%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R 34 0 R 39 0 R 56 0 R 70 0 R 112 0 R ] /Count 11 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R /F4 18 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140724024626+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140724024626+01'00') /Title (Witness to History: The Life of John Wheeler-Bennett) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3617 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Witness to History: The Life of John Wheeler-Bennett)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1929, Major-General \(retired\) Sir Neill Malcolm advised the 27-year-old J. W. Wheeler-Bennett on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of his future career, telling his younger travelling companion that he should stick to the contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of Germany, extend his contacts in the United States, and give Russia a miss: ?There is no good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trying to be a Russian scholar, it would take too long to learn the language and there are too many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imponderables?. Malcolm imparted a further piece of advice:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 178.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What I urge you to do is to study Germany and the German people from within. Don?t just be )] TJ ET BT 64.016 163.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(satisfied with knowing the ?nobs?, the upper military and political and social echelons; they )] TJ ET BT 64.016 149.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have their place and their importance but there are even more important factors. Get down )] TJ ET BT 64.016 135.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underground and study the grass-roots, learn what the people are thinking and saying, especially )] TJ ET BT 64.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the country districts, where consular and embassy people don?t, as a rule penetrate. Earn the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confidence of ?good? Germans, if you can find them, and be able to assess the villainy of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?bad? Germans too \(p. 54\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheeler-Bennett later claimed that Malcolm?s advice ?set the pattern of my life?, a statement which his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1396)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 21 March, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victoria Schofield)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300179019)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Doug Munro)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8428 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographer Victoria Schofield quotes without correction in )] TJ ET BT 318.308 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Witness to History)] TJ ET BT 406.976 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(see also p. 61\). Wheeler-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bennett did stick with Germany as well as extending his knowledge and contacts in the United States. What )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he demonstrably did )] TJ ET BT 135.008 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(not)] TJ ET BT 150.344 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( do, or try to do, was to get to know the ?mobs? as well as the ?nobs?. True to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background and the attitudes that flowed from a wealthy Edwardian childhood, he consorted with the upper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(echelons. He certainly had warmth of personality and was possessed of the common touch: he was pleasant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to club porters and it?s a safe bet that he never shouted at the servants \(p. 280\). But his charmed circle was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of diplomats and dignitaries, politicians and monarchs. The last is examplified by the index of )] TJ ET BT 509.312 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Witness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(to History)] TJ ET BT 82.352 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which commences with ?Abdication \(1936\)? and ends with ?Zita, empress of Austria?. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between are the names of about 20 other members of British and continental royal families, depending on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how they are counted.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What manner of man he was is also suggested by the mid-1950s photo that faces page 148 in )] TJ ET BT 483.284 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Witness to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 70.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Striking a pose that was typical of the decade, Wheeler-Bennett?s chin rests on cupped hands and he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wears a pensive, even faraway look. Well groomed and in finely tailored clothes, he sports a heavy ring on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finger of each hand; his hair has Brylcreem waves; a trademark carnation adorns the lapel of his jacket. We )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are all entitled to our affectations ? Richard Hofstadter, Arthur Schlesinger Jr. and A. J. P. Taylor went in for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bow ties. Another affectation was Wheeler-Bennett?s hyphenated name but that was his father?s doing, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joining his own surname \(Bennett\) with his wife?s maiden name. Nothing in the photo suggests a man of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people, much less an historian who got ?down underground? or concerned himself with ?the grass-roots?. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Far from writing history from below, Wheeler-Bennett?s )] TJ ET BT 309.968 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(oeuvre)] TJ ET BT 342.620 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( epitomised his moneyed origins and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative outlook: his father made his fortune in the meat-packing business and was politically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reactionary. As a biographer Wheeler-Bennett wrote about ?great men? ? a German general \(Hindenburg\), a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British monarch \(George VI\) and an English life peer \(Viscount Waverley\). As a historian of the recent past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and contemporary events, he wrote diplomatic and military history from a decidedly ?high politics? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By any measure, John Wheeler-Bennett \(1902?75\) led a singular life. He clearly thought his life of sufficient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest to warrant three autobiographies ? )] TJ ET BT 239.300 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Knaves, Fools and Heroes: In Europe between the Wars)] TJ ET BT 510.260 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1974\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Special Relationships: America in Peace and War)] TJ ET BT 274.652 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1975\) and )] TJ ET BT 332.972 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 493.616 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1976\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Born into wealth, his delicate health prevented enrolment at Cambridge University. Instead, he joined the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(League of Nations Union as a voluntary worker. A generous allowance from his father meant that he had no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to seek paid employment. Instead he fostered his growing interest in international affairs by founding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an information service called the Association for International Understanding, which had its own publication )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programme. He managed to do all this while still in his early 20s. When his father died in 1926, Wheeler-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bennett took a share of an inheritance worth 684,188 \(over 32 million in 2011 values\), providing him with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wherewithal for travel and for living on the Continent, intermittently, between 1927 and 1934. This was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when Wheeler-Bennett, following Malcolm?s advice, ?[began] to shape his career as an expert on German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs ? observing the inner workings of the German Reich? \(p. 60\), establishing an increasing circle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contacts, writing reports for his Association for International Understanding \(by then incorporated into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Institute of International Affairs\) and gathering material for a number of his books ? )] TJ ET BT 476.276 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hindenburg: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wooden Titian)] TJ ET BT 126.020 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1936\), )] TJ ET BT 167.012 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Brest-Litovsk: The Forgotten Peace)] TJ ET BT 339.320 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1938\), )] TJ ET BT 380.312 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Munich: Prologue to Tragedy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1948\) and )] TJ ET BT 89.336 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nemesis of Power: The German Army in Politics, 1918?1946)] TJ ET BT 405.320 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1953\). From his ?ringside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seat? \(p. 79\) he became disillusioned about Germany and the prospects for world peace, increasingly so after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Nazi assumption of power. Charming and personable though he was, he nonetheless had a ruthless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(streak: he would terminate a friendship if he considered the person favourable to appeasement; he felt that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roosevelt?s death was timely, on the grounds that a ?ga-ga? president would have been disastrous \(p. 173\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was insistent upon Germany?s unconditional surrender; and he opposed the return of captured German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records after the war. In 1938 he was so disgusted by the fate of Czechoslovakia \(?I had never known that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one could be physically sick from humiliation and impotence?\) that he seriously considered migrating to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States \(p. 105\). In fact, he did spend most of the Second World War there, first as a visiting lecturer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the University of Virginia and then in New York, where in 1940 he joined the British Information Agency )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was attempting to change United States? opinion in favour of entering the war.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 3697 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is by no means the full extent of the activities of Wheeler-Bennett, a self described 'observer of men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and events' \(p.42\) who from time to time participated in the affairs of state. Enough has been said in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous paragraphs to indicate a worthy biographical subject, a project replete with attractions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(challenges. The disappointment is not simply that Schofield, like Wheeler-Bennett \(p. 282\), belongs to The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great Man School of History. She also belongs to The Face-Value School of Biography and presents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheeler-Bennett as he saw himself. Schofield replicates rather than expands upon Wheeler-Bennett?s world-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view. She assumes the mantle of ventriloquist and her evaluation of her sources is mostly uncritical. Those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources are largely Wheeler-Bennett?s autobiographical writings, to an extent that has to be seen to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed. The most effective way to demonstrate the point is to itemise the frequency with which one or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other of Wheeler-Bennett?s autobiographies is footnoted in the eighth chapter of )] TJ ET BT 423.608 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Witness to History)] TJ ET BT 512.276 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(170?96\):)] TJ ET BT 219.970 615.653 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 8 of)] TJ ET BT 284.626 615.653 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Witness to History)] TJ ET BT 120.832 589.397 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Wheeler-Bennett?s autobiographical work referred to in the footnote)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 1)] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Special Relationships)] TJ ET BT 137.684 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 207)] TJ ET BT 34.016 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 2)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Special Relationships)] TJ ET BT 137.684 484.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.194)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 3)] TJ ET BT 34.016 431.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Special Relationships)] TJ ET BT 137.684 431.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.195)] TJ ET BT 34.016 405.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 4)] TJ ET BT 34.016 379.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Special Relationships)] TJ ET BT 137.684 379.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.54)] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 5)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Special Relationships)] TJ ET BT 137.684 326.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.196)] TJ ET BT 34.016 300.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 6)] TJ ET BT 34.016 274.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Special Relationships)] TJ ET BT 137.684 274.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.15)] TJ ET BT 34.016 248.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 9)] TJ ET BT 34.016 221.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Special Relationships)] TJ ET BT 137.684 221.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.198)] TJ ET BT 34.016 195.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 13)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Special Relationships)] TJ ET BT 137.684 169.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.201)] TJ ET BT 34.016 143.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 16)] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Special Relationships)] TJ ET BT 137.684 116.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.202)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 18)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Special Relationships)] TJ ET BT 137.684 64.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.203-04)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F4 /BaseFont /Times-BoldItalic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 2630 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 19)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Special Relationships)] TJ ET BT 137.684 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.205)] TJ ET BT 34.016 731.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 20)] TJ ET BT 34.016 705.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Special Relationships)] TJ ET BT 137.684 705.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.205; another source cited)] TJ ET BT 34.016 679.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 21)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Special Relationships)] TJ ET BT 137.684 653.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.206)] TJ ET BT 34.016 626.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 22)] TJ ET BT 34.016 600.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Special Relationships)] TJ ET BT 137.684 600.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.206)] TJ ET BT 34.016 574.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 28)] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 548.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.15)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 30)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Special Relationships)] TJ ET BT 137.684 495.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.206)] TJ ET BT 34.016 469.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 31)] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 443.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.15)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 32)] TJ ET BT 34.016 390.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 390.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.19)] TJ ET BT 34.016 364.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 33)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 338.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 21)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 34)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 285.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 20)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 37)] TJ ET BT 34.016 233.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 233.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 28, 30)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 38)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 180.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 35)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 39)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 128.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 35)] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 40)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 75.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 42)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 2692 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 41)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 41)] TJ ET BT 34.016 731.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 43)] TJ ET BT 34.016 705.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 705.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 54; other sources cited)] TJ ET BT 34.016 679.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 44)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 653.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 55)] TJ ET BT 34.016 626.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 49)] TJ ET BT 34.016 600.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 600.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 69)] TJ ET BT 34.016 574.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 55)] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 548.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 72-3)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 57)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 495.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 74)] TJ ET BT 34.016 469.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 58)] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 443.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 72)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 60)] TJ ET BT 34.016 390.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 390.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 71)] TJ ET BT 34.016 364.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 61)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 338.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 77)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 67)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 285.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 82)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 69)] TJ ET BT 34.016 233.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 233.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 81-2; other sources cited)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 70)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 180.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 85)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 71)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Knaves, Fools and Heroes)] TJ ET BT 161.336 128.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 155)] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 74)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 75.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 90)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 5887 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 84)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 108-11; other sources cited)] TJ ET BT 34.016 731.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 87)] TJ ET BT 34.016 705.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 705.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 115)] TJ ET BT 34.016 679.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 93)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 653.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 122)] TJ ET BT 34.016 626.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Footnote 101)] TJ ET BT 34.016 600.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 600.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 124)] TJ ET BT 34.016 574.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are extenuating circumstances for leaning so heavily on the autobiographies. In some cases ? such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the visit that Wheeler-Bennett and his mother made to Asia ? the only significant source is one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 545.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiographies, in this case )] TJ ET BT 173.000 545.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Gorgeous East)] TJ ET BT 265.664 545.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(unpublished\). And at certain points the documentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 531.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence is sparse or lacking: there are only two surviving letters to his mother \(p. 302, n. 85\); it is possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 517.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Wheeler-Bennett?s reports of his American activities during the Second World War have been purged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the Lothian Papers \(p. 303, n. 2\); and there are no surviving letters between Wheeler-Bennett and Ruth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 488.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Risher, his wife to be \(p. 308, n. 31\). It is also noticeable that the footnoting of the autobiographies is far less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 474.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevalent beyond chapter eight, partly because Wheeler-Bennett?s final autobiography does not cover much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 460.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the content of Schofield?s final chapters but largely because the shortfall is covered by other sources, such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the Eden Papers. Even so, there is indirect evidence that Schofield has not been assiduous in chasing up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 431.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, unlike some other biographers of historians.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 287.312 431.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 287.312 430.467 m 301.304 430.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 301.304 431.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( She explains that none of Wheeler-Bennett?s reports )] TJ ET BT 34.016 417.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Foreign Office are among his papers at St Anthony?s College, Oxford, although it is possible that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 403.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reported verbally to General Malcolm \(p. 295, n. 19\). But neither is there any sign that Schofield has gone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the Wheeler-Bennett Papers and checked the records of the Foreign Office.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 362.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The result is an undue reliance on the autobiographies. Some biographers of historians avoid using their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 348.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject?s autobiographical work wherever possible, preferring instead to rely on their own research.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 513.896 348.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 513.896 347.187 m 527.888 347.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 334.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schofield has no such inhibitions. The extent to which the autobiographies drive her narrative ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequently the extent to which Wheeler-Bennett?s self-representations are replicated ? can be illustrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 305.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by giving representative examples of how closely the autobiographies are paraphrased ? although, be it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 291.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stated, Schofield does not go to the extremes of some biographers of historians )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.304 291.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.304 290.163 m 429.296 290.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 429.296 291.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( where a good half of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 277.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text comprises quotations from diaries and letters:)] TJ ET BT 214.630 251.045 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 252.298 224.789 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(Witness to History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Now I was master of my own destiny again ? and I was fairly clear in my mind what I wanted to do \(p. 15\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the first time since the beginning of the war, Wheeler-Bennett felt that he was master of his own destiny )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 176\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 131.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As we boarded [the )] TJ ET BT 130.652 131.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Queen Elizabeth)] TJ ET BT 210.308 131.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(] I was handed a cable from my sister announcing the death of our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 117.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mother, who had been a hopeless invalid for some years \(p. 19\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 91.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As he and Ruth boarded, he was handed a cable from his sister, Irene. Their mother, whom Wheeler-Bennett )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described as ?a hopeless invalid for some years?, had died at the age of eighty-three \(p. 177\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 50.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([Garsington] became our property in 1945 because my sister and her husband wished to continue living in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 287.3117 430.7815 301.3037 442.6615 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 513.8957 347.5015 527.8877 359.3815 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 415.3037 290.4775 429.2957 302.3575 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 6417 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford. I bought it from them in America by cable over Ruth?s protests that she did not like Elizabethan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(houses \(p. 23\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When Wheeler-Bennett heard that it was to be put up for sale, he immediately cabled his sister to say that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wanted to buy it, ignoring his wife?s complaints that she did not like Elizabethan houses \(p. 178\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 20\) Together we faced the new world of Britain in the middle forties: a Britain tired and war-weary, yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelled to face the severities of continued wartime shortages while deprived of the continued wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulus. I shall never forget the dour drabness of those years, the greyness of one?s daily existence?. Food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was scarce, scarcer than it had been in wartime. Bread was rationed for the first time in our national history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and had it not been for food parcels which Ruth?s mother so generously sent us from America we should )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been hard pressed indeed. As it was we were able to share our blessings with our less fortunate friends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and neighbours \(p. 20\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Re-entry into England is not easy. The country was ?tired and war-weary, yet compelled to face the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(severities of continued wartime shortages ? I shall never forget the dour drabness of those years, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greyness of one?s daily existence ? food was scarce, scarcer than it had been in wartime. Bread was rationed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the first time in our national history?. Fortunately for the Wheeler-Bennetts, their supplies were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplemented by food parcels which Ruth?s mother sent from America, and which they shared with their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?less fortunate friends and neighbours? \(p. 178\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Witness to History)] TJ ET BT 122.684 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( contains too many direct echoes from the autobiographies. It is not a case of Hamlet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without the Prince, but too much of the Prince himself, and Schofield duplicates the syrupy tone of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autobiographies. Furthermore, Schofield notes that Harold Macmillan, who was both Wheeler-Bennett?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friend and publisher,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could not but regret that, entertaining as the three volumes of John Wheeler-Bennett?s memoirs )] TJ ET BT 64.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were, ?they are too discreet. I would have liked to see on record some of the extraordinary tales )] TJ ET BT 64.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with which he could fascinate us?. He acknowledged that Wheeler-Bennett probably judged )] TJ ET BT 64.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rightly in deciding what material to include. ?There is a gulf of propriety fixed between the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frivolity of the spoken word and the decorum of the printed text? \(p. 280\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such discretion was arguably excessive in the mid 1970s. For a biographer to largely run along the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tram tracks some 40 years later is an opportunity lost.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another contemporary criticism was that Wheeler-Bennett put ?anecdotage before analysis? \(p. 271\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 248.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite her over-reliance on the autobiographies, Schofield does warn that Wheeler-Bennett was in ill health )] TJ ET BT 34.016 234.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he wrote his memoirs and he did so ?mainly from memory? \(p. 329\). At numerous points in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footnotes, Schofield makes up for this lack of verification by providing correction and clarification. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notable correction \(this time in the text\) is that Wheeler-Bennett, whatever his assertions to the contrary, )] TJ ET BT 537.932 206.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did)] TJ ET BT 34.016 191.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(return to Germany after the Night of the Long Knives \(pp. 272?3\). Schofield presents excuses for this error, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 177.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of which is that Wheeler-Bennett?s ?memory of his presence in Germany in the mid-1930s was blocked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on ?psychological grounds??. If dissociation was indeed the case, then it was sheer irresponsibility on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 148.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheeler-Bennett?s part to write autobiographies without recourse to his diaries and papers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 122.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is interesting from an antipodean perspective is that Wheeler-Bennett was never berated for his factual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 108.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lapses, unlike the Australian historian Manning Clark who mistakenly perpetuated the story that he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnessed the mayhem of )] TJ ET BT 159.332 94.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kristallnacht)] TJ ET BT 222.680 94.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. He too failed to consult his diaries. In fact his wife was there and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 79.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clark was safely tucked away in England, arriving in Germany a fortnight later. To compound the error )] TJ ET BT 34.016 65.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clark, deliberately or otherwise, appropriated his wife?s experience and repeatedly presented it as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 51.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epiphany. There was a furore in right-wing circles when one of Clark?s biographers blew his cover.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 512.228 51.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 512.228 50.067 m 526.220 50.067 l S endstream endobj 36 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 512.2277 50.3815 526.2197 62.2615 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R 51 0 R 54 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 8101 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheeler-Bennett is also open to the charge of not checking his memory against his diary entries, but he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such an establishment figure and so widely liked as a person ? whereas Clark had made many enemies ? that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no one kicked up a fuss or manufactured a posthumous crisis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A perennial question hanging over biographies of historians is the correct balance between the life and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works. There will be opinions for every taste. My own position mirrors that of Kathy Burk, one of A. J. P. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taylor?s biographers, who puts the view that there isn?t ?much point in writing a biography of an historian ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or any writer, come to that ? without having closely read and thought about the books, and then making an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to write analytically about them.However, this very much does not preclude writing about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life.How could you have one without the other??)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 271.640 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 271.640 669.027 m 285.632 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 285.632 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This, of course, is not to suggest that focus be entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the works. Important in itself, such an approach does not constitute biography.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.636 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.636 654.771 m 439.628 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 439.628 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Of the recent crop, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Sisman?s biography of Hugh Trevor-Roper comes up short in discussing the works.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 468.968 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 468.968 640.515 m 482.960 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 482.960 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( So too does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book under review. Schofield displays little interest, and less understanding, of Wheeler-Bennett?s )] TJ ET BT 528.608 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(oeuvre)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Take, for example, her notion that Wheeler-Bennett dubbed Hindenburg ?the wooden titan? because his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?final appraisal was that Hindenburg?s life was both pitiful and tragic? \(p. 96\). Another reviewer has pointed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out that the description came from the wooden colossi of Hindenburg built during First World War, into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which people hammered nails, with the proceeds from the sale of the nails going to the German Red Cross.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 528.723 m 48.008 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( One wonders how carefully Schofield read )] TJ ET BT 259.616 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hindenburg: The Wooden Titan)] TJ ET BT 413.276 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, where all this is explained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on pages 79?80. Furthermore, the text is complemented by the book?s illustrations: opposite page 270 is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(photo of ?Hammering nails into the wooden statue? \(and in that cluster of photos is another of the unveiling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a statue\). The misapprehension regarding ?the wooden titan? is a telling mistake that raises doubts about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how thoroughly Schofield has actually read her subject?s works.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather than providing substantive comment on Wheeler-Bennett?s books, Schofield is generally content to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide the back stories and what reviewers said. Sometimes the more interesting details don?t get included, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Wheeler-Bennett initially intending to model )] TJ ET BT 290.996 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nemesis of Power)] TJ ET BT 398.660 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on Hugh Trevor-Roper?s )] TJ ET BT 525.296 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Last Days of Hitler)] TJ ET BT 126.356 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(see )] TJ ET BT 151.676 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 312.320 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 99?100\). At other times, the back story is told )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far better in one or other of Wheeler-Bennett?s autobiographies, such as the lead-up to Wheeler-Bennett )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming the official biographer of George VI \()] TJ ET BT 265.616 375.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 426.260 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ch. 5\). What we do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(get from either Wheeler-Bennett or from Schofield is an insight into the murky underbelly of authorised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography. The person who suggested Wheeler-Bennett for the job was Harold Nicolson, the biographer of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George V. It is well enough known that Nicolson had little respect for either his subject or the monarchy. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(said so in his diary, but Schofield gives no inkling despite having consulted Nicolson?s diaries. Wheeler-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bennett, by contrast, revered the monarchy, and felt that he was privileged beyond measure to have become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a royal biographer. He probably had no idea of Nicolson?s real feelings.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 380.264 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 380.264 288.627 m 394.256 288.627 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alan Bullock put his finger on the qualities that made Wheeler-Bennett a suitable \(as distinct from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competent\) royal biographer ? ?He had the instincts of a courtier as well as an officer? \(p. 198\) ? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schofield also quotes Wheeler-Bennett?s portentous statement that ?Royal Biography, like matrimony, is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be entered into inadvisedly or lightly, but reverently, discreetly, advisedly, soberly and in the fear of God? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 197\). That is hardly the recipe for achieving critical distance or authorial independence. Nor is it any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reassurance that Alan Lascelles, who was George VI?s private secretary, could not fault the draft chapters: ?I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would take [each instalment] home, armed with my sharpest blue-pencil, keenly looking forward to using )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it?. Alas, Lascelles said, his blue pencil ?nearly always remained unblunted ? such emendations as I have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had to suggest were almost invariably the correction of typists? errors? \(p. 209\). That Lascelles was satisfied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is hardly a signal for confidence. Rather, it makes the book immediately suspect, and indeed )] TJ ET BT 479.948 135.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(George VI: His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Life and Reign)] TJ ET BT 104.684 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an anodyne and cloying biography.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 41 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 271.6397 669.3415 285.6317 681.2215 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.6357 655.0855 439.6277 666.9655 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 468.9677 640.8295 482.9597 652.7095 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 529.0375 48.0077 540.9175 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj [39 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 380.2637 288.9415 394.2557 300.8215 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 59 0 R 62 0 R 65 0 R 68 0 R ] /Contents 57 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Length 8152 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The fact remains that Wheeler-Bennett was an anachronism in his own lifetime, and possessed of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complacent attitudes, as Michael Bliss discovered. In the early 1970s Bliss was writing a biography of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheeler-Bennett senior?s Canadian business partner, Joseph Flavelle, and he contacted Wheeler-Bennett )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(junior)] TJ ET BT 64.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who was delighted by my project, and for three years we had Easter luncheons in Manhattan as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he passed through on his way home from wintering in Arizona. Sipping straight vodka in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leather and oak ambience of the Century Club, Sir John regaled me with stories of his father, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flavelle, prime ministers, and statesmen he had known. It seemed remarkable to talk to a man )] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had met both Kaiser Wilhelm II and Adolf Hitler. Very much his father?s son, Wheeler-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bennett was among the last historians to believe that British imperialism had been an almost )] TJ ET BT 64.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualified success.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.664 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.664 616.515 m 168.656 616.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schofield quotes many examples of Wheeler-Bennett?s exaggerated and sometimes nauseating courtliness. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One such example concerns the dedication of his final volume of autobiography. To quote Schofield, ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 551.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Friends, Enemies and Sovereigns)] TJ ET BT 194.660 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published posthumously in 1976. Indicative of the achievement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheeler-Bennett rated so highly ? his status as royal biographer ? he had chosen to dedicate ?with humble )] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duty and by gracious permission? his third volume of memoirs to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Queen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mother? \(p. 280\). He did so ?with deep devotion?. It is a strange thing that a biographer of an historian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely eschews substantive discussion of the subject?s books and in its place routinely mentions such trivia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as who gets named in the acknowledgment sections, and to whom the books are dedicated. To give a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples of the latter: ?Wheeler-Bennett dedicated [)] TJ ET BT 287.276 465.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hindenburg)] TJ ET BT 345.272 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(], ?With affection and gratitude?, to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elected Conservative MP Gerald Palmer and his mother who had frequently entertained him at their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Berkshire home, Prior?s Court? \(p. 96\); ?Among those whose assistance Wheeler-Bennett acknowledged [in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Munich: Prologue to Tragedy)] TJ ET BT 177.668 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(] were ? Constance Morgan \(to whom he dedicated the book\)? \(p. 186\); ?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(John Anderson, Viscount Waverley)] TJ ET BT 202.652 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was published on 27 September 1962, [and] dedicated to Ruth ?with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(love?? \(p. 220\); ?[)] TJ ET BT 121.988 394.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Semblance of Peace)] TJ ET BT 239.624 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(] was duly dedicated to Deakin, ?with admiration and affection?? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 256\); ?He dedicated [)] TJ ET BT 153.644 380.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Knaves, Fools and Heroes )] TJ ET BT 283.964 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(] ?with my love? to his sister, Irene, now in her eightieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year? \(p. 270\); ?Appropriately, he dedicated [)] TJ ET BT 253.280 365.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Special Relationships)] TJ ET BT 356.948 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(] to his American wife: ?Ruth, with my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devoted love, John?? \(p. 274\). Schofield passes these inconsequentials off as serious content ? as fit items )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for inclusion ? which indicates a misplaced sense of what is, and is not, relevant and significant. The result is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Schofield doesn?t come to grips with Wheeler-Bennett?s works.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are also some sweeping assertions that fail to bear up to scrutiny. Schofield states that Wheeler-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bennett ?virtually created the new early twentieth-century academic discipline of ?international relations?? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 21, 282\). She is explicit that this was through his earlier writings rather than his institutional work. No )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence is presented to support this claim and I haven?t been able to find any.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the preceding discussion the question arises: who is best able to write a biography of an historian? It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been suggested that historians have the potential to make the best biographers )] TJ ET BT 428.960 213.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per se)] TJ ET BT 457.952 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 460.952 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 460.952 212.115 m 480.944 212.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 480.944 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( I have never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreed with this, feeling instead that biographers are born, not made. You can either do it or you can?t. I said )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as much a few years ago when reviewing the biographies of the New Zealand composer Douglas Lilburn and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the New Zealand artist Rita Angus. Neither biographer is an historian but they passed with flying colours, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(my view.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 78.680 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 78.680 155.091 m 98.672 155.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 98.672 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( On reflection, it might be better to qualify the notion that biographical writing is an innate skill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to add that a biographer usually needs a grounding in the subject?s primary interests, or else to be able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop the requisite skills. Lilburn?s biographer is a composer and Angus?s biographer is an art critic. That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts for at least some of their success in convincingly depicting their subjects. In the same way it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noticeable that biographies of historians are usually by other historians working in the same field as their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject, or in an adjacent one.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.984 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.984 83.811 m 196.976 83.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 196.976 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Although Schofield has an undergraduate degree in history, she doesn?t )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have a background in Wheeler-Bennett?s interests, and it shows. She is not equipped, and has not been able )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to acquire the equipment, for the task at hand ? for the same reasons that Wheeler-Bennett never became a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 58 0 obj [56 0 R /Fit] endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.6637 616.8295 168.6557 628.7095 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 61 0 obj [56 0 R /Fit] endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 460.9517 212.4295 480.9437 224.3095 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 64 0 obj [56 0 R /Fit] endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 78.6797 155.4055 98.6717 167.2855 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 67 0 obj [56 0 R /Fit] endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 176.9837 84.1255 196.9757 96.0055 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 73 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R 92 0 R 94 0 R 96 0 R 98 0 R 100 0 R 102 0 R 104 0 R 106 0 R 108 0 R 110 0 R ] /Contents 71 0 R >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Length 12213 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholar of Russia. Even then Schofield might have done better had she consulted other biographies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians in order to realise the possibilities of the genre, not least to get a sense of how to discuss Wheeler-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bennett?s writings.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 126.680 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 126.680 766.563 m 146.672 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 146.672 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( A good short-cut would have been to read Mark Cornwall?s article on Elizabeth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wiskemann and the Sudeten question, or even the article on ?The intellectual JFK[ennedy]? by John Fair, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose MA thesis on British appeasement Wheeler-Bennett helped to supervise \(p. 109\). Each article would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have served as a sure and suggestive model for how to proceed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 339.272 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 339.272 723.795 m 359.264 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Relentlessly descriptive and tiresomely reverential, )] TJ ET BT 282.644 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Witness to History)] TJ ET BT 371.312 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an extended obituary which puts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wheeler-Bennett?s platitudes and pieties on full display. It is a missed opportunity. It presents insufficient )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(added-value to Wheeler-Bennett?s memoirs. Rather than writing a penetrating biography, Schofield doesn?t )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(venture beyond its subject?s frames of reference.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.267 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 590.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example Jonathan Haslam, )] TJ ET BT 215.660 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Vices of Integrity: E. H. Carr, 1892?1982)] TJ ET BT 437.648 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London/New York, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NY, 1999\), p. xii; Kathleen Burk, )] TJ ET BT 228.668 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Troublemaker: The Life and History of A. J. P. Taylor)] TJ ET BT 488.660 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haven/London, 2000\), pp. x?xii.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.000 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.000 560.739 m 274.988 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example Jim Davidson, )] TJ ET BT 199.676 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Three-Cornered Life: The Historian WK Hancock)] TJ ET BT 450.320 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Sydney, 2010\), p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viii. It would have been revealing had Schofield discussed her use of sources along the lines, say, of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Erik Larson in his account of William Dodd?s first year as United States Ambassador to Germany. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Larson, )] TJ ET BT 103.340 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In the Garden of Beasts: Love, Terror, and an American Family in Hitler?s Berlin)] TJ ET BT 498.980 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, NY, 2011\), pp. 369?75. Dodd was one of Wheeler-Bennett?s many contacts.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 462.932 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 462.932 489.459 m 516.920 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lewis H. Thomas, )] TJ ET BT 155.672 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Renaissance of Canadian History: A Biography of A.L. Burt)] TJ ET BT 466.004 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Toronto, 1975\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John and Mary Postgate, )] TJ ET BT 185.672 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Stomach for Dissent: The Life of Raymond Postgate)] TJ ET BT 445.664 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Keele, 1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 517.640 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 517.640 460.947 m 557.636 460.947 l S BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 446.691 m 78.008 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark McKenna, ?Being there: the strange history of Manning Clark?, )] TJ ET BT 402.620 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Monthly \(Melbourne\))] TJ ET BT 527.264 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(March 2007\), 22?37; republished, with footnotes, as ?Once more with feeling: the personal voice of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manning Clark?, in )] TJ ET BT 160.676 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Against the Grain: Brian Fitzpatrick and Manning Clark in Australian History )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Politics)] TJ ET BT 121.688 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Stuart Macintyre and Sheila Fitzpatrick \(Melbourne, 2007\), pp. 191?222.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 496.304 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 496.304 389.667 m 550.292 389.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 376.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kathy Burk, e-mail to reviewer, 8 January 2010.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 296.636 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 296.636 375.411 m 350.624 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, Peter Ghosh, ?Hugh Trevor-Roper and the history of ideas?, )] TJ ET BT 422.612 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of European Ideas)] TJ ET BT 550.268 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(37, 4 \(2011\), 483?505; Ronald J. 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291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ufv.ca/jhb/Volume_8/Volume_8_Munro.pdf)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 103.112 289.875 m 374.768 289.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 377.768 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 391.760 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 21 January 2013].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 275.619 m 118.004 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard Overy, ?Networker-in-chief?, )] TJ ET BT 250.280 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Literary Review)] TJ ET BT 327.272 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(May 2012\), 21?2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.588 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.588 261.363 m 473.576 261.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 248.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Cannadine, )] TJ ET BT 153.668 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The 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0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 190.083 m 124.004 190.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 177.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark McKenna, ?The strange history of Manning Clark?, Trevor Reece Memorial Lecture, King?s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(College, London, 27 October 2011.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.332 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.332 161.571 m 294.320 161.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 148.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reviews of Philip Norman, )] TJ ET BT 198.344 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Douglas Lilburn: His Life and Music)] TJ ET BT 376.688 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Christchurch, 2006\); Jill Trevelyan, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rita Angus: An Artist?s Life)] TJ ET BT 199.364 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Wellington, 2008\), )] TJ ET BT 300.356 134.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Zealand Journal of History)] TJ ET BT 455.696 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 41, 1 \(2007\), 96?8; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 43, 1 \(2009\), 130?1, respectively <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 252.416 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nzjh.auckland.ac.nz/docs/2007/NZJH_41_1_12.pdf)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 252.416 118.803 m 557.384 118.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 78.008 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 21 January 2013]; <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 233.168 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nzjh.auckland.ac.nz/docs/2009/NZJH_43_1_21.pdf)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 233.168 104.547 m 538.136 104.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 541.136 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 21 January 2013].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 209.072 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 209.072 90.291 m 269.060 90.291 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