%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 39 0 R 71 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722201310+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722201310+01'00') /Title (George F. Kennan: An American Life) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4309 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(George F. Kennan: An American Life)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?No one knows what George Kennan really meant [to say]!? So did the late McGeorge Bundy, my then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professor, initiate me and a half a dozen other graduate students into mystery of George Frost Kennan. I say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?mystery? deliberately, as both at the time and later, there was indeed something distinctly odd about two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of the life and career of the one-time scholar-diplomat. First, what exactly were the policies that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kennan truly wished to advocate during his years in power at the American State Department in the mid to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late 1940s? The second mystery consists of the amount of scholarly attention devoted to this at times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brilliant but highly irascible \(and indeed almost eccentric\) man. To give a pertinent example: more scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monographs and studies have been devoted to the life and career of Kennan then to any American Secretary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of State in the 20th century, with the possible exception of Henry Kissinger.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 399.308 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 399.308 157.881 m 413.300 157.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 413.300 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Which, from a non-American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective, might strike some as odd, given the fact that, as a diplomat and public servant, Kennan can only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be said to have occupied a position of the first rank for a little over ten years: 1944?52 and 1961?3. It was, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, during the first portion of Kennan?s official career, that he first achieved \(and to his subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regret never quite managed to live down\) public renown as the ?architect? of the American policy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?containment?, the diplomatic strategy which some \(but never Kennan himself\) claimed resulted in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventual downfall of the Soviet Empire in Eastern Europe and of the Soviet Union itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1397)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 21 March, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Lewis Gaddis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780143122159)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(784pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penguin Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York, NY)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles G. V. Coutinho)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 399.3077 158.1955 413.2997 170.0755 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8013 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the time that Bundy made his exclamation to us \(in the fall of 1988\), the first of the two mysteries relating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Kennan was well on its way to being answered, and the man who has provided most of it is none other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the author of this official biography, John Lewis Gaddis. A celebrated diplomatic historian himself in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later years, it is not surprising that Kennan would choose \(almost more than 30 years ago\) as his official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographer the man whom I and perhaps many others regard as the dean of 20th?century American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic history. For the generation of historians of American diplomacy who were in graduate school in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1980s and the 1990s, Gaddis was the most influential scholar in our historiographical patch. With a list )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of important journal articles and books, running from the groundbreaking ?Was the Truman Doctrine a real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turning point?? to the magisterial ?We now know?, Gaddis in many ways mapped out the whys and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wherefores of both post-1941 American foreign policy and the history of the Cold War. The book under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review clearly shows on every page that it has been written by a scholar who has, in one way or the other, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been living with this subject for about 45 years \(Gaddis? doctorial dissertation in 1968, on the origins of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cold War, allots Kennan a prominent if secondary role\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 304.628 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 304.628 612.003 m 318.620 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 318.620 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the oceans of ink \(much of which is Gaddis? own\) which have been spilled on Kennan, what if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything new does Gaddis have to say about his subject? In terms of the substantive aspects of Kennan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career, the answer is: not very much. And given, as mentioned, the voluminous scholarship already devoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Kennan, as well as Kennan?s own autobiographical writings, perhaps this is not altogether surprising. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not to gainsay the fact that Gaddis? life will be, for the foreseeable future, the gold standard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographical treatment of this subject, but merely to state that, given that most of Kennan?s personal papers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been open to scholars for some years now, major surprises and revelations could hardly be expected. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What, however, Gaddis does extraordinarily well is to present for the reader a series of in-depth snapshots of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the linear progression of Kennan?s life. From the lonely and motherless childhood in provincial Wisconsin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the even more lonely and now alienated college student at elite Princeton University, through to the young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and still alienated American diplomat in Riga, Berlin and finally Moscow in the late 1920s and early to mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s, holding what would appear in retrospect as a distinctly ?un-American? set of beliefs and points of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view. From the now highly discontented \(near resigning on several occasions\) diplomat and budding Soviet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expert, both at home and abroad, to the career-defining ?long telegram? from the Moscow in February 1946 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the first head of the State Department?s Policy Planning Staff, to the equally career-defining ?Mr. X? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article in the American periodical )] TJ ET BT 198.308 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Affairs)] TJ ET BT 272.648 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in July 1947, and from his gradual alienation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(withdrawal from the seat of power through his many years as ?Cold War iconoclast? up to and indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond 1989. In most respects Gaddis?s Kennan chimes with the man as previously known and explored. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where Gaddis? biography shines, I think, is in delineating some of the remaining dark corners of Kennan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal odyssey \(or, given Kennan?s Calvinist beliefs, should we say ?Pilgrim?s Progress??\), showing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alienated outsider who by force of nothing more than a combination of a brilliant intellect, a great prose style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and \(equally important according to Gaddis\) a change of perspective by his superiors, became for a short )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, a celebrated insider. Until Kennan once again, due to a combination of personal pique, diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instincts and a different set of perspectives held by his superiors, reverted once more to the position of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alienated outsider, and eventually became a near heretic in relation to the Cold War verities of official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Washington.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Gaddis, Kennan?s journey was of a piece with his at times tortured and self-critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personality. In the words of the American diplomatic historian, Lloyd Gardner, in George Frost Kennan ?the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Presbyterian Elder wrestled with the Bismarckian geo-politician? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 350.300 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 350.300 162.579 m 364.292 162.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 364.292 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and, according to Gaddis the former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often overwhelmed the latter. Far from being eased, much less pushed, out of the Policy Planning Staff by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secretary of State Dean Acheson in late 1949, it was Kennan who in essence engineered his own gradual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(removal from the seat of power, since according to Gaddis Kennan believed to be right was more important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than to come out on top in some bureaucratic power struggle. This tendency for Kennan to be a pure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual )] TJ ET BT 90.344 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(manqu)] TJ ET BT 128.336 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is perhaps best exemplified by the contrast between Kennan and his successor as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Director of the Policy Planning Staff, the future arch-Cold Warrior, Paul Nitze, in terms of the advice they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave Acheson on the fraught question of whether or not the United States should develop a Hydrogen bomb )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in late 1949. Whereas Nitze \(arguing in favor\) submitted a two-and-a-half-page document which was a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 304.6277 612.3175 318.6197 624.1975 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 350.2997 162.8935 364.2917 174.7735 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 8398 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model of brevity and concision, Kennan \(arguing against\) produced a nearly 80-page document of verbose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and moralistic, yet at times highly insightful, prose concerning the dangers of undue reliance on nuclear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weapons . There was of course no contest between the two proposals. As Kennan later admitted, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notwithstanding his characterization of his paper as ?the most important of all the documents I ever wrote in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government?, his advice was completely ignored \(p. 379\). As Gaddis succinctly puts it, Kennan ?had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become prophetic but no longer relevant? \(p. 381\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Within three years, Kennan was to leave government service, never to return except for a short stint as John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(F. Kennedy?s ambassador to Yugoslavia, a posting which Gaddis painfully shows brought Kennan little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure and much grief. With that being the case, perhaps there is no surprise that Gaddis devotes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approximately half of this almost 700-page book to Kennan?s private existence as a scholar and occasional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentator on public affairs. During this period Kennan won such honors as the Pulitzer Prize \(twice\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Bancroft Prize \(once\). Finally, he covers Kennan?s years as a Cold War gadfly \(or to his harsher critics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially a crank\) and as almost an internal migr, utterly alienated in his detestation of contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American civilization. On this issue, I must enter one of my few caveats with Gaddis? opus: the subtitle of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book was chosen, one assumes, with some care in order to refute the idea that Kennan was a Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James character, more European than the Europeans and having little American about him. According to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaddis, Kennan?s frequent claims to be un-American are nothing more than a form of mental irritation, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus not to be taken seriously. Still, one scarcely can think of any public figure in American life in the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century or more who would put pen to paper and argue \(albeit privately\) that the United States should adopt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of a European dictatorial and authoritarian governance \( specifically the Dollfuss & Schuschnigg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime in Austria\), as Kennan did in the 1930s. As Walter Hixson archly noted in his own Kennan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography, Kennan?s ideas were, ironically enough, closer to those of the Soviet regime which he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoroughly detested than to those of his own native country.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 321.992 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 321.992 469.443 m 335.984 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 335.984 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To attribute Kennan?s alienation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detestation of American society and governance as merely forms of eccentricity with nothing substantive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind them, seems to belie the importance of and indeed seriousness of Gaddis? subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another minor caveat with this first-rate study concerns the realm of ideas. Specifically, where exactly did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kennan acquire that mishmash of ideas and concepts which was to be transformed into what became later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known as the international relations theory of ?realism?? Did Kennan obtain them via exposure to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bismarckian concepts during his two years as a student-diplomat in Berlin, Kennan being the only foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service officer in the Russian section of the State Department to be sent to Berlin as opposed to London or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paris?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 63.344 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 63.344 343.395 m 77.336 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 77.336 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Gaddis does not tell us, nor does he even investigate this aspect or any related aspects of Kennan?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual formation and development as a budding diplomat and Soviet expert. Indeed, the only author that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gaddis mentions who was an influence on Kennan in the years prior to his ?long telegram? was Edward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gibbon. To give another example, in a letter to the Hungarian migr historian, John Lukacs, in 1984 \(not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quoted in Gaddis? book\), Kennan stated that the British writer-diplomat, Sir Harold Nicolson, was ?his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(model of the diplomatic historian?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 202.340 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 202.340 272.115 m 216.332 272.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 216.332 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Whether true or not, I would think that this statement would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worthy of investigation in an almost 700-page book. Certainly this is an area for further research by any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future biographer of Kennan. Finally, the somewhat esoteric realm of Kennan studies could I believe stand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater exposure to extra-American sources and indeed comparisons. While Gaddis does use some British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Russian primary source materials, one has the impression that this was more of an afterthought than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything else. Similarly, it would have been interesting to have compared and contrasted Kennan?s views on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Soviet Union during the war, with those of, say, the UK?s Post-Hostilities Planning Sub-Committee. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(light of the fact that the views of both were remarkably similar, what does that tell us about the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western perceptions of the Soviet Union in the latter part of the War? And, given the similarity, could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kennan?s antennae, as they related to Stalin?s Russia, have been truly so singular?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 431.276 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 431.276 143.811 m 445.268 143.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 445.268 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( That being said, can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we say that Gaddis answers the second of the two mysteries of George Kennan, namely the overwhelming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly devotion to this rather curious and unusual man? The answer is yes: for Gaddis, Kennan was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality a teacher and a first-rate scholar more than he was anything else, whether he was engaged in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomacy at the time or not. And perhaps it is this sense of Kennan as a kindred spirit which more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything else explains the fascination exercised by him over academics and historians. He is in short, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether or not we agree with his record as a policy planner, ?one of us?. The brilliance of Gaddis?s book )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 321.9917 469.7575 335.9837 481.6375 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 63.3437 343.7095 77.3357 355.5895 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 202.3397 272.4295 216.3317 284.3095 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 431.2757 144.1255 445.2677 156.0055 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 9451 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consists of conveying this insight to his readers. He deserves many thanks from all of us for this labour of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(love.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 747.315 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the best known studies, see: David Allan Mayers, )] TJ ET BT 324.320 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(George Kennan and the dilemmas of U.S. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Policy)] TJ ET BT 136.340 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, 1988\); Walter Hixson, )] TJ ET BT 333.632 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(George F. Kennan: Cold War Iconoclast)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 1989\); Anders Stephanson, )] TJ ET BT 280.976 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kennan and the Art of Foreign Policy)] TJ ET BT 462.968 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1989\); Barton Gellman, )] TJ ET BT 181.340 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contending with Kennan: Towards a Philosophy of American Power)] TJ ET BT 512.684 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York, NY, 1984\); Wilson Miscamble, )] TJ ET BT 249.332 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(C.S.C, George F. Kennan and the Making of American Foreign )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Policy, 1947?1950)] TJ ET BT 154.676 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, NJ, 1992\). John Lukacs, )] TJ ET BT 333.320 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(George Kennan: A study of Character)] TJ ET BT 516.968 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haven, NJ, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 151.664 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 151.664 629.763 m 205.652 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Lewis Gaddis, ?Was the Truman Doctrine a real turning point??, )] TJ ET BT 403.616 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Affairs)] TJ ET BT 477.956 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 53 \(January )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1974\), 386?402; John Lewis Gaddis, )] TJ ET BT 243.668 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(We Now Know)] TJ ET BT 315.008 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1997\). The dissertation was eventually )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made into a book \()] TJ ET BT 154.004 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The United States and the Origins of the Cold War, 1941?1947)] TJ ET BT 457.676 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), which won the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bancroft Award in 1972.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 183.992 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 183.992 572.739 m 237.980 572.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lloyd Gardner, )] TJ ET BT 140.996 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Architects of Illusion)] TJ ET BT 241.664 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, IL, 1970\), p. 285.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 378.980 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 378.980 558.483 m 432.968 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hixson, op. cit., p. 7. Stephanson in his idiosyncratic if at times illuminating study gets it about right )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he says that Kennan circa 1940 was a: ?radically conservative man, bordering on the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reactionary?. See: Stephanson, op. cit., p. 117. See also Kennan?s frequent comments about his )] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detestation and alienation from America and American life over a good number of years in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Through the History of the Cold War: The Correspondence of George F. Kennan and John Lukacs)] TJ ET BT 538.652 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. John Lukacs \(Philadelphia, PA, 2010\), pp. 91?92, 106?110 and passim. The Henry James )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison was first made by Gardner, op. cit., p. 278.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 328.304 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 328.304 458.691 m 382.292 458.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 445.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This point is made in a study of the 'official mind' of Kennan's generational cohort of American )] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomats. See Hugh DeSantis, )] TJ ET BT 216.680 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Diplomacy of Silence: The American Foreign Service, the Soviet )] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Union and the Origins of the Cold War, 1933-1947)] TJ ET BT 310.352 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Chicago, IL, 1980\), p. 29, where it is noted that )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was ?exposed to his teachers? realpolitik view of international affairs as well as the intellectual )] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current of Weimar Germany, which pulled against the dominant stream of liberalism?. Other than )] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kennan there were only six other American diplomats who received the specialized European study )] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course, before the programme was discontinued. See T. Michael Ruddy, )] TJ ET BT 413.948 360.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cautious Diplomat: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Charles E. Bohlen and the Soviet Union, 1929?1969)] TJ ET BT 316.340 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Kent, OH, 1986\), p. 3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.988 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.988 344.643 m 484.976 344.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 331.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lukacs, )] TJ ET BT 104.672 331.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Through the History of the Cold War)] TJ ET BT 282.680 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 100.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 321.680 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 321.680 330.387 m 375.668 330.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 317.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Foreign Office and the Kremlin: British Documents on Anglo-Soviet Relations, 1941?1945)] TJ ET BT 521.996 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Graham Ross \(Cambridge, 1984\), pp. 147?155, 157?171.)] TJ ET 0.000 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