%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150227232019+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150227232019+00'00') /Title (Kaia, Heroine of the 1944 Warsaw Rising) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4042 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Kaia, Heroine of the 1944 Warsaw Rising)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a very personal book, first published in Polish in 2006. The author, Aleksandra Ziolkowska-Boehm, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tells the story of Cezaria Ilyin Szyma?ska, a personal friend who participated in the Warsaw Rising of 1944. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kaia is the name under which the heroine is known to her friends. The idea of writing about Kaia?s life can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be traced back to conversations and an exchange of letters between the author and her heroine.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author has combined quotes from letters with passages in which she retells what she heard from Kaia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herself. The author uses a collage technique \(following the example of Ryszard Kapu?cinski\) and a ?mosaic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(method? developed by her teacher, the Polish writer Melchior Wa?kowicz. Ziolkowska-Boehm also makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of quotes from other testimonies and from historical literature. The book has 37 chapters, many of them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only a few pages long. The chapters consist of thematically arranged stories and reminiscences or summaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Kaia?s impressions of places she lived at or visited during different periods of her life. A considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the book does not deal with the Warsaw Uprising but with Kaia's life, family and friends before and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the war. These chapters contain numerous comments by the author and sometimes include extensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quotes from books on Polish history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kaia?s story ? as unusual as it appears to be at first glance ? is a typically Polish story. She was born on 2 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(April 1916 in the small town of Zaysan \(today in Kazakhstan\) in the western part of Djungaria not far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1398)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 21 March, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aleksandra Ziolkowska-Boehm)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780739172704)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(37.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(232pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lexington Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lanham, MD)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christoph Mick)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7098 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Altai Mountains. She and her family were not the only Poles in the region. In the 19th century the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian government deported many Poles to Siberia or Central Asia as a punishment for socialist or patriotic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities. After the turn of the century a growing number of Poles also had economic motives for emigrating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the north and east of the Russian Empire. One of these economic emigrants was Kaia?s maternal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grandfather Boles?aw Szemiot, who found employment in Djungaria as an engineer building roads and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bridges. Kaia?s father, Modest Iljin, was a student at St. Petersburg University who was sent to Siberia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of his underground activities. Kaia?s parents married in 1908 and Cezaria was born as their second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(child.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After the October Revolution the family continued to live in Djungaria and lived out the years of the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War and the Russian civil war there. Ziolkowsa-Boehm recounts a few anecdotes from Kaia?s early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(childhood during these troublesome times. By 1922 life under Bolshevik rule had become unbearable and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the family decided to leave for Poland. This was easier said than done and it proved to be a very long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journey. The family travelled by train and it took almost a year before they arrived in Bia?ystok where they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settled. The following chapters tell of Kaia?s experiences at school and include reminiscences of Kazakhstan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and her youth together with a short chapter on animals and their importance in Kaia?s life and that of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family. How these stories are remembered many decades later gives an interesting insight into the processes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of remembering and forgetting. Childhood memories are often very vivid while memories of later events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often fade away quickly. This can also be seen here. The reader learns much more about Kaia's early years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than about her life as a young adult.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The main part of the book deals with the Second World War and the German occupation of Poland. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ziolkowska-Boehm does not offer any deep analysis of the reasons and consequences of the Warsaw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Uprising. The author quotes some of the research literature but there is a greater focus on quotes taken from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the testimonies of participants of the Uprising and linking these comments to Kaia?s own recollections. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kaia?s resistance initially consisted of attending courses held by the underground university. Later she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(participated in the Uprising and worked as a messenger, a very dangerous role as it entailed helping the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different groups of insurgents to keep in contact with each other. Always at risk of being shot by German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(soldiers or caught in crossfire she risked her life more than once, and all the stories show her to be a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brave woman. These chapters do not exclusively focus on Kaia. They also attest to the heroism of her fellow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insurgents, also containing a portrait of Kaia's later husband Marek Szyma?ski and descriptions of friends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and acquaintances, interspersed with anecdotes demonstrating the commitment of the insurgents. Marek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Szyma?ski had been a captain in the unit of Major Henryk Dobrza?ski \(code name: Hubal\) who commanded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last regular unit of the Polish Army still fighting Nazi Germany in the autumn of 1939. Hubal also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formed the first underground unit which resumed the fight against the occupiers. Ziolkowsa-Boehm praises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the heroism of this unit and of its leader Major Hubal who died fighting against the German occupiers on 30 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(April 1940. Marek Szyma?ski took over the command of the Hubal partisans until the unit was dissolved in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(June. Szyma?ski was later highly decorated for his role in the Polish Army and in the resistance against Nazi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany. One leitmotif of the book is the story of the Virtuti Militari order previously awarded to Major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dobrza?ski. It was Kaia's task to guard the order and she managed to keep it safe during the Uprising and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during her time as a Soviet prisoner.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After the defeat of the Uprising Kaia fled Warsaw but she was soon arrested by agents of the Soviet People's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commissariat for Internal Affairs \(abridged in Russian as NKVD\). She was brought to NKVD Camp 41 in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ostashkov where she remained imprisoned until 1946.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last part of the book covers life in Communist Poland. After she was released Kaia returned to Warsaw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where she worked as an architect on the reconstruction of the city. She wanted to lead a normal life, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book tells about her travels and her work, but also shows how badly former non-Communist resistance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighters were treated. Their resistance against Nazi Germany was marginalised, although it survived in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory of those who had lived through those difficult times. Kaia?s husband Marek remained loyal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Major Hubal even in Communist Poland. He saw it as his task to preserve Hubal?s memory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book includes a number of black-and-white photographs, many of them from Kaia's personal collection. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 3629 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are two appendices at the end of the book. Appendix one consists of short quotes about Siberia by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people who were there but also by Americans who were asked what they knew about Siberia. It is not clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how these quotes or the subsequent quotes about the Warsaw Uprising were collected. The quotes from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans without Polish roots indicate the lack of historical knowledge about Poland?s fate during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book tries to preserve as much of Kaia?s life as possible for posterity and is also a celebration of Polish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heroism and a testimony to Polish suffering. The decision to start the Uprising is not criticised but is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented as the result of a decision taken by the resistance fighters themselves. Like Kaia, the author does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not question whether the Uprising made political or military sense but views the Uprising as a natural event, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not unlike a volcanic eruption. She is right to point out that )] TJ ET BT 320.348 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a posteriori)] TJ ET BT 376.688 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( criticism often does not take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary circumstances and the explosive mood in Warsaw sufficiently into account. There are some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good arguments in support of the opinion that the Uprising would have happened anyway, with or without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the approval of the local command of the Home Army and without the consent of the government-in-exile. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This, however, misses the point. One of the main problems of the Uprising was its timing ? it came too early. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The German forces were still too strong. Starting the Uprising in August 1944 was also a political decision. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The command of the Home Army and the government-in-exile wanted to liberate Warsaw before the arrival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Soviet troops as they hoped to improve the Polish position in the negotiations with Britain, France, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(USA and the Soviet Union. However, the aim of the book is not to participate in these historiographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates. Ziolkowsa-Boehm has created a moving testimony to her friend, whose biography is woven into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of Poland in the 20th century. The Polish original won the literature prize of the Association of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polish Writers Abroad \(London\) in 2007.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 482.623 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 464.843 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 464.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1398)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 463.449 m 328.316 463.449 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 438.472 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 424.072 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/55647)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 463.7635 328.3157 475.6435 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1398) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000535 00000 n 0000000617 00000 n 0000004711 00000 n 0000004820 00000 n 0000004930 00000 n 0000005039 00000 n 0000008600 00000 n 0000008728 00000 n 0000008812 00000 n 0000008877 00000 n 0000016028 00000 n 0000016112 00000 n 0000019794 00000 n 0000019922 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 20018 %%EOF