%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 21 0 R 26 0 R 34 0 R 48 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141219063333+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141219063333+00'00') /Title (Museums and Biographies: Stories, Objects, Identities) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1843 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Museums and Biographies: Stories, Objects, Identities)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1399)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 21 March, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kate Hill)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781843837275)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(348pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Graham Black)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 19 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7644 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Slowly but surely the history presented in museums is coming to the attention of academic historians. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the relationship between museums, memory and history remains complex. In selecting what to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collect, museums seek to define what is or is not history. In preserving their collections in perpetuity they act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a permanent, if selective, memory store. In the way they display and interpret that material evidence, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construct and transmit meanings. In contemporary museum display, there is an on-going conflict between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the construction of meanings that support an authorised collective memory, frequently linked to a linear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative of progress, and an ambition to act as places of pluralism and inclusion. Furthermore, visitors to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(museums are not passive recipients. Rather, in the process of engaging with the collections and associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretive material on display, visitors add new content to their existing knowledge and understanding, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construct their own meanings. History is thus selected, constructed and transmitted by museums and then, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the process of being experienced by visitors, it is transformed into ?something else ? their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the past, a type of ?historical sense? independent of the professional historian?s ideal ??.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 542.252 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 542.252 626.259 m 556.244 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the academic historian new to the debate on what makes history in museums, the variety of content, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly in the latter half of this edited volume, gives some sense of the complexity of the subject. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is much of interest that can also be garnered from the first part, not least in considering how museums )] TJ ET BT 525.944 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their collections came into being.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book weighs in at two pounds four ounces, but is heavyweight also in its content, ?... the many finely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articulated and challenging contributions to this rich collection of observations on museums and biography?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Preziosi describes them in his endpiece \(p. 321\). It is based on a conference of the same title, held in 2009 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the auspices of the Museums and Galleries History Group, itself founded in 2002 ?to promote the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of the history and theory of museums and galleries? \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 318.644 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(www.mghg.org)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 318.644 485.955 m 393.968 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 396.968 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 410.960 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). The website states that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Group ?acts as a forum for considerations of the place of museum history within academic discourse and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance for current museum practice?. This dual ambition is evident throughout much of the 325 pages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of text of the book, consisting of an introduction and endpiece, and 21 chapters positioned under six sections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a reflection of the breadth of approaches taken, and supported by 51 illustrations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her introduction the editor, Kate Hill, sets the challenge: ?... to consider how biography in and of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(museum can be used to become more reflexive about the 19th-century inheritance [the 19th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(museum's concern to develop an objective, systematic representation of the world as knowable by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western subject], and to develop new ways of knowing? ? no mean feat if achieved. The central structure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book is defined by its six sections. ?Individual biography and museum history? ?investigates the extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to which individuals have been identified with particular museums, and have even ?become? their museum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in some ways?. ?Problematising individuals' biographies? ?... takes issue with the extent to which simple and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discrete life stories of individual selves can explain museums and their histories?. ?Institutional biographies? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?... aims to examine the extent to which the institution of the museum itself has a biography?. ?Object )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographies? ?... brings together a number of essays which are interested in using the object biography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to understand museums more fully?. ?Museums as biography? ?... assesses the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(museums can produce biographical narratives?. Finally, ?Museums as autobiography? ?... interrogates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways in which museums can enable people to tell their own lives in different ways and for different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groupings?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The three chapters in the first section examine benefactors to the Cabinet des mdailles et antiques in Paris, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the impact of two curators on their institutions ? Hultn at Sweden?s Museum of Modern Art and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pavire at the Harris Museum and Art Gallery, Preston. What surprised me about much of Gray?s account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pavire?s work in Preston was how contemporary many of his ambitions were, not least for the museum to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(play an active role in the cultural life of Lancashire and for the visitor to be the central focus of the museum. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By contrast, Burch?s chapter on Hultn was undoubtedly the most troubling of the book, as he explored ?... )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pervasive influence that certain individuals are able to exert over public collections ? both during their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lifetime and after? \(p. 29\). The lesson Burch drew from his account is one we should all note: ?... the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paramount necessity of maintaining a critical eye on museums and the people and organisations that shape )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them? \(p. 42\).)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 542.2517 626.5735 556.2437 638.4535 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 318.6437 486.2695 393.9677 498.1495 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.mghg.org) >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 6907 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the section on ?Problematising individuals? biographies?, it falls to Anne Whitelaw to challenge the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole premise of the book: ?In the specific case of the museum, biography?s focus on individuals risks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(isolating particular figures from the larger institutional structures that shape their activities, and the linear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character of its narrative does not account for the complexity of the institution itself, particularly as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pertains to the relations between individuals and the roles they inhabit? \(p. 76\). She illustrates this in her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter on ?Women, museums and the problem of biography? in speaking of the privileging of those in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leadership roles, ?... at the expense of uncovering the anonymous, often collective labour of other women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working in museums? \(p. 80\). Her concluding remark is: ?Given the complexity of the institution and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imbrications of its practices with the people ? both known and unknown ? who contribute to their realisation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biography is inadequate to the task? \(p. 85\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By contrast, Sandino, in researching the professional lives of Victoria and Albert Museum curators, is able )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to argue strongly in favour of the biographical approach, placing the curators within the realms of collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory, wonderfully borrowing from Nora to propose the community of long-term curators as a )] TJ ET BT 502.940 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lieu de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mmoire)] TJ ET BT 76.004 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: ?... a community that bears comparison with any village made up of a mixture of personalities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competencies, gossip, surveillance, alliances and disagreements but bound by a commitment to a particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of place? \(p. 91\). Thus, just as we see museum collections as the cultural memory of humankind, if a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selective one, so she sees the curators as an ?active repository of memory? \(p. 91\), based on their lifelong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interaction with those very collections.Five chapters explore aspects of ?Institutional biographies? ? a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary issue, given the unprecedented wave of new museum developments that took place in the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1990s and 2000s. Janes, quoted in the first chapter in the section, has been particularly critical of this:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although often likened to a renaissance, this architectural boom doesn?t merit this praise, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lacking as it commonly does any vigorous intellectual or creative resurgence within the museum )] TJ ET BT 64.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.016 433.443 m 105.008 433.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 396.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacLeod, author of the first chapter in the section, is right to state that we need to establish what we have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 382.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learned from this phase, not least because ?The sole focus on the architect and architectural style neglects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any consideration of the needs of multiple users of the museum and promotes the desire among patrons and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 353.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funders for a signature building by a named architect? \(p. 106\) ? nothing new there then. Comparing this to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 339.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past experiences is one approach. Her example is the prolonged gestation period of the Walker Art Gallery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Liverpool.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other chapters see Miller explore the complex history of Schinkel?s museums in Berlin, Apt examine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 284.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the impact of the use of incorporation in the establishment of non-profit museums in the USA, Rees Leahy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 270.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluate a recent spate of attempts to re-create past exhibitions and Whitehead discuss the ?restoration? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Barry Rooms in the National Gallery in London, in the 1980s. With the National Gallery, Whitehead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begins with the, as he puts it, very basic point that ?museum buildings represent attitudes to knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 227.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specific to the cultures which give rise to them? \(p. 157\). So he shows how the original Victorian Barry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rooms were later modernised as neutral spaces, in a ?reaction against old-fashioned ways of looking at, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding and experiencing art? \(p. 158\), but there was then a significant about face in the 1980s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1990s, resulting in a series of costly restoration projects nationally, reflecting new developments in museum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies and art history. Both Whitehead and Rees Leahy highlight the basic problem however, ?... the fallacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of authenticity at play? \(p. 166\). Visitors do not see the displays as they would originally have been. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dilemma, as Whitehead puts it, is that ?... museums present themselves on the one hand as historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions which prize their own history... and, on the other, as constant re-inventors of themselves ...? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(167\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Object biographies? is a very tight, thought-provoking section of four chapters, each exploring a different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect of what used to be called ethnographic collections. We see the complex ways in which Chinese )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(objects have been viewed and classified by the West over the last 150 years; the journey of a ritual red )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.0157 433.7575 105.0077 445.6375 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7910 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feather coat from 17th-century Brazil via the Netherlands to the Danish National Museum; the private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of a collection of Pacific artefacts; and the uncertainty felt by Cambridge Museum of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archaeology and Ethnography at its rediscovery of a collection of sculptures of Indian ?types?, made in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s, and accessioned into its collections in 1948 and 1951. The underpinning concept for the section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relates theory directly to practice: the ability to present these objects in a way that will stimulate visitors to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think more critically about them, and about the issues that underpin them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Tythacott?s account of the Buddhist bronzes held by Liverpool Museum, we see an early wrestling over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th-century racial hierarchies that placed the Western male at their summit ? how to distinguish between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia?s ?highly cultivated? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.664 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.664 669.027 m 177.656 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 177.656 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( races that were not a part of ethnology and the ?aboriginal races? that were ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placing Chinese figures in a ?position somewhere between the ?civilised? white and the ?uncivilised black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(races? of the world? \(p. 176\). In Franozo?s chapter on the red feather coat, we discover that, from feather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adornments initially being produced for religious and war rituals, local populations in Brazil had begun from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early in the colonial encounter to manufacture them for exchange with European colonisers and travellers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The sculptured heads of Indian ?types? were linked to a belief in the interconnectedness of physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristics and physiological or mental capacities. In Elliott?s discussion, he notes that ?it is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disturbing connotations of colonial oppression, racial prejudice and the objectification of individuals into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representatives of primitive tribes or other anthropological categories that has influenced the ambivalent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reception of Milward?s sculptures by postcolonial museum curators and academics? \(p. 222\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Franozo, speaking of the red feather coat, ?By simply looking at these items, one is confronted with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexities of the colonial encounter that took place between Brazil and the Netherlands in the mid-17th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century? \(p. 196\). Elliott, who displayed the Indian ?types? in 2009-10, believed their presence ?created a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space to reflect upon more difficult and contentious periods in the history of the museum and of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthropology ...? \(p. 226\). The ability of museums to exhibit and encourage meaningful reflection on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult issues is a major contemporary issue, requiring some visitor research to establish impact in both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these cases.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Museums as biography? are a relatively common phenomenon: ?Museums which are focused on a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personality are a popular sub-type of the museum genre, with over 170 in the UK alone, of which the birth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place museum is the best-known type? \(p. 247\). As the author of this chapter, Sophie Forgan, points out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(next in popularity come artists and national heroes, while those on women or scientists form a tiny minority. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Forgan briefly discusses the origins of three of the latter: Isaac Newton?s birthplace at Woolsthorpe; Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin?s Home at Down House in Kent; and the house in London where Sigmund Freud lived from 1938 to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his death in 1939, 20 Maresfield Gardens in West Hampstead. She emphasises the importance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passionate individual believer in the founding of such personality museums. Her focus is on what such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(museums can achieve and how this is done: ?... presentation has to focus on the man \(or woman\) first and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foremost; and the site, the house, its contents are seen as the key to unlocking personality. The purpose is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threefold: to humanise the subject and create a sense of the person, to allow key objects to stand in for a long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and complex ?whole life?, and finally to provide models for inspiration and emulation ... The museum, like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the best biography, has to attempt to re-integrate the personal and the scientific life, but in a very different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genre? \(p. 257\). She is also very aware of the need to meet visitor needs: ?Personality museums have the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem of maintaining that indefinable quality called ?atmosphere?, whilst at the same time attempting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversify the visitor experience ... a sort of individualised consumption by the tourist? \(p. 259?60\). This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the potentially depressing part of her story ? when theory meets practice ? but I feel she has over-egged it a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little. To make this case would require a detailed analysis of the motivations and expectations of actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visitors to personality museums.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Booth, in her chapter in this section, goes a stage further than Forgan in her discussion of the personality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represented, quoting from Parker )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 195.644 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 195.644 105.555 m 209.636 105.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 209.636 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that ?... museum professionals should admit that ?we are not simply in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the business of preserving artifacts; we are also in the business of calling up ghosts? ... The biographical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(house museum is a house haunted in a way that echoes the readers? response to written lives in non-fiction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as fiction? \(p. 231?2\). She sees such houses as )] TJ ET BT 296.300 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lieux des memoires)] TJ ET BT 388.280 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but recognises how sanitised they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can become. Yet the house and the objects in it ? not least, for the writer, the scene of creativity with the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.6637 669.3415 177.6557 681.2215 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 195.6437 105.8695 209.6357 117.7495 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 8196 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study, desk, chair and pen ? provide a public performance of the personality?s life. Like Forgan, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognises that the house experience will be audience driven: ?the audience constructs the house by re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading it as inhabited?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coming to the final section, the concept of the ?Museum as autobiography? is at the heart of current thinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in history museums. It is part of an on-going response to the rise of the new social history in the 1960s and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s, and the influence of the writings of Bourdieu )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 287.984 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 287.984 711.795 m 301.976 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 301.976 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, leading to a call for the ?democratisation? of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainstream museums through the representation of multiple perspectives, social and cultural diversity, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaching out to new communities. Today it reflects the replacement of the single, authoritative version of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past with a multivocal alternative. We see many museums working with those previously silenced, spoken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for or marginalised to reclaim ownership of their own and their communities? pasts. In essence, it is about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the democratisation of the past and the role museums can play in this. The trouble is that democratised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history is messy in comparison with the more authoritative work of academic historians. How do you ensure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the quality of the history presented?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The papers by Steffi de Jong and Elizabeth Crooke add to the debate. De Jong, exploring the incorporation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of individual video histories into museum display, is excellent in her discussion of both the practical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems and the basic issue that the museum still retains authority in defining the interviewing process, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the selection of episodes from the life-story and the loss of individual identity as stories are used to illustrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes chosen by the museum. By way of contrast, Crooke explores how communities research and tell their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own stories as ?contributions to community autobiography? \(p. 309\). The community becomes its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author and censor. Crooke recognises the importance of this switch: ?The expectation of what history is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with whom it is concerned, the sources it draws upon and who should be its author has dramatically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed? \(p. 311\) ? with academics and curators of recent history now ?indebted to the people on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground? \(p. 312\). Crooke also recognises that communities will have different understandings and uses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the past than professional historians and will self-censor material that does not fit into the story they want to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tell. Authority, identity and selectivity are all exposed in these two chapters and I would have relished more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on each of these issues, and on the sheer messiness of democratic history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So, does my account suggest the book is a useful collection of disparate accounts relating to aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(museum history and practice or is the whole greater than the sum of the parts? As a practitioner who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialises in the development of content for museum exhibitions, I must focus on relevance to current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(museum practice. As the comments above make clear, the final two sections relate directly to practice while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that on ?Object biographies? cries out for new, participative and reflective means of display that can draw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out historical issues in ways that will make a meaningful difference to the attitudes of visitors. However, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters as a whole raise a more profound issue. In the ?age of participation? )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 406.916 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 406.916 302.883 m 420.908 302.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 420.908 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in which we now live, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(museum users are no longer willing to be passive recipients of received wisdom, but are becoming more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical and challenging, and expect both to be able to contribute and to have their contributions valued. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectively want a sense of ownership of what are public institutions, and museums must respond to this by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becoming more transparent in all aspects of their activities, and more welcoming of user participation. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue of transparency towards their users is present, if not always noted, in all of the essays in this volume. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an issue that can only become more important.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.843 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 153.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Watson, ?Myth, memory and the senses in the Churchill Museum?, in )] TJ ET BT 415.328 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Museum Materialities: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Objects, Engagements, Interpretation)] TJ ET BT 244.664 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Sandra H. Dudley \(Oxford, 2010\) pp. 204?23, p. 205, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quoted in G. Black, ?Museums, memory and history?, )] TJ ET BT 326.660 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultural and Social History)] TJ ET BT 460.340 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 8, 3 \(2011\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(415?27, 415.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 126.344 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 126.344 109.059 m 180.332 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 96.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. R. Janes, )] TJ ET BT 124.016 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Museums in a Troubled World )] TJ ET BT 273.680 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2009\), p.108.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 385.004 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 385.004 94.803 m 438.992 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Gatty,)] TJ ET BT 107.684 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Catalogue of the Mayer Museum II: Prehistoric Antiquities and Ethnography, )] TJ ET BT 485.324 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1982\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 66.291 m 149.000 66.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 53.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(D. Parker, ?Literary museums: present opportunities?, in )] TJ ET BT 339.308 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Literary Memorial Museums, )] TJ ET BT 483.296 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed. W. Bartel )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 287.9837 712.1095 301.9757 723.9895 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 406.9157 303.1975 420.9077 315.0775 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 126.3437 109.3735 180.3317 121.2535 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 385.0037 95.1175 438.9917 106.9975 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 66.6055 148.9997 78.4855 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R ] /Contents 49 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Length 2344 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and M. Kunze, M. \(Frankfurt & Berlin, 1986\), pp. 25?9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 333.980 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 333.980 795.075 m 387.968 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pierre Bourdieu and Alain Darbel with Dominique Schnapper, )] TJ ET BT 366.968 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Love of Art: European Art )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Museums and their Public, )] TJ ET BT 196.340 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trans. Caroline Beattie and Nick Merriman \(Stanford, CA, 1969 \(1990 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ed.\)\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 89.336 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 89.336 752.307 m 143.324 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. 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