%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818132506+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818132506+01'00') /Title (A Critical Woman: Barbara Wootton, Social Science and Public Policy in the Twentieth Century) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3992 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Critical Woman: Barbara Wootton, Social Science and Public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Policy in the Twentieth Century)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Who?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Who first suggested community service as an alternative to imprisonment in Britain? Who got the Bill to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abolish capital punishment on the statute book? Who chaired a commission on drugs which recommended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reducing penalties for cannabis possession in 1966? Who indeed was the first woman to be a member of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national policy commission in 1924, go as a delegate to a League of Nations World Conference in 1927, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work in the House of Lords as a life peer in 1958, and become Deputy Speaker there in 1965? Who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigned in Parliament to abolish corporal punishment in schools, legalize assisted dying and abortion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change the laws about who could marry whom, protect the environment, and treat crime on the roads as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equal to crime in other places? Who was the first Chair of the Countryside Commission? Who was a founder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(member of the Abortion Law Reform Society, the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, the British Humanist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Association, the British Sociological Association and the first modern movement for human rights? Who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided the first framework for understanding how what people earn is determined as much by social as by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic factors, and participated in a famous and influential debate about the benefits of centralized )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic planning versus those of free-market capitalism? Who took the first systematic look at theories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the causes of anti-social behaviour in young people, challenged professionals? ?expertise? and helped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1395)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 14 March, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ann Oakley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781849664684)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(464pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bloomsbury Academic)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaretta Jolly)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7966 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to establish a new critique of medicalization? Who was the first academic and policy activist to argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriously that welfare policies must be based on sound scientific evidence?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Who? Who? Who? Ann Oakley opens her majestic biography of Barbara Wootton with this bold and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeated question, but it is a question with a double edge. Baroness Wootton of Abinger was extraordinary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet today, little remembered. In this puzzle, Ann Oakley finds a perfect biographee-shaped hole. And, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through filling that hole, she makes an excellent case for biography as a form of historical research.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Born Barbara Adam in 1897, Wootton was the daughter of two high-minded Cambridge classicists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receiving a one-sided education that enabled both her stunning intellectual powers and her life-long rebellion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against pursuing knowledge without obvious practical use. Wootton was a social scientist, but also a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(champion of adult education, a lay magistrate for almost 50 years, a campaigner and, eventually, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential member of the House of Lords. Her career spans researching for the TUC and Labour Party in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920s, leading adult education as Principal of Morley College for working men and women in the 1930s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributing to the foundation of the welfare state and the European Union in the 1940s as Reader in Social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Studies at the University of London, and then being Professor at Bedford College in 1948. Wootton gave up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her job in 1952 to produce her major publication )] TJ ET BT 270.320 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social)] TJ ET BT 303.320 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Science and Social Pathology)] TJ ET BT 446.300 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1959\). This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aimed squarely at reforming social work, penal and medical practice together, and was deeply challenging to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialists and liberals as well as the establishment. Her blisteringly radical ideas included evidence-based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(redefinitions of crime that put middle-class car owners alongside so called ?problem? families and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of unhappiness as a normal area of life being pathologised by psychologists, ideas that others only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to in the 1970s. Wootton used her public positions to apply such ideas. As Chair of the juvenile courts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in London for 16 years, for example, she refused to decide for imprisonment when she could offer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community service, giving the teenage John Bird the life-chance that led him later to become founder of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Big Issue)] TJ ET BT 99.344 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As Chair of the Countryside Commission in 1966, she helped to curb the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(airports and motorways before anyone else thought this a problem.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This combination of pragmatism with socio-political vision made Wootton an acknowledged leader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the century. Remarkably, aged only 26, she was appointed to sit on the Colwyn Committee on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National Debt and Taxation in 1922, helping to decide what to do with the country?s huge debts in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fallout of the First World War. \(The only woman to be on the committee, she wrote a short piece for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Good Housekeeping)] TJ ET BT 131.660 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at the time, recommending that women concern themselves with national as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(household budgets, if they weren?t to find half their taxes have been spent on the military.\) In 1926, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Everywoman)] TJ ET BT 96.668 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( stated ?This is an age when women are coming into their own and we can get inspiration by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following the remarkable career of Barbara Wootton. She is even now only 29 years of age, yet she is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable figure in the national life, and is, in a sense, the standard-bearer of the new generation?. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communist )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 93.032 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Time and Tide)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 93.032 288.801 m 162.368 288.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 165.368 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 179.360 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( magazine suspected she wielded ?more power than any other woman in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country?, while the )] TJ ET BT 129.332 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New York Times)] TJ ET BT 208.004 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( called her ?one of the ablest people in England?. In 1958, she was one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the first four life peers, an honour she accepted while seeking to abolish ?this creaking contrivance?. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a Governor of the BBC and served on four Royal Commissions. In 1971 she was hailed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London Illustrated News)] TJ ET BT 152.696 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as ?a sociological legend in her own lifetime? and in 1984, she was one of six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women chosen for the BBC 2 series )] TJ ET BT 209.660 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women of Our Century)] TJ ET BT 321.980 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. She died in 1988 having been forced to retire as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deputy Speaker in the House of Lords when she was 89 years old.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Fade to black)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Why, then, is she not a familiar name in the way of, for example, Beatrice and Sidney Webb, or H. G. Wells, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with whom she helped launch a new version of an old campaign for a Universal Declaration of the Rights of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Man in 1939? Or J. M. Keynes, alongside whom she presented a BBC broadcast on )] TJ ET BT 437.960 123.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Necessity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Planning)] TJ ET BT 78.020 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1934? Or William Beveridge, for whom she worked as a technical expert in 1943, to help with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the practicalities of the post-war reconstruction programme, the year she published her own defence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government-engineered employment schemes? Or, indeed, Richard Titmuss, with whom she shared ideas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the foundation of the NHS? Titmuss was Ann Oakley?s father, and one of the most touching moments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the book is Oakley?s recall of a colleague?s remark that Wootton was ?a more brilliant social analyst? )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 93.0317 301.4263 93.0317 301.4263 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_and_Tide_\(magazine\)) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 93.0317 288.9415 162.3677 300.8215 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_and_Tide_\(magazine\)) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7438 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than her father, yet so much less noticed. This fact had ?burnt a small hole in [her] brain?, clearly a driver for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the biography. This provokes us to ask, more strangely, why haven?t other feminists found her before? She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ought to be up there with other great women of her generation, peers like Edith Summerskill, Joan Robinson, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dora Russell, Vera Brittain or Eleanor Rathbone. Oakley?s explanation is partly that Wootton was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in her own marginalisation. If Wootton had been a feminist, she would have been easier for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminists to recuperate. Wootton?s mode was also both too idealistic and too empiricist for today?s tastes; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she was a socialist magistrate and Lord. Or was it because she took on both academia and government ? so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither profession really championed her?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the biographer?s point of view too, Wootton defies easy plotting. She was not a poet like Virginia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woolf, nor a recognised creative writer like Winifred Holtby or even Naomi Mitchison, with whom her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political visions have much in common. Though she did experiment with science fiction in the 1930s, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote an autobiography in the 1960s, tellingly titled )] TJ ET BT 286.340 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A World I Never Made)] TJ ET BT 395.648 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1967\), it was impersonal. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kept a stiff upper lip about her tragedies, beginning with a cruel mother, who apparently cared only for her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daughter?s academic achievement, and her father?s death when she was ten. She lost her brother in the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War, and then her first husband John \(Jack\) Wootton in 1917, who died of war wounds only weeks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after their marriage. But, though these were terrible traumas, she surprises us by marrying George Wright 17 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years later, a working-class socialist in the adult education movement, and then separating from him in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle age. Wootton?s subsequent partnership with Barbara Kyle, \(a senior librarian and pioneer of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information science\), does not fit into the script of lesbian heroic history: Wootton continued to enjoy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flirting with men, and Oakley surmises that, though the relationship was intimate, it was unlikely to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been sexual.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Oakley, biography and history)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oakley?s method in dealing with the puzzles of this civic-minded anti-hero is not to force open the door. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike Wootton, Oakley )] TJ ET BT 155.336 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(is )] TJ ET BT 166.340 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a feminist and makes no bones about the fact that Wootton did all this at a time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when women were discriminated against in ways that now seem brutal and absurd. Wootton gained the best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first-class degree mark in economics that anyone had ever had, but women were not allowed until 1948 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graduate from Cambridge with degrees. When Wootton became the first woman to lecture at Cambridge in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1921, aged 24, her talks were advertised as being delivered by a ?Mr Henderson? \(only a footnote revealed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the lecturer's true identity\). Wootton was subsequently employed to research the voting system, without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herself being eligible to vote. Oakley describes Wootton?s entrance to the House of Lords as a bomb )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploding in a gentlemen?s club of arcane upper-class rituals and bald, sleeping men. But, as Wootton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herself put it, these were only the corridors of the corridors that lead to the corridors of power. And then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there are the subtler questions of alienation that Oakley suggests kept Wootton out of the academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment, that disdained her relationship with George and Barbara, that prevented her from being a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mother. We certainly feel the terrible wrongness of Wootton?s lonely and ignominious death in a nursing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(home.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oakley appreciates these ironies, but restrains the temptation towards psycho-biography, or even towards a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind of feminist life writing which would have given more space to the emotions. \(Interestingly, the feminist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian Sheila Rowbotham found the book a little lacking in this respect.\) As the foreword by Baroness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tessa Blackstone also conveys, she emphasises the public, intellectual life, including a brilliant set of core )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters on Wootton as part of a mid-century left-wing intelligentsia, ?Planning for peace?; ?Lament for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economics?, ?Testament for social science? and ?The Nuffield years, and Vera?. In this, Oakley also refuses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary biographical fashion, avoiding autobiography or fictionalisation. The chapters which do chart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wootton?s domestic situation, remain crisply analytical. This is refreshing in its own way, and part of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes the book so historically informative. For example, Oakley treats Wootton?s second marriage as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(erotic meeting of equals across class lines in a context of shared political activism in the 1930s. Oakley also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sees the disappointment of the relationship, as George messes up his Labour Party job, drinks, pursues other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, and essentially crumbles in the face of the frighteningly capable and economically powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wootton. But Oakley considers their relationship through feminist anthropological prisms, where polygamy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and friendship are often the secret story of successful marriage, and where, simultaneously, George?s style )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7513 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of masculinity doesn?t, in the end, serve him any better than Barbara. Oakley refuses to titillate, trying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instead ?to set the story of her life within its context; particularly in a life such as hers, which was so much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occupied with the problem of the individual )] TJ ET BT 247.664 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in)] TJ ET BT 257.000 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( society? \(p. 7\). Oakley jokes about her own insistence on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calling the book )] TJ ET BT 114.344 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Critical Woman)] TJ ET BT 201.680 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, rather than ?The Baroness Who Married A Taxi Driver?, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers chose to cover it at the time of the marriage. The book jacket features a close-up of a white-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(haired and serious Wootton, throwing us a demanding, old woman?s gaze from behind horn-rimmed glasses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, Oakley faithfully follows her subject?s policy-flavoured life and in this way, easily turns biography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a grandish intellectual history. Of course, in this she refuses the methods of micro-history, )] TJ ET BT 491.300 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Annales)] TJ ET BT 529.964 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(school social study, or the now popular model of ?paired? or collective lives. The book is also long: over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(400 pages, as she traces the footsteps of this polymath?s 91 productive years. The sheer size of Wootton?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution \(the 1,792 speeches in the House of Lords alone, numerous television debates\) required four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of archival research and interviews, including with Vera Seal, Barbara?s only ?family? by the time she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(died. Vera was a working-class assistant, enduring friend and executor, to whom Oakley dedicates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography. It is an interesting thought experiment to imagine what Oakley, well known for conceptualising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feminist interviewing methods, would have been able to glean from Wootton in person. Despite Oakley?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obvious respect for her subject, the meeting would probably have been cool. Oakley, introduced to the grand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dame aged 13 by her father, remembers a witty know-all. Yet the book clearly comes from a profound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impulse to find the woman who should always have been honoured beside him.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Who is Ann Oakley?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a woman born half a century later, from a different social background, and politicised in the 1960s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oakley as a biographer brings her own very wide ranging set of interests to this honouring. Who coined the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction between sex and gender in 1972? Who set up the Evidence for Policy and Practice Information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Coordinating Centre at the Institute of Education, University of London? Who, as Director of the Social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Science Research Unit there, led systematic reviews of health inequality and hugely influenced the ethics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social science methods? Who stuck out for evidence-based research in a sea of deconstructionists? Who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went on television to be interviewed as a post-natally depressed mother in 1967? Who belonged to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tufnell Park women?s liberation consciousness-raising group? Who gained a PhD in 1969 for a study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's attitudes to housework that then became both a landmark academic and popular book in the era of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second wave feminism in 1974? Who worked with Juliet Mitchell to mark the concept of sisterhood over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three decades since? Who did the first big study of the treatment of mothers by the medical profession, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in 1980? Who did this despite having been treated for cancer of the tongue, while nursing a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(born baby, in the years just preceding? Who wrote )] TJ ET BT 279.296 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Men's Room)] TJ ET BT 359.852 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1989\), adapted for television in 1991, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(starring Harriet Walter and Bill Nighy? Who indeed has produced seven novels, including some artful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(erotica, alongside at least 15 groundbreaking academic studies? Who also wrote a genre-busting feminist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autofiction in 1984, which declared ?All women are feminists at heart. In their psychology lies a great love )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for women as a class. But it?s interred beneath a great mound of rubbish?. And who, of course, has now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought Wootton back to our attention, a woman we can now assess as having had played a serious part in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of modern Britain as we know it?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(The impact of the individual)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oakley gives numerous examples of Wootton?s search for the facts before recommending any course of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action, an approach with which Oakley clearly agrees. But what do these two formidable defenders of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?evidence-based research? say about the impact of the individual, or even of the policy committee? As left-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wing social scientists, they might not be very hopeful. Yet this book persuades us that ideas like Wootton?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were much more likely to gain purchase than those of her academic contemporaries because of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willingness to engage with the institutions available. This realism brought no guarantees: Oakley recently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested the political control over intellectual impact, noting Wootton?s experience of having been lauded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for her criminal justice policy for rehabilitating offenders, but slammed for her \(just as evidence-heavy\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drugs policy. The crucial role of networks, of international collaboration, and of accessible writing, all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear as other determinants of ?impact factor?, most strikingly in Wootton?s influence over the European )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 5134 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Union. This came about because the Italian political theorist Altiero Spinelli read her ideas on European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(federation while he was imprisoned by Mussolini in 1941, subsequently smuggling out a manifesto on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cigarette papers hidden in a false bottomed-tin box. Oakley muses: ?The number and range of activities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks with which Barbara Wootton engaged during this period [of post-war planning in the 1940s] is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legion. It could, of course, be argued that she was just a woman who had a finger in a very large number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pies. It was a habit of the time to sign letters with one?s friends; to invent and join campaigns; to name and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(re-name movements. But we are left with one simple point: she was there, and she made a difference. By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time Barbara published her autobiography more than twenty years later, complaining in its title about a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world she never made, it is possible that she was in part observing that the world had forgotten how much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she actually )] TJ ET BT 94.004 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(had)] TJ ET BT 112.004 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( made it?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We do not have to endorse a Hegelian notion of the great mind as ?spirit of the age? to appreciate that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Wootton?s life is a missing piece of a puzzle, with much to teach contemporary academics who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wish to find a way through the current government pressure to prove our own ?impact?. This is not to say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the biographer, the fiction writer, and also, the librarian, typist, executor and friend, have no role: we are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connected, we need each other, and we are sometimes the same person, as Oakley shows us quietly, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wonderfully. It does leave us, however, with the continuing irony that having impact does not guarantee you )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will make it into the history books.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/417258.article)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 500.211 m 296.660 500.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 299.660 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(LSE Review of Books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/lsereviewofbooks/2012/04/01/book-review-a-critical-woman-barbara-wootton-social-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 471.699 m 548.924 471.699 l S BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science-and-public-policy-in-the-twentieth-century-by-ann-oakley/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 457.443 m 355.928 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 358.928 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Camden New Journal)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.camdennewjournal.com/reviews/books/2011/nov/books-review-critical-woman-barbara-wootton-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 428.931 m 560.588 428.931 l S BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social-science-and-public-policy-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 414.675 m 194.636 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 197.636 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 411.343 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 393.563 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 393.563 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1395)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 392.169 m 328.316 392.169 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 367.192 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 352.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/54650)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.392 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_and_Tide_%28magazine%29)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/417258.article)] TJ ET BT 34.016 309.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/lsereviewofbooks/2012/04/01/book-review-a-critical-woman-barbara-wootton-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 295.336 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social-science-and-public-policy-in-the-twentieth-century-by-ann-oakley/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 281.051 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.camdennewjournal.com/reviews/books/2011/nov/books-review-critical-woman-barbara-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.680 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wootton-social-science-and-public-policy-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 500.5255 296.6597 512.4055 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/417258.article) >> endobj 28 0 obj << 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