%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818111847+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818111847+01'00') /Title (Oxford History of the Prison: the Practice of Punishment in Western Society) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4315 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Oxford History of the Prison: the Practice of Punishment in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Western Society)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("Woman manacled before giving birth" and "Battery hen cells being built for women" are only two of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various horror stories about everyday life in British prisons which have recently hit the headlines. Hardly a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(week seems to go by without new revelations about dire conditions in prisons both here and across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atlantic. But such concern about the problems of life behind bars generally has little real impact on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentencing policy. On the contrary, both Britain and the US have experienced a considerable growth in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison and jail population since the mid-1970s. In the US in early 1992, 455 people were imprisoned per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(100,000 of population. Prisons are so accepted today as a fundamental part of criminal justice, that for most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people it must be inconceivable how society could ever do without them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, as is pointed out in the rich and compelling "Oxford History of the Prison", co-edited by Norval Morris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and David J. Rothman, the prison emerged barely 200 years ago as the major way of dealing with offenders. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 13 contributors trace the history of punishment and incarceration from ancient times to the present, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(setting the extraordinary transformation of the ideology and practice of imprisonment into the larger context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of social and political change. The book is divided into two parts, the first one offering a straightforward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical narrative, focusing primarily on the prison system of the US and Britain since the 1780s. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters of the second part consider in more detail a number of themes, such as local justice, the juvenile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reform school and the history of the literature of confinement. What unites most of the essays is the attempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 November, 1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Rothman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norval Morris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(489pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780195118148.do?keyword=oxford%20history%20of%20the%20prison&sortby=bestMatches)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nikolaus Wachsmann)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5471 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to address the question of how the prison system could have gained such credibility, since the system itself is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so strange that in David J. Rothman's words it "can still prompt an inmate to want to meet the man who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dreamed it all up, convinced that he must have been born on Mars" \(p.128\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact, the prison is very much a product of this world and was already known in ancient and medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times. Yet, in the middle ages the prison population was still largely confined to those awaiting trial or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implementation of their sentence, and to debtors. Other forms of punishment were much more popular, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pieter Spierenburg points out in his excellent chapter on early modern Europe. Contemporary attitudes were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most clearly embodied, according to Spierenburg, in execution on the scaffold, and other forms of corporal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punishment such as mutilation, whipping and branding. These and other non-physical public punishments, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including symbolic acts of shaming and dishonouring, had a highly ritualistic and theatrical character, partly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aimed at the deterrence from crime of the assembled public.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the nature of the penal system of Europe had changed greatly by the mid-18th century, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various forms of incarceration gradually replacing the "theatre of horror". From Spierenburg's account there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerge two distinct developments which help explain this shift. Firstly, imprisonment with forced labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and other forms of penal servitude \(such as the galleys\) grew increasingly popular from the early-16th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century onwards, as attitudes towards idleness and poverty changed. The poor were increasingly expected to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work, and houses of correction emerged all over northern Europe to ensure that they would do so. Secondly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes to the body of the offender and to public punishment altered, with the judicial elites being more and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more reluctant to hand out death sentences or penalties involving mutilation. These factors combined to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make imprisonment a well-established element of criminal justice by the end of the early modern period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But imprisonment was not yet totally dominant as a form of punishment. For example, transportation was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still very popular in England, both in the 18th century to the America, and in the following century to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Australia. Furthermore, prisons were not yet what we refer to under that name today. As Randall McGowen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out in his account of the English prison, "the contrast between a prison in 1780 and one in 1865 could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scarcely have been greater" \(p. 79\). In the 18th century, the debtors and remand prisoners in the local jails )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often mingled together with petty offenders who were sent to the workhouse. In the prisons there was little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sign of authority, it was noisy and smelly, and some prisoners were gambling while others were drinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beer sold by the jailors. The inmates were also relatively free to mingle with friends and family. All this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to change at the end of the eighteenth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a period which saw the temporary end to transportation and an apparent increase of crime after the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Revolution, the discussion about confinement was renewed. A prison reform movement emerged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in England, commonly associated with John Howard and his 1777 book "The State of the Prison in England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Wales". Religiously inspired, the reformers attacked the contemporary disorder in the prison and aimed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at methods which would reform the prisoner. Yet, despite the continuation of the debate about the state of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisons in the early 19th century, prisons in England in the 1820s generally still operated on the basis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informality. It was the influence of penal experiments in America that led to the most sustained effort in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England to reconstruct the prison in the following decades.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7295 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As David J. Rothman argues in his chapter on the US prison system, the 1820s and 30s in the States were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised by widespread fears about the supposed disintegration of society and the family. It was in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context that reformers discovered the prison as a place to teach order and discipline to the offenders, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were perceived as a fundamental threat to the stability of society. The basic idea was to hold prisoners in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solitude in order to shield them from the supposed contaminating influence of other convicts. Being left in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely silence with only the company of one's conscience and the Bible was to bring about the spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(renewal of the offender. Also, a strict diet of work and military discipline would help to turn them into law-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abiding citizens. Prison building flourished until the 1840s, aimed at transforming the prison from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(physically and morally filthy place of confinement into a clean and rationally functioning reform-machine. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The optimistic belief in the new prison based on uniformity and impersonality was widespread. One prison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chaplain insisted: "'Could we all be put on prison fare, for the space of two or three generations, the world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would ultimately be the better for it'" \(p. 118\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The interesting theoretical issue concerning the emergence of the prison is how the authors interpret the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development away from the brutal sanctions against the body to imprisonment. It was long maintained in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature on punishment that this shift ought to be seen as a logical step in the ever-continuing progress of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanity. This consensus was attacked most forcefully by Michel Foucault in his 1975 "Discipline and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Punish", where he described the prison as part of a larger attempt by bourgeois society to discipline and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominate, and to punish the slightest deviation from what it prescribed as normative behaviour. Foucault's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas crop up a number of times in one way or another in the "Oxford History of the Prison", as do the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theories of other writers on the history of punishment like Norbert Elias, Georg Rusche and Otto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kirchheimer. As the book is directed at readers without any prior in-depth knowledge of the subject, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regrettable that the editors did not chose to include a chapter on the different methodological approaches to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punishment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The general thrust of the articles in the "Oxford History of the Prison" is to describe the emergence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison neither as a glorious humanitarian effort, nor as a totalitarian project aimed at social or class control. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather, they point to the contradiction between what the reformers intended and the cruel system of isolation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and de- personalisation which was ultimately created. So had the life of inmates improved by the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century? No clear answer emerges. To be sure, prisons were cleaner places, and the cruel spectacle of public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporal punishments had largely ended. But while in earlier times only a fraction of offenders had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ritually punished, now an ever increasing number were sent to prison, for longer stretches of time. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Lucia Zedner points out in her insightful chapter on women and the prison, the 19th century reform )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement was definitely welcomed by the small number of female prisoners. Women were finally separated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from male prisoners, which put an end to their constant exploitation. For example, the governors of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London Bridewell had in previous centuries run their prison as a lucrative brothel, forcing female inmates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into providing sexual services - an "unorthodox form of prison employment" \(p. 329\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The following chapters also show that while simplistic doctrines about the development of punishment may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer easy explanations, they often have little historical validity. For once, it is a fallacy to assume that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("punishment of the body" was more or less overnight replaced by "punishment of the soul". Corporal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punishments continued as a disciplinary measure inside the prison walls well into the 20th century. The last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whipping in Delaware's prisons took place in 1954, and in England flogging as punishment was abolished as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late as 1967. Furthermore, as emerges from Sean McConville's account of the English prison system from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mid-19th to the mid-20th century, hard labour in Victorian prisons was very much directed at the body.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Administrators believed that the mere denial of freedom was not punishment enough and thought up various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways of intensifying the pains of imprisonment. Their industriousness made the hand crank and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treadwheel common features in prisons of the second half of the 19th century. The latter was an especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cruel device, constructed of a series of steps on a huge wheel which was to be turned around by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisoner's climbing motion. Not only was the work physically exhausting, but it was also mentally gruelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the prisoners as it produced absolutely nothing. The only justification of this, in McConville's words )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("scarcely veiled torture" \(p.147\), was to punish the prisoners. A medical and scientific committee was set up )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6983 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the 1860s to determine the amount of labour that could be expected from the prisoners, and after rational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberation the experts concluded that prisoners sentenced to hard labour were to ascend 8,640 feet per day.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The impact of the medical profession on the prison, the medicalisation of crime and punishment, gathered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing momentum in the following decades, and in the 20th century eugenic justifications were invoked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to incarcerate those who were supposed to present a risk to the future health of the nation. On the whole, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect is slightly neglected in Morris and Rothman's volume. The belief that the supposedly objective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methods of criminal-biology or psychiatry were the key to solving all problems associated with criminality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was widespread. These disciplines seemed to provide a way of scientifically determining who was destined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to offend again, and thus to be locked away for ever.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Psychiatry and psychology also had an impact on life in American prisons, as Edgardo Rotman shows in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter on the US penal system in the 19th and 20th century. However, attempts to fully implement the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therapeutic model of the prison failed time and again because of over-crowding and under-funding. A prison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(report of 1965 concluded that "life in many institutions is at best barren and futile, at worst unspeakably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brutal and degrading" \(p. 193\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Compared to the worst excesses of the 19th century, life inside has today improved in some ways. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ventilation and sanitation have changed the prison infrastructure, recreational options like sports, libraries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and TV's have grown and prisoners have at last acquired some legal status. Yet, order and discipline is still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prioritised over individual treatment. Riots, gangs and HIV are pressing problems, and so is over-crowding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in institutions often purpose-built to suit the ideals of 19th century punishment: less than one quarter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English prisons in use in the late 1970s were built in the 20th century. As emerges from an account of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisoner of his experience in an US institution in the 1990s \(cited in Norval Morris chapter on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary prison\), arguably the worst problem of life behind bars today is its purposelessness - its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dullness, monotony and utter boredom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The contradictory history of the prison, torn between its over-optimistic rhetoric and often grim reality is set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out with great skill by the various authors of the present volume. Its readability is enhanced not only by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high standard of writing, but also by many illustrations - photos, drawings, paintings - which offer a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graphic insight into life in prison. While most chapters include endnotes for suggested further reading, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been useful especially for academic readers had the authors also included footnotes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The major problem with the "Oxford History of the Prison" is its all too narrow geographic conception. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the subtitle of the book promises an exploration of "the practice of punishment in Western society", )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is all too often equated simply with "the practice of punishment in Anglo- American society". This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduction leaves many interesting areas of the modern penal system either unexplored or dealt with only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superficially. For example, Patricia O'Brien has less than 30 pages \(of more than 450\) to deal with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European prison system in the 19th and 20th century. She devotes only 10 lines to the experience of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisonment in Nazi Germany - even though she states herself that the concentration camps represent the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most extreme use among all European nations of the deprivation of liberty as a form of punishment. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editor's explanation of this omission is not persuasive. Morris and Rothman argue that "the genocidal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices that went on within the camps did not take their inspiration from the conduct of criminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punishment" \(Introduction, p. xiv\). However, concentration camps were clearly influenced by experiences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn from criminal punishment. Also, by the time the genocide began in the death camps of Eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, gigantic prison and labour camps within Germany had already been in operation for a full 8 years. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But even if one chooses to neglect the camps, how did the prisons proper in fascist Italy and Germany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compare with their counterparts in democratic societies, and what does this tell us about the nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The half-hearted description of modern European punishment is also evident in O'Brien's treatment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisonment in the Weimar Republic. Relying on only one outdated source, she describes this period as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mere preface to the Third Reich: Weimar, she argues, relied on the increasing use of the death penalty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the increased severity of punishment. In fact, the Weimar period saw the first sustained effort at a reform of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6117 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the prison system in Germany, with the introduction of independent supervisory bodies, holidays from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison and experiments with limited forms of prisoner self-rule. One leading reformer, Max Grnhut, declared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1931: "Until recently, the educational premise was the hazardous enterprise of a few theoreticians. Today, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it seems to be universally accepted, and the judicial administrations are obviously competing with one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another to modernise the prison service". Similarly, the numbers of executions in Prussia dropped from 172 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1900-1910, to only 47 executions between 1920 and 1930. As the late German historian Detlev )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peukert has pointed out, Weimar has its own complex history and should be judged on its own terms, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merely as a prologue to the Third Reich.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The focus on the English speaking world is all the more regrettable, as in most European countries the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of the prison declined after the Second World War, in marked contrast to the US and Britain. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Questions about what one might learn from this experience remain unanswered. Overall, the structure of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book would have been more convincing had the editors consistently stuck either to a wider western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectivethroughout the book, or to the Anglo-American experience only. The inconsistency of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(application of the term 'western society' is apparent once more in Aryeh Neier's chapter on the history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political prison. After being offered little or no information in the entire book on imprisonment in Hitler's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany or Stalin's Soviet Union, the reader is confronted here with accounts of the prison system in China, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(El Salvador and Indonesia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Surveying the last 200 years of the history of the prison, one might well ask why the constant failure of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison to live up to its claims has had no impact on its continuing longevity. The history of the prison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerges as a succession of phases of over-exaggerated optimism in the power of the prison to change human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour, swiftly followed by failure in the realm of reality. One explanation for the survival of the prison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be that it has been successfully presented as the embodiment of a variety of contradictory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justifications for punishment: it can been seen as incapacitating, retributive and as educative; either as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(harshpunishment or as benevolent reform, whichever suits the public mood best.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No research has been able to demonstrate a positive link between a higher rate of imprisonment and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reduction of the crime rate. In fact, as Norval Morris points, "the less effective the prisons are in reducing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crime, the higher the demand for more imprisonment" \(p. 257\). The view persists that increased severity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(punishment will lead to less crime. In this context, the prison has also become a weapon in politics. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris observes, being "tough on crime" today is a precondition for election to public office, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprisonment remains the preferred way of demonstrating this resolve in the never ending but constantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proclaimed "war on crime". It emerges from this book that as long as this naive belief in the powers of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prison is not put into perspective by its history of failed promises, the rallying cry of politicians in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the US will continue to be "prison works" - irrespective of which party they belong to.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Free Library)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+Oxford+History+of+the+Prison%3a+The+Practice+of+Punishment+in...-)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 248.115 m 563.960 248.115 l S BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a018937957)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 233.859 m 93.344 233.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 96.344 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 230.527 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 212.747 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 212.747 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/14)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 211.353 m 316.316 211.353 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 186.376 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.976 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/192)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.691 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 143.435 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+Oxford+History+of+the+Prison%3a+The+Practice+of+Punishment+in...-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 129.064 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a018937957)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 248.4295 563.9597 260.3095 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+Oxford+History+of+the+Prison:+The+Practice+of+Punishment+in...-a018937957) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 234.1735 93.3437 246.0535 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+Oxford+History+of+the+Prison:+The+Practice+of+Punishment+in...-a018937957) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 211.6675 316.3157 223.5475 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/14) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000585 00000 n 0000000667 00000 n 0000005034 00000 n 0000005143 00000 n 0000005253 00000 n 0000005362 00000 n 0000008923 00000 n 0000009051 00000 n 0000009135 00000 n 0000009200 00000 n 0000014724 00000 n 0000014789 00000 n 0000022137 00000 n 0000022202 00000 n 0000029238 00000 n 0000029336 00000 n 0000035506 00000 n 0000035633 00000 n 0000035792 00000 n 0000035918 00000 n 0000036077 00000 n 0000036205 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36299 %%EOF