%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416051541+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416051541+01'00') /Title (First Lady of Fleet Street: A Biography of Rachel Beer) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4095 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(First Lady of Fleet Street: A Biography of Rachel Beer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachel Beer first caught my attention some 20 years ago when I was trawling through )] TJ ET BT 449.612 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Who Was Who)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking for journalists. She was unusual because she was the editor of )] TJ ET BT 372.968 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sunday Times)] TJ ET BT 460.964 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the 1890s, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no other national newspaper had a woman editor. She was also deeply conscious of her background, proud )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of being a member of the wealthy and important Jewish family of Sassoon. At a time when so many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of the establishment seemed keen to Anglicize themselves if they had foreign roots, this too struck )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(me as being unusual. So the appearance of her biography is a welcome event.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But this is rather more than a biography of one woman, for the first half of it is devoted to an account of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two families of whom she was a part, the Sephardic Sassons and the Ashkenazi Beers. The authors trace the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sassoon family back to 18th-century Baghdad, where already Sheikh Sason ben Saleh was a prominent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(member of the large and important Jewish community in that city. They follow the career of the Sheikh?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second son, David, who eventually fled from Baghdad during the politically difficult reign of Daud Pasha )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and settled in Bombay. There he built up a prosperous business which increasingly relied heavily on control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Chinese opium trade for its success. Trading bases were opened in Canton and Hong Kong and all his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sons served their turn in China. Living in a territory governed by Britain and relying on support from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1401)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 11 April, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eilat Negev)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yehuda Koren)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781906779191)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(526pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(JR Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacqueline Beaumont)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7459 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British navy to protect his ships from pirates, David became so conscious of the benefits of living under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British rule that eventually, in 1853 he took a British passport. Two years later he sent his son Abraham to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London to be educated. Significantly the boy already spoke good English. Rachel?s father, S. D. Sassoon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was sent to London in 1858 to open a branch of the family business. He was to remain in England for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rest of his life and his family became Anglicized. His wife Farha, a girl from Baghdad, became known as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Flora, His brothers Ezra and Abdullah became Alfred and Albert respectively. Up to a point, they all became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglicized, abandoning their oriental dress as well as their Arabic names, but they remained practising Jews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and spoke the old Baghdadi Judeao-Arabic among themselves, as a kind of private code. The family, already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely wealthy, changed its focus in England, embracing the new technology of telegraphic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communications. Rachel?s cousin, Sir Edward Sassoon, M.P., was, at the end of the 19th century, one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged authorities on the subject, writing for the Press and speaking in the House of Commons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachel was born in India on April 7, 1858, a week before her father left for England. She was two-and-a-half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before she saw him again, by which time her father had purchased Ashley Park, near Walton-on-Thames, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantial and ancient property which was to be her home throughout her childhood and youth. We know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very little about this period of Rachel?s life. That she enjoyed a life of luxury and ease from birth is self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evident. We are told that she and her brothers had an Oxford-educated tutor, but she must also have had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other teachers, since we are also told that she played the piano from early youth and was also a talented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(composer. But the Royal Academy of Music does not seem to have been considered. Perhaps this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because she was too ?ill at ease on stage? to perform in public \(p. 53\), but no authority for this view is cited. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The life of a musician was apparently unthinkable for a girl of her class and background in the England of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1870s. It was certainly not easy, but her contemporary, Ethel Smyth, the daughter of a Major-General in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Royal Artillery, faced down parental opposition and had a distinguished career. The authors chronicle the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various publications of her music and quote contemporary press opinion, but have not acquired the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evaluation of a modern professional musician as to their worth. However, the authors state that Rachel was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very determined person and wanted, above all, her independence. Could it be that she abandoned her musical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitions because somebody told her, or she realised, that her talent was not sufficient? Unfortunately, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources which might answer this question do not exist.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1867 Rachel?s father died, when she was nine and her mother became responsible for her upbringing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps because she was the only girl she was not married off at eighteen, but stayed at home, doing very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little. Her mother's various philanthropic activities were an approved outlet, but such a life, we are told, did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not satisfy Rachel. We do not know what she really wanted to do in her twenties, and only later in life did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she claim to have been unsatisfied with her lot. Apparently she had many suitors \(p. 125, though no evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is given\) all of whom she rejected. One wonders why, since marriage might have given her the chance to do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what she wished, if indeed she had any clear idea what that was to be at the time. Ultimately she was able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detach herself from her mother when her eldest brother Joseph married and, since he had inherited Ashley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Park, the rest of the family had to move out. Mrs Sassoon moved to Brighton in 1884 and Rachel, now aged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26 and in possession of her own personal fortune, went to London to train as a nurse at the Brompton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hospital. Nursing was seen as an acceptable occupation for girls, mainly because of the influence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Florence Nightingale but also because it had overtones of the philanthropic interests which were part of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-connected upper class girl?s approved lifestyle. Rachel?s mother was deeply involved in a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philanthropic projects and Rachel, too, was to become involved in many more. It was in London that she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(met Frederick Beer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Considerable space is given to the history of the Beer family. Frederick too came from a Jewish background. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The founder of the family?s fortunes was Frederick?s father, Julius, who was born in Frankfurt in 1836. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family had included wealthy court Jews in the 18th century and the family had become westernised. By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time Julius was born the family wealth had gone, but he was well educated and ambitious. In 1855 he came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to London aged 18 and set about making his fortune, initially through stockbroking, but then increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through investment in telegraphic and railroad communications. He never applied for British citizenship and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained attached to the culture of Germany, but he married an English Christian girl and thereafter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandoned the last vestiges of Judaism. Both his children were eventually baptised as Anglicans. His many )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8072 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German compatriots in London gave Julius his chances; by 1870, when he purchased )] TJ ET BT 445.952 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Observer, )] TJ ET BT 517.604 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a rich man. Julius died in 1880, leaving a fortune of 400,000 to his 22-year-old son Frederick. Frederick did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not continue his father?s business enterprises, which were sold and converted into stocks and shares. All he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retained were )] TJ ET BT 101.984 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Observer)] TJ ET BT 167.636 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and a magazine, )] TJ ET BT 251.276 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Electrician)] TJ ET BT 325.604 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which his father had revived. He was a young, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultivated, Cambridge-educated rentier, highly eligible and virtually alone in the world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How he and Flora met we are not told and the circumstances and effects of their marriage need some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explaining. We are told that Rachel knew that in marrying Frederick she would incur the anger of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mother, who had reacted very badly when her brother had married a Christian. At the same time, we are also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told that it was not uncommon for Jews to marry out of the faith and that, in the case of a daughter, this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not regarded as so bad, since, under Jewish law, their children would remain Jewish. One wonders whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relationship between mother and daughter was so bad already that Rachel used her marriage to engineer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a permanent break with her mother, which became a rupture with the entire family. An orthodox Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family would be deeply upset when a daughter married a Christian, but these were Anglicised Jews. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence given there is something provocative about her behaviour; Frederick was not, it seems, introduced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the family and the day before her wedding Rachel was baptised. Her mother never forgave her and she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was cut off completely from the Sassoons. Only her divorced Christian sister-in-law Theresa kept in touch. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Frederick was a very wealthy man, eligible, apparently generous and easy-going. Would her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mother reject him simply because he was not any more attached to the Jewish faith? The couple could live in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(luxury, indulge all their tastes and take their place in London society, though it seems that this place was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fairly superficial, largely confined to public events and parties. Then there was )] TJ ET BT 414.596 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Observer.)] TJ ET BT 483.248 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The paper was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(edited by Edward Dicey from 1870 until 1889, when he left, perhaps because the new wife was too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interfering, perhaps because Frederick wanted to take a larger part in running the newspaper. By this time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachel had decided that she wanted a newspaper of her own, but it was not until 1894 that a suitable paper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became available. )] TJ ET BT 122.984 456.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Sunday Times)] TJ ET BT 210.980 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was strictly speaking owned by Frederick, but he handed over all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility to Rachel and concentrated on his own paper.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachel made it her pulpit. Every week she would write an editorial under the heading ?The World?s Work?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in this she was able to express her own views on any topic that took her fancy. Her range was wide. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before she actually started she sought the advice of W. T. Stead. According to Rachel, who admired his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitude towards the role of the Press and his campaigning for what he considered right and just, he told her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the trick was to guess in advance what people are about to do and then recommend that course so that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers will be impressed by you and you will gain influence. This was only made public in an article she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote for the )] TJ ET BT 98.996 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sunday Times)] TJ ET BT 165.992 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on garden cities in September 1901. If this really was his advice, it is perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence of his disillusion after his personal fall from grace over his handling of child prostitution, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rachel does not appear to have taken it. Her views were strong and not always well informed. She had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contempt for the political system and its members. One wonders whether she had ever attended a debate in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either House. The Press Gallery might be closed to her, but women often attended important debates in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Strangers? Gallery. But she supported the call for improved conditions for the working classes, equality for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women and the suffrage movement, without herself joining it. Overall she was an imperialist and took a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fairly standard Liberal imperialist line on political events. Perhaps the most important event which occurred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during her editorship was the retrial of Dreyfus in 1899. For this event there is more contemporary evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than for anything else in which she was involved. Her Paris correspondent tried to hatch a scheme to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuade Major Esterhazy to admit publicly that he had forged the documents which had been the cause of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dreyfus?s original conviction. But Esterhazy was too wily to be caught and, in the end, the hoped-for scoop )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By this time Rachel had other worries. Frederick was diagnosed with tuberculosis in 1896. It weakened him, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so that gradually Rachel had to take over the running of the )] TJ ET BT 321.968 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Observer )] TJ ET BT 369.620 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well as her own paper. She also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insisted on nursing him herself. It was a huge burden to bear and, unsurprisingly, after his death at the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1901, she was soon unable to fulfil her journalistic obligations. By the autumn of 1902 she had ceased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely. From the description given she was suffering from clinical depression, unable to do anything. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The result was sad. Her brother Joseph accepted the responsibility of settling both Rachel and her affairs. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5919 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Medical opinion was sought and she was declared to be of unsound mind. Her brother accepted this, but she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not put in an asylum. Joseph arranged for her to be looked after by several nurses in a large house )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside Tunbridge Wells, filled with most of the treasures from her London house. Here she spent the rest of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her life, finally dying in 1927. The two newspapers were both sold at very low prices, for the circulation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never high, had plummeted. So ended a career in journalism which only filled eight years of her life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an interesting study, but there are drawbacks. First, the title hardly seems justified by the facts. True )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she edited a newspaper, but did this give her the influence she clearly wanted? I have not found any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to her in political papers of the period and the )] TJ ET BT 308.276 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sunday Times)] TJ ET BT 375.272 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not quoted by other papers. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems a curiously isolated figure, sitting in her study at home and once a week descending on the paper?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offices. She complained that the great and the good would not talk to her about politics. But she seems to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have tried to buttonhole them at parties. Flora Shaw, her exact contemporary at )] TJ ET BT 416.948 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Times)] TJ ET BT 466.616 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently have such problems and was widely respected. Secondly, a more technical point, the footnotes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are not adequate. Citations of an author?s work should give page numbers, but this does not happen here. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sometimes statements are made without any evidence being adduced at all. Finally, although the authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been very assiduous in reading round the subject and looking for sources, there is no substantial archive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Rachel?s or Frederick?s own papers. Too often they have extrapolated what she might have been thinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a girl from what she wrote years later. But people change their views, even reinvent themselves. And we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(do not know anything very much about her life in London, clearly busy and multi-faceted, other than what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be found in the social columns of the papers or her own writings. Apart from her brother?s divorced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wife, Theresa, she does not seem to have had any friends, just social acquaintances. Can that really be so? Or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was she really such a difficult person that this explains why even her own nephew, Siegfried Sassoon, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later life never bothered to visit her and spoke of her insultingly and without affection?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Observer)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/jun/05/rachel-beer-first-lady-fleet)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 428.931 m 386.960 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 389.960 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/jun/11/first-lady-fleet-street-negev-koren-review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 400.419 m 459.608 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 462.608 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwardian Promenade)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://edwardianpromenade.com/women/fascinating-women-rachel-beer/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 371.907 m 384.932 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 387.932 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish Ideas Daily)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/1115/features/the-first-lady-of-fleet-street/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 343.395 m 402.620 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 405.620 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 340.063 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 322.283 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 322.283 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1401)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 320.889 m 328.316 320.889 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 295.912 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 281.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/58441)] TJ ET BT 34.016 267.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/jun/05/rachel-beer-first-lady-fleet)] TJ ET BT 34.016 252.712 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/jun/11/first-lady-fleet-street-negev-koren-review)] TJ ET BT 34.016 238.312 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://edwardianpromenade.com/women/fascinating-women-rachel-beer/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/1115/features/the-first-lady-of-fleet-street/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 429.2455 386.9597 441.1255 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/jun/05/rachel-beer-first-lady-fleet) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 400.7335 459.6077 412.6135 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/jun/11/first-lady-fleet-street-negev-koren-review) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 372.2215 384.9317 384.1015 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://edwardianpromenade.com/women/fascinating-women-rachel-beer/) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 343.7095 402.6197 355.5895 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/1115/features/the-first-lady-of-fleet-street/) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 321.2035 328.3157 333.0835 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1401) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000557 00000 n 0000000639 00000 n 0000004786 00000 n 0000004895 00000 n 0000005005 00000 n 0000005114 00000 n 0000008675 00000 n 0000008803 00000 n 0000008887 00000 n 0000008952 00000 n 0000016464 00000 n 0000016529 00000 n 0000024654 00000 n 0000024766 00000 n 0000030738 00000 n 0000030865 00000 n 0000030989 00000 n 0000031116 00000 n 0000031254 00000 n 0000031381 00000 n 0000031499 00000 n 0000031626 00000 n 0000031755 00000 n 0000031883 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31979 %%EOF