Malthus's preventive check, ultimately, high mortality did bind the population of Europe in the past, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its decline created space for additional growth. Understanding the mortality decline, therefore, is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter of understanding which of the constraints were weakened. McKeown arrived at his standard-of-living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation of mortality decline by eliminating everything else. Livi-Bacci makes a strong and succinct case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against McKeown's argument, but this begs the question of what was responsible for the decline \(i.e. which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors did McKeown eliminate erroneously?\). Here Livi-Bacci seems uncertain. His conclusion fails to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest a clear alternative. This is a pity, because on the same page \(p. 147\) he makes the important point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that industrialisation and urbanisation caused a 'slowing \(or inversion\) of the general trends towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(declining mortality', as the population was redistributed from healthy rural areas to unhealthy urban ones. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This, of course, is another example of the 'three steps forward, two steps back' nature of progress in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(removing the constraints. The implication of this, however, is that for those parts of the population whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environments did not change, mortality must have been declining even faster than overall figures indicate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whatever the reason for the decline in mortality, it led to the potential for rapid population increase. In a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial paragraph at the end of p. 139 Livi-Bacci says that the demographic transition is 'a collection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reactions to rapid population increase' and that, if we view it in this way, many phenomena that are difficult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to understand become comprehensible. This view of the demographic transition is strikingly similar to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kingsley Davis's idea of multiphasic responses which was proposed in 1963 \(though Livi-Bacci does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mention Davis's paper\). However, it seems to have been forgotten by demographers, and Livi-Bacci is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolutely right to bring it back to centre-stage. Its power is illustrated by his analysis of the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience. The decline of fertility in France as early as the end of the eighteenth century \(a dreadful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem for those who would like to stress the influence of industrialisation and urbanisation in promoting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fertility decline\) is explained by turning the conventional account on its head. It was partly because France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did )] TJ ET BT 52.352 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 67.688 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( industrialise \(or experience emigration\) to the same extent as Britain or Germany that fertility had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be controlled, since there was no other way of absorbing the population growth caused by lower mortality. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain and Germany, by contrast, industrialisation, urbanisation and emigration across the Atlantic created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new economic opportunities both at home and abroad for the expanding population, so birth control was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary until much later.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter of the book deals with the era since World War I. This chapter has a different flavour to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous chapters, in that emphasis is laid on the consequences of demographic trends. Professor Livi-Bacci )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begins the chapter by saying, in effect, that there is very little more to explain: since 1914 mortality and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fertility have continued to decline until they reached levels close to replacement level. However, this ignores )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the whole question of the 'second demographic transition'. I can understand why Professor Livi-Bacci )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chooses to ignore this - save for a brief mention in the notes - yet I think it does make the book incomplete. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the recent decline of fertility in much of Europe to levels well below replacement is something which I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do not think models of the demographic transition would necessarily have predicted. It would have been nice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have seen some kind of discussion of to what extent what has happened to the population of Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the last 40 years or so marks a new departure: that is, something which is not part of the classical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic transition model.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This omission, however, detracts but little from the overall excellence of the book. Many demographers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians might feel that to attempt such a synthesis within the confines of 200 pages is a brave - even a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foolhardy - thing to do. Professor Livi-Bacci has not only attempted it but has, very largely, brought it off. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even more impressively, he has succeeded in shedding new light on familiar happenings. I would most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heartily recommend this book to any historian interested in a general overview of the subject.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2861 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By way of a postscript, I think it is apposite to make some comments about style. This book is aimed both at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academics who are not specialists in the subject and at 'lay' readers. Its style reflects this. Academic readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will not find masses of numbered footnotes \(indeed they will not find any numbered footnotes at all\) but will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find an appendix in which further reading is described. This appendix runs parallel to the main body of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text and lists the sources of direct quotations in roughly the order in which they appear in the text, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without direct cross-referencing. I found this easy to use as a bibliography and a source of further reading. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, also incorporated into this appendix are other details, such as definitions of technical demographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms. I really think that these details - which are not very numerous but are quite important - would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been better placed as footnotes. Hidden away in the further reading as they are, some readers may not find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them at all, especially as the index does not always help locate them. The range of further reading described )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the appendix is very wide. It includes a host of references about the population of different parts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, written in a variety of languages. It is an excellent compendium for the interested reader to follow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, congratulations are due to Cynthia and Carl Ipsen for their translation. The readability of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text is a testament to the quality of their work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 527.647 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 509.867 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 509.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/139)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 508.473 m 322.316 508.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 483.496 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 469.096 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/758)] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.696 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 508.7875 322.3157 520.6675 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/139) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000534 00000 n 0000000616 00000 n 0000005458 00000 n 0000005567 00000 n 0000005677 00000 n 0000005786 00000 n 0000009347 00000 n 0000009475 00000 n 0000009559 00000 n 0000009624 00000 n 0000017093 00000 n 0000017158 00000 n 0000024825 00000 n 0000024890 00000 n 0000032324 00000 n 0000032408 00000 n 0000035322 00000 n 0000035450 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35545 %%EOF