%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 31 0 R 42 0 R 61 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417024219+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417024219+01'00') /Title (Poor Relief in England, 1350-1600) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4941 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Poor Relief in England, 1350-1600)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marjorie McIntosh is one of the foremost social and cultural historians of her generation, and has done much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to advance the cause of later medieval and early modern English history. Her )] TJ ET BT 407.264 244.811 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Controlling Misbehavior in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England, 1370-1600 )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 135.680 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 135.680 229.161 m 149.672 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 149.672 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was a pathbreaking study, and she has also published extensively on women?s work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in late medieval and early modern England. Her most recent volume is a micro-history, and follows on from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous work on the Manor and Liberty of Havering which produced two full-length studies: )] TJ ET BT 487.280 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Autonomy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Community: The Royal Manor of Havering, 1200-1500)] TJ ET BT 299.660 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 322.988 187.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Community Transformed: The Manor and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Liberty of Havering, 1500?1620)] TJ ET BT 189.344 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, while )] TJ ET BT 228.008 173.531 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poor Relief and Community in Hadleigh, Suffolk, 1547?1600)] TJ ET BT 521.672 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortly be published as volume 12 of )] TJ ET BT 214.340 159.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Studies in Regional and Local History)] TJ ET BT 398.012 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.012 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.012 157.881 m 415.004 157.881 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 415.004 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But Marjorie McIntosh is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of those rare historians who have the capacity to produce broad general studies as well as micro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories, and the book to be reviewed here, )] TJ ET BT 245.972 130.763 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poor Relief in England, 1350?1600)] TJ ET BT 419.972 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, represents the former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than the latter genre.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are a number of respects in which Marjorie McIntosh?s book offers new perspectives. The first is with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard to the timing of the introduction of the Old Poor Law, the first fully articulated system of state-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sponsored poor relief to be introduced in England. Here it is argued that the system was established earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1404)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 18 April, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marjorie Keniston McIntosh)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781107015081)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(366pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/gb/knowledge/isbn/item6545307/Poor%20Relief%20in%20England,%201350%E2%80%931600/?site_locale=en_GB)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nigel Goose)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 135.6797 229.4755 149.6717 241.3555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 401.0117 158.1955 415.0037 170.0755 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8054 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than others have claimed. It is not entirely correct to suggest that historians have focused mainly on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabethan statutes of 1598 and 1601, for these are regularly described in the literature as ?codifying? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statutes, which brought together the collective legislation of previous decades, as well as providing a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherent bureaucratic structure. Others too, whether drawing upon McIntosh?s own previous publications or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those of other historians, have noted the early introduction in some parishes of collections of some kind for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relief of the poor.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 135.656 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 135.656 723.795 m 149.648 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 149.648 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But what is new here is the suggestion that what amounted to quasi-formal poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rates were required by statute much earlier than is usually suggested in the literature \(1572\), perhaps as early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as 1552 when Collectors for the Poor were introduced, while the statute of 1563 authorised Justices of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peace to punish those who were unwilling to contribute. What is more, much more weight is placed upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(injunctions to charitable giving via the poor man?s boxes which Edward VI enjoined each parish to keep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1547, the same year in which a statute was passed requiring collections for the poor at church services. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The result, for McIntosh, was that during the Edwardian period, despite its brevity, ?parishes quite suddenly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to assume a far more active role in poor relief? \(p. 8\). So, while Paul Slack has suggested that perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less than half of all parishes were making regular collections as late as the mid 17th century, and the triumph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of rating was a late 17th?century phenomenon, and Steve Hindle has argued for the growth of rating from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late 16th century to produce widespread adoption only by the 1630s, McIntosh has moved that process )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back to the middle of the 16th century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.992 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.992 566.979 m 233.984 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 233.984 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The Poor Laws of 1598 and 1601, therefore, ?made relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minor modifications to existing practices?, and the crucial change came with the introduction of ?an ongoing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source of assistance within the parish? in 1552 \(pp. 295?6\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second way in which this study offers a new approach ? or, at least, further develops an approach that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already becoming more common in the historiography ? is to emphasise that there was much more to poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relief than statutory, parish-based provision. A great deal of space here is devoted to begging and collection, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to charitable giving in general and to the foundation of hospitals and almshouses in particular. Importantly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntosh is well aware of the intersections between the various facets of the ?mixed economy of welfare?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether administered by the church, the state or by local authorities. As implied by her emphasis upon the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of church collections prior to the introduction of secular rating, she stresses the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cooperation between church and state after 1547. Furthermore, private \(philanthropic\) distribution is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treated as entirely distinct from public \(statutory\) provision, ?for the two categories too often overlapped? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13\). There is also a great deal of interesting material here on the growth of regulation, a clear appreciation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the problems posed by fraud, and an understanding of how the state was increasingly drawn into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regulation of philanthropy, culminating in the establishing of Commissions for Charitable Uses in 1598, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a legal basis for charitable trusts in 1598 and 1601 ? features of the ?Elizabethan poor law code? that are too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often overlooked.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third, and a particularly refreshing aspect of this study, is the clear appreciation that ? despite the harshness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of much of the contemporary legislation ? parish officials made up their own minds about who should, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should not, be relieved. ?Sturdy beggars?, therefore, were not invariably whipped by local constables, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could also be assisted in cash or kind and sent on their way. Although official authorisation was formally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required for individuals to supplicate alms, McIntosh finds that in practice this requirement was often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(waived. ?If a needy person was able to persuade the wardens that his or her loss was genuine? she writes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?sympathy proved more powerful than Parliamentary statutes? \(p. 154\). So, despite some clear indications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that some of the ?hotter sort? of Protestants became more discriminating with regard to who should receive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charitable support and who should not, as recent work on Colchester has suggested, McIntosh makes space )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in her story for humanitarian compassion, bringing into relief that contrast between the milk of human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kindness and the so-called ?local xenophobia? that some historians have suggested to be the prevalent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human instinct.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 108.020 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 108.020 143.811 m 122.012 143.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 122.012 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Choices about who should or should not be relieved were shaped ?by personal sympathy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for suffering people and concern about order and authority?, and not merely by ideological constructions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poverty and charity \(p. 295\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Human compassion is thus one of the factors that helps explain the development of poor relief ? statutory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and non-statutory ? in England in the second half of the 16th century. On a higher intellectual plain humanist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or ?commonwealth? beliefs are also invoked as part of the explanation. Underpinning these developments, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 135.6557 724.1095 149.6477 735.9895 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 219.9917 567.2935 233.9837 579.1735 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 108.0197 144.1255 122.0117 156.0055 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 8285 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, is the growth of need; whilst in later medieval England trends in population, prices and wages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensured that poverty was ? exceptional years notwithstanding ? ?relatively mild? \(p. 13\), between 1530 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the later 1550s poverty became a much more pressing problem, and more widely distributed through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country, as trends in population, prices and wages went into reverse. Did religion have a part to play? For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntosh, its main role was negative, for the confiscation of monastic and chantry property in Henry VIII?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Cromwell?s Reformation had severe implications for charitable funds, particular for almshouse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundations that had previously provided support to the elderly poor. Protestants were not, however, averse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to making charitable provision of their own. If some may have been more discriminating than their Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forbears, and their theology eschewed an association between ?works? and salvation, the Protestant church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too linked aid to the poor with spirituality, as Ian Archer and others have argued.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 421.952 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 421.952 666.771 m 435.944 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The evidential basis for these conclusions is impressive. Over many years McIntosh, with the assistance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volunteer researchers, has constructed a database of almshouses and hospitals which includes a total of 1,005 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that existed at some point between 1350 and 1599. Her analysis of the development of collections for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor is based essentially upon churchwardens? accounts. For 1404?1546, the accounts of 58 parishes were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consulted, plus ?a few other? ecclesiastical sources \(p. 96\). For the period 1554?76, 94 churchwardens? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts were consulted, and for 1577?98 the number was 110. Overall, accounts were studied for 125 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parishes in 32 English counties, 35 per cent of which were in the Southeast or East Anglia, 27 per cent in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southwest or West, 25 per cent in the Midlands or East Central England and 13 per cent in the North and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northwest. In all the study draws upon in excess of 70 archives, in addition to a wide range of printed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuscript and secondary sources. None of this material is tabulated in the text: instead, the key results are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described in prose, while graphical and tabular information is relegated to six appendices. Additionally, ten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodological and quantitative appendices have been posted on a permanent, open-access website )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintained by Cambridge University Press. Seven of these give further detail regarding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almshouse/hospital database, one analyses a sample of Sussex wills 1500?60 that left bequests to the poor, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and two provide further quantitative and geographical information about Collectors for the Poor. This said, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntosh makes it clear in her introductory chapter that the book is not intended to be all-embracing. No )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantitative assessment of the degree of poverty is offered here, and most of the evidence comes from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market towns and villages rather than the larger urban centres that have been the subject of so much previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work. Specialist forms of assistance are also ignored, such as grain stocks, apprenticeships, loan funds and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funds to assist the marriage of poor maidens \(p. 35\). Her remit is thus a wide one, but not comprehensive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of particular interest to this reviewer is the almshouse material, which has been the focus of much new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research, both here and on the continent.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 228.632 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 228.632 329.139 m 242.624 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 242.624 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( McIntosh?s data, which comes with a range of appropriate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(health warnings regarding coverage and precision \(p. 68\), reveals a rise in the number of institutions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(hospitals and almshouses combined\) through to the 1520s, when the peak figure of 617 was achieved. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Government religious policies in the 1530s dramatically reduced that number, fully 180 closing between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1530s and 1550s, whereafter their number recovered with each decade from the 1560s to the 1590s, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still standing below 500 \(494\) by the final decade of the century. Very few were situated in the North or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Northwest and, while McIntosh notes that fewer records survive from the North than for any other region of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the country, this reviewer?s recent work on the historical geography of philanthropy, as well as the classic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studies of W. K. Jordan, suggest that this is a real phenomenon rather than an accident of source survival. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntosh traces the evolution of almshouses and hospitals \(terms which were often used interchangeably by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 16th century\) into their ?modern? form, as institutions essentially designed to house the elderly poor. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1520s, it is estimated, they offered one place for every 370?480 people. By the end of the century there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was one place for every 761?1,370 people. A more insightful calculation would compare the number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(places with the ?at risk? population \(that is, the elderly\), but such calculations are not offered here, and nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are available comparative estimates for other dates outside of the period cited to provide context.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 498.920 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 498.920 129.555 m 512.912 129.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 512.912 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management of almshouses, the additional benefits they offered, the obligations placed upon residents and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evidence of fraud are all discussed at length. More detailed demographic features of almshouse residents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are to be found in the online appendices, one of the more interesting ones being the gradual shift from a clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(majority of men prior to 1540 to a slight majority of women in the last six decades of the century ? a feature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of almshouse residency that had become much more pronounced by the Victorian period. Without doubt this )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 421.9517 667.0855 435.9437 678.9655 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 228.6317 329.4535 242.6237 341.3335 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 498.9197 129.8695 512.9117 141.7495 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R ] /Contents 43 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Length 9688 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive data collection has made a major contribution to our understanding of the place of residential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions in this period, and has laid a firm foundation for further work ? particularly at the local and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional level.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most controversial claim in this study is the suggestion that the collection of poor rates and their regular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distribution to the poor was evident much earlier than the current orthodoxy suggests. McIntosh?s precise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position on this is not easy to pin down: in her conclusion she writes of ?the emergence after 1552 of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ongoing sources of assistance within the parish? \(p. 296\), while in a previous chapter we are informed that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evidence ?suggests that in )] TJ ET BT 179.660 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(southern and central England)] TJ ET BT 323.324 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 329.324 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(many)] TJ ET BT 355.316 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( parishes were indeed making use of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new system before 1598? \(p. 253, my emphasis\). Here we are told that Collectors? accounts were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly fragile documents, and rarely stored with other parish records. But while this may be entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true, it is not a sufficient basis upon which to argue for a far more widespread adoption of parish rating than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the current evidence suggests. The examination of records from 125 parishes by a solitary researcher is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed impressive, but that number pales when we remember that England and Wales encompassed some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10,000 parishes, the vast majority of which appear not to have left any evidence that regular collections were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made for the poor from so early a date. Nor is it clear that the evidence that does survive indicates )] TJ ET BT 506.912 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and ongoing)] TJ ET BT 94.352 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( parish rating. Indeed, if the system had been so widely adopted from the 1550s, one might ask )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why it was that so much additional legislation was deemed necessary, through to and including the famous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statutes of 1598 and 1601. Finally, as Professor McIntosh does not discuss the )] TJ ET BT 412.328 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(amounts)] TJ ET BT 452.996 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that were collected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and laid out, we cannot know whether these payments were sufficient for subsistence, or merely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplementary. The penny payments given weekly to many of the poor of St Giles parish in Colchester in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1590s can have made only a small contribution to their livelihood, while indications from elsewhere also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggest that anything approaching full maintenance was rare before the later years of the 17th century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 525.896 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 525.896 483.699 m 539.888 483.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is so much more in this book than can be discussed in even an extended review and, while this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer remains a little sceptical of one of its key conclusions, it remains a vital contribution to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography, and one that no historian of social welfare can ignore. The new perspectives adopted, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alacrity with which sacred cows are put to the sword, the depth of research and the humanity of the analysis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all render this a stimulating volume and a fascinating read. McIntosh?s book represents an important step )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forward in how we approach and understand the genesis of the social welfare systems of early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, and offers clear guidelines that future scholars would do well to follow.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.403 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 307.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marjorie McIntosh, )] TJ ET BT 161.000 307.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Controlling Misbehavior in England, 1370?1600 )] TJ ET BT 399.680 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 494.000 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 494.000 306.387 m 547.988 306.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 293.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marjorie McIntosh,)] TJ ET BT 158.000 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Autonomy and Community: The Royal Manor of Havering, 1200?)] TJ ET BT 477.308 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1500 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1986\); )] TJ ET BT 161.672 279.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Community Transformed: The Manor and Liberty of Havering, l500?620)] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 1991\); )] TJ ET BT 161.672 265.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poor Relief and Community in Hadleigh, Suffolk, 1547?1600)] TJ ET BT 455.336 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Hatfield, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forthcoming\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 130.340 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 130.340 249.363 m 184.328 249.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 236.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Hindle, )] TJ ET BT 115.352 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On the parish? The micro-politics of poor relief in rural England c. 1550?1750 )] TJ ET BT 500.024 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2004\), pp. 230?1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.340 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.340 220.851 m 202.328 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Slack, )] TJ ET BT 109.352 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poverty and policy in Tudor and Stuart England)] TJ ET BT 341.684 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1988\), p. 170; Hindle, )] TJ ET BT 501.008 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(parish?)] TJ ET BT 100.688 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 229?51.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.016 192.339 m 217.004 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Goose, ?The rise and decline of philanthropy in early modern Colchester: the unacceptable face of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mercantilism??, )] TJ ET BT 143.336 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social History)] TJ ET BT 212.336 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 31 \(2006\), 485; K. D. M. Snell, ?The culture of local xenophobia?, in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Parish and belonging: Community, Identity and Welfare in England and Wales, 1700?1950)] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, 2006\), pp. 28?80.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 211.664 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 211.664 135.315 m 265.652 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I. Archer, ?The charity of early modern Londoners?, )] TJ ET BT 318.932 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Transactions of the Royal Historical Society)] TJ ET BT 531.932 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 12 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2002\), p. 237.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 135.008 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 135.008 106.803 m 188.996 106.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 93.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, N. Goose and H. Looijesteijn, ?Almshouses in England and the Dutch Republic )] TJ ET BT 515.972 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(circa)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1350?1800: a comparative perspective?, )] TJ ET BT 260.300 79.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Social History)] TJ ET BT 381.968 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 45 \(2012\), 1049?73; N. Goose and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. Moden, )] TJ ET BT 117.344 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Doughty?s Hospital, Norwich, 1687?2009)] TJ ET BT 382.688 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Hatfield, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 466.004 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 466.004 64.035 m 519.992 64.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 51.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Goose, ?The English almshouse and the mixed economy of welfare: medieval to modern?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 36.917 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Local Historian)] TJ ET endstream endobj 44 0 obj [42 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 525.8957 484.0135 539.8877 495.8935 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 493.9997 306.7015 547.9877 318.5815 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 130.3397 249.6775 184.3277 261.5575 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.3397 221.1655 202.3277 233.0455 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.0157 192.6535 217.0037 204.5335 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 211.6637 135.6295 265.6517 147.5095 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 135.0077 107.1175 188.9957 118.9975 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 466.0037 64.3495 519.9917 76.2295 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R ] /Contents 62 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Length 1256 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 40, 1 \(2010\), 3?19)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 158.336 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.336 795.075 m 212.324 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Slack, )] TJ ET BT 96.680 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poverty and policy)] TJ ET BT 187.328 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; 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