%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141022014938+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141022014938+01'00') /Title (Cosmo Lang. Archbishop in War and Crisis) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4147 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Cosmo Lang. Archbishop in War and Crisis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('I HATE Cosmo Lang!? exclaimed a member of the audience when Robert Beaken spoke to a seminar at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(IHR about Lang, archbishop of Canterbury and subject of this important reassessment. As Beaken rightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes, Lang?s reputation has suffered in the years since his death. His time as archbishop \(1928?42\) spanned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of economic depression, the rise of fascism, a royal abdication and the outbreak of world war. But, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite this, the prevailing picture has been of a figure caught in the headlights, reactive rather than in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lead, a puritan and a snob; this image has not been altered by his portrayal \(by Derek Jacobi\) in the recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(film, )] TJ ET BT 60.020 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The King?s Speech)] TJ ET BT 152.012 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Lang?s case was not helped by the biography by J. G. Lockhart, published in 1949. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Written without any particular acquaintance with Lang or access to his official papers, Lockhart?s book has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long been unsatisfactory, but it has taken until now for a replacement to appear; and Beaken?s study goes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long way towards superseding Lockhart and presenting Lang afresh.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book has three primary concerns: with Lang?s relationship with the monarchy; with the disputed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of liturgical reform within the Church of England; and with the Second World War. Chapter seven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deals with the last, presenting a panoramic view of Lang?s work in the first and darkest days of the war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when Lang was in his mid-70s. Beaken very effectively documents Lang?s interventions at the highest level: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the articulation of peace aims; in negotiating the rhetorically difficult transformation of Soviet Russia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1402)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 11 April, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Beaken)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781780763552)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I B Tauris)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Webster)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7455 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from enemy to ally; in articulating the need for national intercession and for remembrance of the 1914?18 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict in changed circumstances. There are important refinements to the literature in relation to Lang?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early opposition to the obliteration bombing of Germany \(191?3\), and \(in response to the work of Tom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawson\) concerning who knew what and when within the Church in relation to the Holocaust \(206?7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But these national affairs were not the limit of an archbishop?s concerns. Beaken very effectively documents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lang?s interventions in relation to refugees, evacuees and conscientious objectors, to venereal disease in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(army abroad, and to the observance of the Sabbath at home. Lang was supportive of the government and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war effort because he strongly believed that the struggle was a just and necessary one. At the same time, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were limits to what could be morally acceptable even in war, and Lang intervened in private and public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as far as there was any likelihood of those efforts being effective.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six deals with the stalemate in relation to liturgical revision that Lang inherited after the rejection by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament of the revised Book of Common Prayer in 1927?8. Lang has been taxed by later historians, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following both Lockhart and George Bell, bishop of Chichester and acute observer of the ecclesiastical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scene, for failing to address the impasse between church and state, and the near-ungovernability of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church while that situation continued. While this reviewer would want to stress the gravity of the crisis in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church-state relations while Beaken downplays it, in the matter of Lang?s role Beaken?s interpretation is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing. Lang may not have been gripped by liturgical reform, and so may have lacked a ?sustained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pushfulness? \(179\), but it was probably beyond )] TJ ET BT 264.656 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(any)] TJ ET BT 281.984 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( archbishop to devise a compromise solution without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being able to impose it. It was to be a quarter of a century after Lang?s retirement before the means to revise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Book were finally secured, and even then not without the threat of a renewed crisis in Parliament.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters four and five, which deal with Lang?s relationship with the monarchy in general, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abdication crisis in particular, are very clearly the centrepiece of the book. Beaken?s aim is to emphasise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lang?s role in the events of the reign of Edward VIII, in contrast to Lockhart who stressed the peripheral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the archbishop?s role. In this aim Beaken is certainly successful: using recently declassified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, he provides a scrupulous and minutely detailed chronological account of Lang?s role; though this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was never public until the very end, he was always \(in the words of the former king\) ?a shadowy, hovering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence ? invisibly and noiselessly about?. Of particular interest is the closeness of the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lang and Prime Minister Baldwin, perhaps one of the closest in modern times. The book may find a general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readership for this section alone, and the recommendations on the dust jacket from A. N. Wilson and Rowan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Williams suggests that this is the hope of the publisher.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is unfortunately in these two chapters that significant problems in execution show themselves. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters on the war and the Prayer Book, narrative and analysis are effectively integrated and the writing is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concise and incisive. In marked contrast, the royal chapters are marred by a luxuriant, not to say indulgent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level of narrative detail, and by numerous and very lengthy quotations from primary sources, which ought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been either radically pruned and integrated more fully into the text, or \(even better\) given in full in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appendix. Beaken also opts to separate out narrative and analysis, giving the latter separately at the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each chapter, but the approach left this reader, at least, hurrying through the detail to reach the pith. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are also some matters of interpretation on which Beaken is less sure-footed. For Beaken, Lang?s radio )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadcast of December 1936 \(this source alone being given its full worth in an appendix\) was ?an unusually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwise and unreflective action? \(122\), in that Lang allowed himself to reflect unfavourably on the mores of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the social circle around the former king. However, the receipt of many letters and a ?torrent of abuse? in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(popular press does not necessarily prove that an archbishop is not doing his job, but only that he has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expressed an unpopular view. Despite Lang?s evident enjoyment of the quiet entwining of archbishop and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment, he was able to see where lines should be drawn.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the broadest scale, the book is strangely shaped, such that it appears not as a rounded study of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archbishop at a time of crisis, but as three substantial studies of particular issues, hedged around with some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather desultory supporting materials. The three themes of the royal connection, the war and the Prayer Book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis between them occupy two-thirds of the book, with the royal material alone forming nearly a third. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leads Beaken to neglect other issues that merited fuller treatment. Lang?s path from bishop of Stepney )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6555 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1901\) to his arrival at Canterbury in 1928 are dealt with in five breathless pages \(15?19\), although this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period included the controversy over Lang?s public comments on the First World War, which cries out for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more coverage. Similarly, Beaken?s account of a pivotal time in ecumenical relations at home and abroad is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perfunctory. Lang?s time in office also saw acute economic hardship and the Jarrow March, as well as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise of home-grown Fascism and pitched violence on the streets to counter it. None of these receive the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slightest treatment, in a study entitled )] TJ ET BT 217.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Archbishop in War and Crisis)] TJ ET BT 361.028 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. There is little sense here of Auden?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?low dishonest decade?. Significant space is instead given over to a discussion of Lang?s sexuality. Beaken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is largely successful in showing that Lang was probably not a repressed homosexual, but a lonely figure who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found it difficult to form close personal relationships of any kind. To this reviewer, however, it is not clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that those making the case for Lang?s homosexuality ever established why the matter should be all that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important, and neither is Beaken convincing as to why it is important that Lang was not.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is on the wider canvas of interpretation that there are opportunities missed. In the conclusion, Beaken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rightly emphasises that in the period between the wars the office of archbishop still mattered in English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public life. The opinion of Canterbury was sought and listened to on matters of moment, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archbishop?s correspondence clearly shows that many of the general public expected something of ?their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archbishop?, even if those expectations were inchoately expressed and neither compatible nor realistic. All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is right, and worth emphasising; but it is difficult to recognise the ?simple narrative of secularisation? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against which Beaken sets himself as one now held by very many historians. The work variously of Callum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown, Grace Davie, Hugh McLeod and many others have all deepened and complicated our understandings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of what secularisation is and how it occurs; Beaken is therefore pushing at, if not an open door, one which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has been unlocked and left ajar. Much the same degree of respect as had been accorded to the archbishop in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the inter-war period was paid to Michael Ramsey in the 1960s, by which time the pace of secularisation had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickened and its effect spread much wider.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The range of manuscript sources is impressive: this must be one of few archiepiscopal biographies that takes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in sources from the FBI, alongside an interview with the Queen Mother. It is clearly and accessibly written, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although prone to clich: Lang had a ?complex personality? \(who doesn?t\); as a boy ?with a vivid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination? Lang ?was a bit of a loner? \(9\); parts of Lang?s radio broadcast after the abdication were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?surprisingly boring.? It is well-produced, with a comprehensive index \(not always the case\), but is let down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in places by some lax editing. Both Michael Ramsey and Dick Sheppard \(examples chosen at random\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appear first by surname only, to be introduced formally to the reader only later on; a straightforward point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that should have been picked up. 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