%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141020023021+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141020023021+01'00') /Title (Sociability and Power in Late-Stuart England: the Cultural Worlds of the Verneys 1660-1720) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4409 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Sociability and Power in Late-Stuart England: the Cultural Worlds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(of the Verneys 1660-1720)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The seventeenth-century Verneys of Claydon House, Buckinghamshire are probably the best documented of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all Stuart gentry families, their archives frequently exploited by historians. Their letters enliven general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives from S.R. Gardiner's civil war volumes onwards, and their papers have been more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensively mobilised in an exemplary case study by John Broad of the economic fortunes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentry in an era of war, punitive taxation and confiscation, and for a debate about the nature of family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships between Miriam Slater and Sara Mendelson. Anyone who thought there could be little left to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learn will be disabused within a few pages of this fascinating book. Ten-years work of painstaking and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systematic research on over 12,000 papers, has resulted in a wide-ranging study of social and cultural change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as experienced, or sometimes initiated by the Verneys. Whyman's subtle general points emerge slowly from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a mass of detail. Her method is that of lace-maker weaving a series of complex, sometimes repetitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns into a broader fabric. The book's detail, and its admirable refusal of over simple generalisations, do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not make for easy reading, despite many absorbing and well-chosen vignettes, but perseverance brings many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rewards.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whyman's study is constructed around the life of John Verney, born in 1640, a `younger son in a financially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strapped, royalist family that practised primogeniture'. Prompted by circumstances, but also drawn by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal inclination and talent, John made his way in the world as a merchant, but became heir on the death )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his brother and nephews and thus succeeded to the estates on the death of his aged father Sir Ralph in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1696. The first chapters cover Sir Ralph's social world after the Restoration, revealing through the matters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business, pleasure and routine - quarter sessions and horse-races, funerals, elections and market days - the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(140)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 October, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Susan Whyman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(301pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ann Hughes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7136 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overlapping networks which brought together town and country, rich and poor, men and women in complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interrelationships. The same people appeared over and over again in different guises in Sir Ralph's world - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any one neighbour might be a tenant, a potential voter, an object of charity, or a troublesome opponent in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(law court.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whyman then discusses John's life as a Levant merchant who did well in Aleppo after a slow start, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returned to London in 1674, obsessively careful with money and convinced through hard experience of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value of influential connection. Links forged through his former master, Sir Gabriel Roberts, were crucial to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his subsequent success. A vivid discussion of London networks presents the city, then as now, as a sum of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many more local villages, with Covent Garden and Chelsea as John's particular neighbourhoods. John's wide-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging economic enterprises, encompassing land, lotteries and investment in public funds as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overseas trade reveal the impact of the financial revolution. His social contacts and credit relationships )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(especially\) were equally broad and socially diverse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters on urban sociability, the marriage market and politics follow. The marriage settlements of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Verneys show the tensions between individual aspirations and family strategies, as well as the variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influences which determined the outcome of any particular courtship. The crucial role marriage to heiresses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played in Verney estate building is underlined. Within this family, there was a ruthless focus on dynastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ends, which in the eighteenth century seems to have led to a particularly marked stress on the heir at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expense of younger siblings. Again Whyman stresses the impact of the financial revolution on marriage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlements amongst the elite, with female property increasingly found in stocks, shares and money rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than land.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally Whyman discusses Buckinghamshire politics as they became increasingly embroiled with the `rage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of party', from the 1670s, to some extent, and very dramatically from the 1690s. Politics `permeated every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect of the Verneys' lives' and was carried out through everyday social activities [p. 147]. By the 1690s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guest lists for dinners, marriage plans, and horse racing schedules were all defined by party as long-standing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbourly and kin relations broke down. Sir Ralph found it hard to come to terms with the demands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(party, with the need to buy votes and co-operate with national organisations. So, for different reasons did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John. He came to Claydon in 1696 with a businessman's attitude to rural social life: his private funeral for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his father robbed the country of the usual opportunity for display and hospitality; and he regarded the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distribution of venison and other charitable or hospitable acts as a waste of money. In John Verney's long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political struggle with his Whig neighbours \(and previous friends\), the Temples and Dentons, he realised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after four lost elections that miserliness did not win votes \(although Tory connections led to an Irish title as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Viscount Fermanagh in 1703\). Treating and hospitality brought success as part of the Tory landslide in 1710, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only for changing national trends to bring defeat in 1714.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whyman's discussions rest especially on the Verneys' correspondence with men and women of all social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranks, including the very humble, `an elegant courtesy letter' from John's black servant from Guinea, another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the `country cook' [7]. She shows how `thick description' of the minutiae of correspondence, visiting, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and gifts can illuminate larger issues of gentry and mercantile life, always with an eye for a telling detail or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case study. She explores Sir Ralph's life through analysis of his gifts of venison, tracing the body parts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one buck in particular, as in one of the last acts of his life, Sir Ralph sent minutely calibrated gifts to a range )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of friends, dependent relatives and powerful potential patrons. This looks in some ways like a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional preoccupation. The capacity to confer gifts of venison was a symbol of landed hierarchy and elite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, for hunting rights were confined to a few. The movement of joints of venison also revealed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex web of mutuality and paternalism within hierarchy. Sir Ralph's poor relatives could themselves act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as patrons when they subdivided their share amongst even poorer contacts, and all recipients had something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to give back to the head of the family. Tenants were often also voters; female relatives provided news, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advice on potential marriages and health care.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet the distribution of venison was also revelatory of social change. Most of Sir Ralph's deer went in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1690s to his London contacts: to the landlord of his London base, to an Exchequer teller who had done him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an unwise favour. This old country gentleman indeed spent most of his time in the city although he died in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7002 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buckinghamshire. Venison was embedded in a market and money economy rather than offering an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative tradition of the gift: venison could be sold on, while less obviously the whole process of giving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulated a round of cash tips to park keepers and carriers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To show how John `learned the rules of politeness' [84] while a London merchant, Whyman focuses on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visit and the coach. Doing the right thing in London was especially important, and especially difficult, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely because social contacts there were so fluid. Carefully calibrated visits were essential if sensitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contacts were to be satisfied. The ownership and loan of coaches, even the seating plans within them, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vital demonstrations of standing. The right to visit a richer or more powerful relation or patron was a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public guarantee of status, as was the length and order of visits. If lively, moneyed kin were favoured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socially over older women living in genteel poverty, bitter offence could be caused, as happened when John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forgot to visit one aunt with his new wife in 1680. Thereafter the aunts helped John negotiate the minefield )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of urban sociability which combined the informality of frequent short visits with unstated but crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conventions such as the `rule of the return', ensuring that patterns of visiting could be `cut-throat affairs' [94-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5].)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her discussion of urban sociability as throughout the book, Whyman is particularly perceptive on gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships and the experience of women, stressing the informal influence women had despite the formal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patriarchal structures so evident in the Verney family. Women had more freedom in the town than in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country - as arbiters of manners as well as active social beings. They were crucial as marriage brokers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispensers of news. Whyman stresses the variety of experience found amongst the Verney women: some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich connections chose to avoid marriage - for a variety of motives, but other single women faced a lifetime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of humiliating financial dependency. The Verney family had its share of `defiant and independent women' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as John's third wife Elizabeth who `expressed strong opinions, invested in the city, bred her own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animals and influenced the giving of patronage' [141] and played a major role in estate management and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(electoral politics, especially in 1713 [170-1]. Characteristically, `overlap and complexities' rather than rigid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctions between male and female worlds are the hallmarks of Whyman's analysis [108].)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ageing patriarch Ralph and the younger son turned head of family John are portrayed with consummate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skill, as are John's first and third wives and the vulnerable, impoverished but never to be ignored roll-call of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importunate aunts. On the other hand, the tantalising glimpses of the most unsatisfactory first son, `Mun' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Edmund\), whose womanising and drunkenness drove his unfortunate wife mad, make one impatient for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(full account [pp 116-7].)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whyman's book is an exercise in the application of technology to qualitative rather than quantitative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material: John Verney's correspondence as heir and head of the family along with other crucial documents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(as outlined in Appendix One\) have been indexed for two complex subject and thematic databases. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enables Whyman to offer some brief and effective summing up of family and friendship networks, by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tabulating who wrote to whom, and how often; and to indicate the preoccupations of correspondents with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some fascinating results. Coaches were mentioned in 165 letters, 1692-1717, elections in 570, taxes in 139, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriage in 656, pregnancy in 61 and death in 247. This is not done mechanically - as already indicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whyman's more characteristic technique is for the detailed, revealing vignette, not the statistical table.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whyman is aware of the problems in interpreting letters - self-conscious textual constructions, which are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(`only partially transparent'. Claims that correspondence allows us to `eavesdrop on the thoughts of people' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([pp 11, 7] are perhaps occasionally too straightforward - as Whyman's comments elsewhere acknowledge. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There may be a fundamental distortion in the archive deriving from the fact that Sir Ralph, in particular, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensured that the family correspondence was carefully preserved - as `an ordered family memory' [179]. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, the frequency of referral to a topic in letters is not necessarily a measure of significance. Some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things were `too painful for expression': the tragically early death of John Verney's beloved first wife hardly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(registered in the database [p. 119]. Others were evaded: the cautious Verneys [p. 65] `hesitated to put beliefs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in writing' - in the tense years after the Restoration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An overly-literal acceptance of the `truth' of personal sources contributes to an account of political change )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7189 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is rather less nuanced than other sections. She not only accepts at face-value Sir Ralph's self-image as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderate, peacemaker - [`I am always for peace', was his motto, p. 157], but assumes he is representative of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the whole of gentry society before the Restoration. Buckinghamshire, the county of John Hampden as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Sir Ralph's loyal courtier father who perished trying to hold on to the king's standard at Edgehill, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely riven by political conflict before the age of party. Whyman adopts Kishlansky's account of the rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adversary politics after 1660, but this may be an oversimplified narrative found in the nostalgic self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentations of those struggling to cope with the party politics of the later seventeenth century. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Verney papers specifically the sources may themselves construct a paternalistic golden age, used by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondents to criticise the undoubted innovations of John Verney, running his estate like a business until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced to modify his stance for electoral motives [159]. On the other hand, we are given a complex and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought provoking picture of John the Tory squire. As a younger London merchant he had been a devotee of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latitudinarian preaching and in practice willing, for the sake of business, to socialise and even worship with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dissenters. Neither did he have any truck with Jacobitism after 1715.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appendix One and the Introduction are central successful elements in the welcome and rather unusual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodological self-consciousness in Whyman's book. Each chapter is also punctuated by thought-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoking, but overly compressed passages dealing with theoretical issues, sometimes amounting to little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than brief soundbites from a bewildering range of scholars. Readers may be provoked into questioning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the absence of their own pet theorists amongst the crowd - Pierre Bourdieu for example is missing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On occasion, as with the use of Kishlansky's framework of political change, Whyman's book adds depth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subtlety to an overall picture provided by others, rather than providing a distinctive interpretation. But in two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas she provides particularly valuable contributions to our understanding of social change in this period: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the massive impact of London, and the complicated intermingling of mercantile and gentle culture. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows brilliantly how `social lives, cultural values, and personal networks' were affected by the growing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of London.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the later seventeenth-century London was crucial to all aspects of gentry life - as marriage market, centre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of consumption, entertainment and good conversation, of law and politics. John performed a crucial role for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his family as a London broker, buying treats, sending news, and contacting lawyers. After inheriting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claydon, John, like his father in his later years, spent the bulk of the year in London.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is an equally valuable discussion on the relationships between merchants and gentlemen. . `Hybrids' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like John Verney moved without much difficulty from their gentry upbringing to a merchant's life and back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again to inherit a landed estate - central to a `society en route to gentlemanly capitalism' [83]. In insisting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the experiences of younger sons of gentry \(like John\) who became merchants are as influential as those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of born-merchants who aspired to gentility, Whyman's work endorses and adds to Grassby's study of London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(businessmen. The Verney papers show some suspicion of the power of money, but widespread approval of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mercantile lifestyles and trade. They show also extensive participation in the financial revolution, with both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men and women of the gentry more prominent as investors than official ledgers indicate. These two valuable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments are connected for as Whyman argues, `Surely the accommodation of land and trade is more likely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be found on the streets of London, then in searches for merchant purchases of country estates'. [84])] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sociability and Power )] TJ ET BT 143.684 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vividly reveals how broad structural changes - in the economy, in family life, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structures of power - are not simply reflected in the minute details of `everyday life', but are actually made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible, carried through in changing habits of lending money, visiting, friendship networks and gift-giving. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The expansion of London, the `rage of party', the increasing importance of credit and trade are all revealed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and created in these routine events. The necessary enterprise of younger sons, is seen, in the person of John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Verney, as closely associated with the adventurous, `liminal activity' of commerce [Agnew, quoted, p. 43]. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Younger sons were `agents of change' [179], central to `modernity'. In her introduction Whyman promises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the life of John Verney - a Levant trader and city merchant, but then a landed Tory Viscount - can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide `an ideal lens for observing a society as it adapted to change' [p.13]. This promise is triumphantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fulfilled.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 40.181 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 652 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 791.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 773.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 773.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/140)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 772.569 m 322.316 772.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 747.592 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.192 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/760)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.792 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 772.8835 322.3157 784.7635 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/140) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000600 00000 n 0000000682 00000 n 0000005143 00000 n 0000005252 00000 n 0000005362 00000 n 0000005471 00000 n 0000009032 00000 n 0000009160 00000 n 0000009244 00000 n 0000009309 00000 n 0000016498 00000 n 0000016563 00000 n 0000023618 00000 n 0000023683 00000 n 0000030925 00000 n 0000031009 00000 n 0000031713 00000 n 0000031841 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31936 %%EOF