%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140902074845+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140902074845+01'00') /Title (The Lone Protestor: A M Fernando in Australia and Europe) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 1857 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Lone Protestor: A M Fernando in Australia and Europe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1400)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 11 April, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fiona Paisley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781922059055)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(256pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aboriginal Studies Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canberra)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oliver Haag)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7622 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tracing the path of an Australian Aboriginal political activist through four decades of early 20th?century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe must surely have been a challenging and often surprising task. With only a handful of original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notebooks, no surviving photographs and a paucity of published reminiscences, Paisley?s biography of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anthony Martin Fernando \(1864?1949\) presents not only innovative research into long-forgotten political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life but also a compelling insight into transnational narratives of race. The nine chapters reconstruct the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stages of Fernando?s activism from his initial experiences of racism in Western Australia, which drove him )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to leave Australia for good, to his arrival in Europe and later relocation to London. Through registration and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment certificates, Paisley reconstructs his first movements in Austria to his eventual internment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the First World War. As an Aboriginal Australian then without entitlement to citizenship, Fernando )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought British naturalisation several times to gain access to food parcels. By stressing his origin as a ?Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man from Australia?, he could avoid British-Australian authorities assuming him Aboriginal by making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them believe that he was of African-Australian heritage instead. Whereas British-Australian authorities did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not recognise Fernando as Aboriginal ? partly because of his western education ? Austrian authorities clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classified him as an )] TJ ET BT 131.336 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australneger )] TJ ET BT 197.000 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(?Australian Negro?\). The translation of )] TJ ET BT 392.948 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australneger)] TJ ET BT 455.612 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( into Anglo-Saxon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial denomination as ?Negro? finally placed him as non-Aboriginal and prevented him from his feared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deportation to Australia. Eventually, this rendered possible the conferral of British citizenship.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Already in internment, Fernando began protesting Aboriginal dispossession by British imperialism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasted the callous attitude of white Anglo-Saxons with that of the Austrians, whom he termed a good )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and honourable people. After the war, Fernando continued his protests in Switzerland and Italy by publicly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denouncing the maltreatment of Aboriginal Australians through British dispossession. Partly due to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benevolent view of German colonialism \(which included the rejection of German colonial guilt\) and partly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by his production of professional political pamphlets, he was soon suspected of being a German agent and an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ally of Fascist Italy, respectively. Paisley, through painstaking analysis, proves such allegations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamentally wrong: Fernando, as the book?s title indicates, was a lone fighter never involved in any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political movement. In fact, his leafleting of pilgrims in Rome resulted in his arrest and final expulsion from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italy out of fear that his critique of \(British\) colonialism might undermine Britain?s expected support of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fascist colonialism. Fernando became a critic of Fascism, bemoaning that it would ruin what he called the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?good-hearted? Italian people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In London, his negative views regarding white people hardened. Wearing a black cloth adorned with white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skeletons to symbolise the British killing of his people, Fernando picketed before Australia House, preached )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Speaker?s Corner and even used court rooms to politically critique Australia. England, in his eyes, became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the symbol of ?savagery? and murder, leading him to place Anglo-Saxons on the lowest ladder of human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development \(a reversed constellation of racial development then conferred upon Aboriginal Australians\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fernando became highly suspicious of white friendships. Paisley identifies a few Australian and British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporters, yet hardly any of them would have been designated as true friends. In contrast to many of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary Aboriginal activists in Australia, he did not count on alliance with white people, neither )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanitarians nor Britons. Britain, to him, was the source and not the solution of Aboriginal suffering. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author effectively shows Fernando?s sense of Aboriginal sovereignty and agency. In rejecting the help of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humanitarians, Fernando not only rejected white paternalism but also reclaimed Aboriginal self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determination. His dismissive attitude towards humanitarian support ultimately proved very efficient in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making humanitarians re-think their culture?s own inhumanity. A humanitarian supporter commented upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fernando?s admission into an aged care facility: ?At last, she concluded, he had come to see that the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did look after their elderly and, in this respect at least, were not so entirely different from the Aborigines? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(172\). This comment reads as a powerful subversion of British superiority gauged according to the standards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Aboriginal morality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paisley?s study is more than a biography of an obviously unusual life; it unearths the intricacies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fernando?s activism, which was never backed by any political movement. The solitary nature of his protests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have reflected his wish for independence and autonomy but it equally represented his mistrust of inter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial friendship. This mistrust leads me to expand on my own reading of two major themes that permeate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book: Fernando?s perception of race and the faith he invested in Europe. This reading is not to allude to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7624 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any shortcoming \(in fact, Paisley?s study made for one of the most inspiring reads I have had in the last few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years\), but to elicit theoretical considerations implicit in her text. Drawing from Fernando?s views on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics and history, Paisley shows that he employed a racial worldview that, partly due to his Catholic faith, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was steeped in a Christian hierarchy of racialised morality. Whereas he highly valued Aboriginal Australians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and South Asians, he exhibited a derogatory view towards \(sub-Saharan\) African, Irish and Jewish people. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britons seem to have occupied, especially towards the end of his life, the lowest level of racial morality. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These views were partly influenced by anti-Jewish Catholicism and ideas of African ?primitivism? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?savagery?. Particularly, the alleged promiscuity and sinfulness then conferred upon African races led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fernando not only to differentiate in morality between Africans on the one hand and Aboriginal Australians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Indians on the other but also to somehow exclude Africans from his critique of British imperialism. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hidden relations of racism between people of colour were in themselves highly complex. Paisley argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fernando?s anti-Semitism was aggravated by his own experiences of anti-black racism: ?When castigated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for being a black interloper who should go back to his own country, he retorted that the real ?foreigner? was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?Jewish? shopkeeper in Petticoat Lane who had told him, ?You black beast. You are the dirt \(pointing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ground\). Your type should be killed??? \(p. 152\). The London of the 1920s and 1930s was a thoroughly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racialised world. Racism, as Fernando?s story shows, was highly intricate and not merely subject to a simple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white?black dichotomy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The category of white people here is of particular interest. Although it is not explicit by Paisley, there seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be a fundamental difference between Fernando?s perception of white people from Britain and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception of white people from continental Europe. This becomes conspicuous in several instances, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly with regard to inter-racial friendship. As Paisley unearths, Fernando had several British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporters who, however, he did not really deem friends \(the author remains inexplicit about the extent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his friendships, but the text suggests that they were scarce\); only at the close of his life did he confide that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the loyal support of one of his former British employers rendered him more ?black? than ?white?. This deep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistrust of white people appears to have been highly different in case of Europeans. Paisley mentions, rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in passing, Fernando?s devastation on the ?death notice for his dearest friend in the Milan Company, Angelo )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bossi? \(p. 93\). Perhaps reflecting the scant source material, the author does not provide further information )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on this friendship or biographical detail on Angelo Bossi. The text itself suggests that Bossi was very likely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white. The salient point here is that whereas inter-racial friendship seemed to be precluded in Britain, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared to exist with relative ease in Europe. More precisely, Fernando?s perception of Europeans seemed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have been carried by a trans-racial understanding of friendship, one that seemed to have written race out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of friendship. This positive view of white people is also evident in his appraisal of the ?good? and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?honourable? Austrian people, among whom he initially wished to spend the rest of his life. To Fernando, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racism seemed to matter less in Europe than in Britain: ?Unlike in his later writing about life among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English in London, he did not comment on his experience of racial discrimination during internment [in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austria]? \(pp. 45?6\). Determined by the political conviction that Britons and Australians were solely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsible for Aboriginal suffering, Fernando differentiated between white people in Europe and Britain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the former acting as potential friends while the latter were castigated as the most morally corrupt ?savage? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race. This differentiation shows the complex dynamic of racial narratives, which does not necessarily evince )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a fixed understanding of race. Rather than interpreting Fernando?s unflattering views of white people as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homogenising view of race, I think the cultural spatiality of white people seems to have been a bendy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category in his racial conception. This narrative was obviously influenced by politics and individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences and partly related to a wider web of sympathetic views on Europe among people of colour. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whiteness was not a simple enemy category; it showed surprising flexibility according to space and personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loyalty. Two distinct categories of whiteness, I opine, were operating in Fernando?s perceptions of white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people: a European whiteness \(or perhaps rather a Europeanness drained of its whiteness\) and a British or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Saxon whiteness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This exemption of white Europeans from the general critique of white people \(that is, Britons or Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saxons\) brings me to Fernando?s highly idealised view of Europe. This idealisation emerged during his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adolescence in Australia, with the adoption of the name Fernando in an effort to dignify the Italian people. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paisley argues that his Catholic faith played a central role in the benevolent view of the Italian people. On a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7831 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European level, I think, there was another dimension to his fondness, that is, Europe?s perceived detachment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Anglo-Saxon imperialism. Certainly Europeans, and not only Britons, played a vital role in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonisation and dispossession of Aboriginal Australians, but they were \(tactically?\) excluded from his anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial critique. Not necessarily exceptional in his positive view of Europe, Fernando promulgated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept of self-governed Aboriginal reserves under direct European mandate. He expected Aboriginal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilisation to renew Europe intellectually and spiritually. A thus renewed Europe, Fernando reasoned, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would serve as a political ally against British imperialism. These political possibilities must have played a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central role in Fernando?s perspectives on Europe, as exemplified in the overt support of German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonialism and critique of German colonial guilt. As a \(self-\)educated man who was surely fluent in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German, he must have come across the massive German propaganda campaigns against British exploitation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Indigenous people. Colonial revisionism in Weimar Germany and under Nazism attempted to dismantle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British accusation of German colonial guilt. The rhetorical devices used to refute British propaganda as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?colonial guilt lie? \()] TJ ET BT 130.340 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Kolonialschuldlge)] TJ ET BT 224.348 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) resulted not only in a propagandistic idealisation of German-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indigenous relations \(as evinced in the loyal East African Askari myth, for instance\) but also in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denunciation of what was called the British extermination of Aboriginal Australians. German colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda in particular referenced Aboriginal Australia as the epitome of British slaughter. Periodicals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as )] TJ ET BT 72.008 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Die Woche)] TJ ET BT 124.988 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or the )] TJ ET BT 158.648 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Deutsche Kolonialzeitung)] TJ ET BT 282.980 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, replete with such propaganda, were widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disseminated and highly likely to have been read by, or at least known to, Fernando.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paisley?s reference to Fernando's rejection of the German guilt reproach indicates his thorough acquaintance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with these debates. Either duped by German propaganda or \(more likely\) consciously transforming it into his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own political narrative, Fernando came to consider Europe as a potential ally of Aboriginal Australia. Apart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from his religious influence, his view of Europe appears partly like a product of political calculation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oppose Britain. German colonial propaganda, in this event, was consciously hijacked by an Aboriginal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activist and thereby, ironically enough, confirmed in its supposed veracity. Thus was constructed an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aboriginal-German \(and Aboriginal-European\) friendship in opposition to the British imperialist project. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, though complicit in the imperialism that affected Aboriginal Australia, seemed the lesser evil. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Surely Fernando must have experienced anti-black racism in Europe, as Paisley suggests. The reason he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignored European racism was likely to be political calculation. Germany?s strident critique of British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism especially must have appeared as an appealing and welcome underpinning of his protest against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aboriginal dispossession. In a sense, the lone protestor was perhaps not that lonesome ? he had ?his? Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as notional support behind him.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The particular merit of the )] TJ ET BT 163.652 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lone Protestor)] TJ ET BT 235.988 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for Australian Aboriginal studies lies in its uncovering of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transnational dimensions of Aboriginal protest and the way it provides a sound case study of an early 20th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Aboriginal presence in Europe. Aboriginal intellectuals have long reshaped ideas of Europe \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain\) and, clearly, more studies similar to this are needed to understand Australian Aboriginal history in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its interwoven local, national and global contexts. For Britain, Paisley?s book effectively demonstrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intricate mechanisms of racialisation among people of colour, provides an impressive insight into an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aboriginal ethnography of white Britain and, for all the asymmetric power-relations inherent to imperialism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncovers the agency of colonised subjects in creating counter-narratives to hegemonic racial discourse. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of )] TJ ET BT 107.996 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lone Protestor )] TJ ET BT 204.332 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for European history perhaps lies mostly in its being one of the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies to have thoroughly examined an aspect of early 20th-century Aboriginal-European relations not from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dominant European perspective, but from the view of an Aboriginal Australian. This focus on an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aboriginal viewpoint is a highly welcome contrast to the many studies of European interest in indigenous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures which implicitly re-inscribe the one-sided importance of Europe in what has actually been a cross-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural encounter. Paisley?s biography leads us to consider that it is not merely Europe that appropriated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aboriginal cultures but that Aboriginal Australians also appropriated Europe for their political and personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ends. Paisley?s work invites us to further examine Aboriginal interest in Europe. In its reversal of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective from Europe to Aboriginal Australia, the )] TJ ET BT 290.636 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Lone Protestor)] TJ ET BT 362.972 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has the potential to instigate a paradigm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift in the scholarship on Aboriginal-European relations.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1132 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review, and does not wish to comment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(PSnews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.psnews.com.au/Bookreviewpsn3441.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 728.307 m 292.676 728.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 295.676 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 724.975 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 707.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 707.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1400)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 705.801 m 328.316 705.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 680.824 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 666.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/58437)] TJ ET BT 34.016 652.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.psnews.com.au/Bookreviewpsn3441.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 728.6215 292.6757 740.5015 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.psnews.com.au/Bookreviewpsn3441.html) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 706.1155 328.3157 717.9955 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1400) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000566 00000 n 0000000648 00000 n 0000002557 00000 n 0000002666 00000 n 0000002776 00000 n 0000002885 00000 n 0000006446 00000 n 0000006574 00000 n 0000006658 00000 n 0000006723 00000 n 0000014398 00000 n 0000014463 00000 n 0000022140 00000 n 0000022205 00000 n 0000030089 00000 n 0000030180 00000 n 0000031365 00000 n 0000031492 00000 n 0000031591 00000 n 0000031719 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31815 %%EOF