%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 28 0 R 33 0 R 38 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818110138+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818110138+01'00') /Title (Ideas of Power in the Late Middle Ages, 1296-1417) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4428 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ideas of Power in the Late Middle Ages, 1296-1417)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The early 14th-century writer John Quidort of Paris once argued that legal norms should not be deduced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from unique events that took place in specific circumstances.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 326.960 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.960 243.417 m 340.952 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 340.952 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nevertheless, it might be suggested that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anecdotes may occasionally prove instructive. In the course of a recent attempt to buy a summer jacket, I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovered that I was being assisted by a graduate of the politics programme at a neighbouring New Zealand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(university. I was curious to know if they had ever studied medieval political thought. Hazy recollections of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single course taken outside the politics department followed. These were accompanied by the very definite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statement that what interested this particular former student was ?politics and not history?. This view seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(echoed in the growing tendency of politics departments, both in the UK, New Zealand, and elsewhere, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focus on the contemporary to the exclusion of the historical. At the same time, it is rare to see history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(departments advertise for historians of medieval political thought. While keeping John Quidort?s warning in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind, we might then observe that the history of medieval political ideas is by no means a trendy topic in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 21st century. Joseph Canning?s )] TJ ET BT 215.324 102.251 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideas of Power in the Late Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 405.644 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a book that deserves to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change that. It provides two invaluable services: it reminds political theorists of the value of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context and historians that political ideas are interesting.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1405)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 18 April, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Canning)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781107011410)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2011)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(232pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/gb/knowledge/isbn/item6550073/Ideas%20of%20Power%20in%20the%20Late%20Middle%20Ages,%201296%E2%80%931417/?site_locale=en_GB)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chris Jones)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.9597 243.7315 340.9517 255.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8725 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideas of Power)] TJ ET BT 106.676 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not a straightforward overview of the history of political thought in the later Middle Ages. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is worth noting because the chapter structure and chronological approach, which begins with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publicists of the reign of the French king Philip IV the Fair and ends with the conciliarists of the Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schism, mean it would be easy to misread this book. Along the way, the reader certainly encounters the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?usual suspects? one would expect to find in a survey: Dante, Marsilius of Padua, William of Ockham and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so on. And yet this is a book with a broader point. Canning has already written an excellent textbook )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 520.292 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 520.292 711.795 m 534.284 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 534.284 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a very different beast. That each chapter contributes to an overall argument is certainly clear when one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looks back from the vantage point of the book?s conclusion. Yet, although Canning sets out his approach in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a clear introduction, he has chosen not to patronise his reader by constantly highlighting his argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the course of )] TJ ET BT 154.664 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideas of Power)] TJ ET BT 227.324 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This may well lead some to miss the fact that this is a book that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was written to be read from cover to cover. If )] TJ ET BT 254.948 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideas of Power)] TJ ET BT 327.608 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has a flaw, then, it is that it does not sell its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own novelty particularly well. Yet, in an age where headlines often obscure content, it is not an entirely bad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thing to be reminded that not everything can or should be reduced to a sound-bite or its equivalent. What, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then, is the broader point of )] TJ ET BT 169.664 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideas of Power)] TJ ET BT 242.324 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? The approach taken to one of the most polarising of medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinkers, Marsilius of Padua, illustrates the book?s novelty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the course of the 20th century, political theorists and historians often trod their own, separate paths. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division between them was at its clearest when they considered a thinker such as Marsilius. Political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theorists often tended to read his great work, the )] TJ ET BT 268.640 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Defensor pacis)] TJ ET BT 340.964 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, in isolation from its historical context. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently focused on Discourse I of the text, to the exclusion of the much more substantial second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Discourse and, indeed, the author?s later works. Viewed from this perspective, Marsilius?s thought was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(product of the Italian city-states, his position that of an ardent defender of republicanism, and his radicalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined by his view of consent. Historians, on the other hand, tended to place greater emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marsilius?s output as a whole, and on its author?s involvement in the dispute between the would-be emperor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ludwig of Bavaria and the papacy. While his ?republicanism? was not entirely brushed aside, the portrait of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marsilius that emerged was predominantly of a thinker keen to defend the rights of emperors. The past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decade has witnessed challenges to both these approaches. Much new work consciously seeks to examine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marsilius and his thought from new perspectives.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 270.992 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 270.992 400.419 m 284.984 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 284.984 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In one sense, )] TJ ET BT 353.300 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideas of Power)] TJ ET BT 425.960 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( fits into this pattern. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly recognises and summarises the past polarisation, while offering a new approach. What makes this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book distinctive, though, is the nature of that new approach. Canning?s portrait of Marsilius is not a snapshot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a medieval thinker in isolation; it is a portrait of a thinker placed within a much broader context. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involves considering not simply Marsilius?s personal historical context and the way in which it shaped his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought; it is about viewing Marsilius?s ideas through a longer contextual lens. This is undoubtedly where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideas of Power)] TJ ET BT 106.676 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is at its most stimulating. It is also likely to prove the book?s most controversial feature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the heart of Canning?s argument is the view that the ideas of medieval thinkers can only be understood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when situated within their proper context. Few historians would disagree, but this is an argument that goes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the need to understand the specific circumstances that informed the thought of each individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writer, although this important area is by no means ignored. As Canning highlights, Marsilius of Padua?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(training as a physician undoubtedly left its mark on his ideas, as did his involvement in Ludwig?s conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the papacy.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 113.000 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 113.000 217.347 m 126.992 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 126.992 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Similarly, the conflict between Pope Boniface VIII and Philip IV played its part in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the thought of John Quidort. Nor can Ockham be disconnected from the debates over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poverty that shaped the Franciscan experience. More fundamentally, Canning argues ? and he is doubtless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right to do so ? that all of these writers were inspired to respond to ?real? problems. These were not isolated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theorists exploring abstract solutions in a vacuum; they were active participants in the political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical struggles of their day. And perhaps none more so than Marsilius himself: ?There was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical point to Marsilius?s writings; they were not just works of theory? \(p. 94\). And yet there is, Canning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests, a broader contextual thread that unites these thinkers and that helps to define their works. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(share an interest in addressing some common questions. These concern the nature of power and the origins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of authority. The most fundamental issue, as Canning sees it, is the question of where legitimate authority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lies: ?In short, who is in charge?? \(p. 1\). In other words, when viewed from this perspective, John Quidort, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dante, Marsilius and even John Wyclif and Franciscus Zabarella can be said to be standing on common )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 520.2917 712.1095 534.2837 723.9895 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 270.9917 400.7335 284.9837 412.6135 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 112.9997 217.6615 126.9917 229.5415 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7858 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Late medieval writers approached varying crises in different ways but at the heart of their works lay the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central issue of where legitimate authority should be located. The first crisis, and the focus of the book?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opening chapter, is the series of disputes that gripped France in the 1290s and the early 14th century as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip IV came into conflict with Boniface VIII over, firstly, royal rights to tax the Church and, later, over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the broader issue of royal jurisdiction over the clergy. In common with Jrgen Miethke, Canning believes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this dispute gave birth to a new form of political writing.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 327.332 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 327.332 697.539 m 341.324 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 341.324 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( By the beginning of the 14th century the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rapidly maturing university system had produced writers such as John Quidort, Giles of Rome and James of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Viterbo. These individuals, alongside the anonymous authors of tracts such as the )] TJ ET BT 428.636 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Quaestio in utramque )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(partem)] TJ ET BT 68.012 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, were inspired by the contemporary conflict to seek to establish the nature of temporal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastical power, and the relationship between them. The debate hinged around the question of whether a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierocratic interpretation, one that ultimately located all authority in the papacy, should be accepted or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether a dualist perspective that viewed temporal and spiritual authority as two essentially independent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strands was the correct interpretation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapters two and three, Canning moves on to consider the further series of crises triggered by efforts to re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establish imperial authority under the Emperor Henry VII and Ludwig of Bavaria. These, again, brought the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temporal power into conflict with the spiritual. Henry?s efforts to assert his authority in northern Italy gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rise to what Canning considers a new approach to power and authority in the thought of Dante Alighieri. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dante?s solution to the problems of the medieval world, a strong emperor, was an old one; his methodology, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new. At the same time, Canning notes that what is interesting here is not Dante?s advocacy of empire but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way in which he approached the problem. While the publicists of the Franco-papal dispute had chosen to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construct arguments that appealed to authorities, Dante pioneered an approach that returned to first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principles. Yet, in common with the publicists before him and Marsilius writing some decades later, Dante?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought revolved around the dual ? and inextricably linked ? problem of power and legitimate authority. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, for Marsilius, whose thought is the focus of chapter three, the papal claim to a plenitude of power ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and how best to debunk it ? was, Canning argues, the crux of the problem to be confronted. To understand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the thought of either Dante or Marsilius fully it is, then, necessary to understand the centrality of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of power and where it should be located.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With its fourth chapter, )] TJ ET BT 149.000 361.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideas of Power)] TJ ET BT 221.660 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( takes a sidestep away from a straightforward chronological approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by considering the wider debate surrounding poverty. It then returns to focus on the thought of Marsilius?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary, William of Ockham. For Canning, the debate over the nature of property that began in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mendicant orders and that developed in the radically different theories of John Quidort and Giles of Rome, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another facet of the ongoing debate over the location of legitimate authority. In Ockham himself we find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what Canning terms a ?third way? of exploring this problem \(p. 125\). Approaches amongst earlier writers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierocratic or dualist, focused on the exercise of power within a Christian society in which the ruler would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always enjoy some form of relationship with the Church. Following Stephen McGrade, Canning suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ockham ?desacralized? secular power, effectively moving the problem away from a debate involving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically Christian societies. Ockham can also, however, be read as providing a theological argument to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justify the complete autonomy of secular rulers and political communities. Canning argues he developed, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effect, an alternative to Aristotelian naturalism but one that achieved the same ends: an independent political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sphere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideas of Power)] TJ ET BT 106.676 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is rounded off by a discussion of John Wyclif and the conciliarist movement in a sixth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter that deals with the crisis generated by the Great Schism. Here, again, Canning argues, we are dealing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the problem of power and where legitimate authority should lie. He focuses, in particular, on the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(God?s grace in establishing legitimate )] TJ ET BT 220.328 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(dominium)] TJ ET BT 268.328 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(and hence the legitimate exercise of power\) in society, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the role of consent in establishing the source of ultimate authority in the Church. It is in the preceding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, ?The treatment of power in juristic thought?, however, that )] TJ ET BT 361.616 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideas of Power )] TJ ET BT 437.276 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaches its high point.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers who turn to the book expecting a straightforward analysis of the thought of the jurists Bartolus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sassoferrato and Baldus of Ubaldis will doubtless feel slightly disconcerted by )] TJ ET BT 414.980 52.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideas of Power)] TJ ET BT 487.640 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?s fifth )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 327.3317 697.8535 341.3237 709.7335 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 36 0 R ] /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 8229 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter. In the context of the broader discussion of power and authority, this chapter posses a key question: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can the terms ?sovereignty? and ?state? be used with reference to the medieval world? I have to admit, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly when it comes to the latter, I have always been something of a sceptic. Canning offers an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of both concepts in juristic thought, and a focused discussion of the way in which mid 14th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jurists dealt with the question of papal temporal power in the Papal States in particular. His analysis provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what is, to my mind, one of the most convincing cases for retaining the use of both terms. This chapter is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite simply, masterly. It deserves to be read in the context of the book as a whole, and it deserves to be read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely. Linked to a concept of corporation theory, Canning provides cogent reasons to suggest the jurists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed a clear concept of ?state?. The chapter is equally interesting for its discussion of sovereignty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the comparisons Canning draws with modern institutions such as the European Union. Is a concept such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?alienable sovereignty? possible or a contradiction in terms? It is, at the very least, an intriguing concept, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the idea of a ?hierarchy of sovereignty? as an explanation of 14th-century political structures. As Canning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes in the book?s conclusion, the work of jurists in this period has been underestimated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alongside the creativity of 14th-century jurists, the book, as a whole, concludes by reminding us of two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points that are easy to overlook. The first, looking forward, is that scholastic ideas continued to exist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside humanist ones during the Renaissance. So, while it makes sense to conclude the book with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schism in the first quarter of the 15th century, we should not assume that the ideas discussed here simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ceased to have any currency after that date. The second, looking backwards, is to reassess the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval ?Augustinianism?, the medieval world view as it had developed before the rediscovery of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corpus of Aristotle?s writings. There is a lingering tendency to view the history of late medieval political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought as a clash between Augustinianism and Aristotelianism, the former represented by hierocrats such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Giles of Rome, the latter by dualists such as John Quidort. As Canning recognises, and makes clear when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussing James of Viterbo in particular, the hierocrats were as much influenced by Aristotle as the dualists. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What Canning reminds us is that Augustinianism continued to exert a wide-ranging and important influence. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paradoxically, Augustinian ideas could even be used to justify secular authority with no reference to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church \(p. 194\). As Canning notes, it would be useful to re-examine Early Modern political thought in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(light of the analysis presented here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I found only one minor typo in )] TJ ET BT 185.012 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideas of Power)] TJ ET BT 257.672 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: the ?Emperor Henry? referred to by John Quidort is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly Henry III and not Henry II \(p. 57\). More generally, Canning?s choice of a straightforward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological structure makes )] TJ ET BT 181.652 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideas of Power)] TJ ET BT 254.312 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( highly readable but does, on occasion, have its drawbacks. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addition to the problem that readers who dip in and out risk missing the book?s broader argument, it means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that points are sometimes introduced but not dealt with for some time. I found myself, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned by the apparently casual and unqualified use of the term ?sovereignty? in chapter one; my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns were only allayed by the robust discussion in chapter five. It might also be possible to criticise a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few of Canning?s specific choices. It was unclear to me, for example, why the older editions of Giles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rome?s )] TJ ET BT 75.680 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De ecclesiastica potestate)] TJ ET BT 200.324 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by Scholz \(1929\) and James of Viterbo?s )] TJ ET BT 404.288 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De regimine christiano)] TJ ET BT 515.612 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arquillire \(1926\), should be favoured over the much newer editions produced by Robert Dyson in, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectively, 2004 and 2009.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 172.328 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 172.328 243.603 m 186.320 243.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 186.320 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( I am also not entirely convinced that Henry of Cremona?s tract)] TJ ET BT 491.924 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( De potestate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(pape)] TJ ET BT 57.344 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( really was John Quidort?s ?prime target? in )] TJ ET BT 272.636 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De potestate regia et papali)] TJ ET BT 406.628 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and would have liked to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen this claim explored further \(p. 49\). More significantly, there is Canning?s decision to concern himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusively with the thought of ?late medieval scholastic writers ? theologians, philosophers and jurists? \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3\). The middle category, in particular, seems something of a vague ?catch all? to allow for the inclusion of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writer such as Dante.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In choosing to explore the ideas of theologians, philosophers and jurists, Canning?s aim is clearly to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate that the traditional canon of ?political? writers who have formed the focus of interest amongst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians of political thought since the early 20th century still has much to tell us and, indeed, can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explored from a new perspective. In this he is undoubtedly successful. At the same time, it would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting to reflect on what writers who fall outside the traditional canon can tell us about the problems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power and legitimate authority. Canning does not address this but his book is certainly an invitation to others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to do so. The question of where legitimate authority lies might well be a key that unlocks more than the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj [33 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 172.3277 243.9175 186.3197 255.7975 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 8375 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional canon. Is the model he is proposing, in short, one that tells us something about the nature of late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval society as a whole? It may well do. Although discussed in a much less sophisticated manner, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precisely the problem of legitimacy, for example, that French chroniclers felt obliged to address when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing with Charles I d?Anjou?s mid 13th-century conquest of the southern Italian )] TJ ET BT 437.960 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(regno)] TJ ET BT 465.956 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: Was Charles?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authority legitimate simply because it was established by papal grant? Chroniclers struggled, in particular, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justify the disinheritance and execution of the last legitimate Hohenstaufen heir, Conradin. Where did a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(source of authority lie that could legitimate disinheriting a family of its patrimony?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 432.656 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 432.656 709.539 m 446.648 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 446.648 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the course of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14th century, as Canning ably demonstrates, the answers were becoming considerably more complex; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basic question, however, was the same. Where was legitimate authority located? There is, then, a broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of this key question waiting to be written. In )] TJ ET BT 286.340 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ideas of Power)] TJ ET BT 359.000 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Joseph Canning has provided an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely stimulating new reading of the traditional canon that challenges political theorists and historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to think differently. He has also opened the door to thinking about later medieval political thought in new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways. In isolating the problem of power and legitimate authority Canning?s book is a contribution to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broader debate over the way in which the inhabitants of medieval Europe perceived their world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 576.243 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(De Potestate Regia et Papali)] TJ ET BT 203.336 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: )] TJ ET BT 209.672 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Johannes Quidort von Paris. )] TJ ET BT 351.332 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ber Knigliche und Ppstliche Gewalt )] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(?De Regia Potestate et Papali?\))] TJ ET BT 223.328 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. with a German translation by F. Bleienstein \(Stuttgart, 1969\), c. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14, p. 148.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 115.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 115.016 515.715 m 169.004 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Canning, )] TJ ET BT 121.352 502.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Medieval Political Thought 350?1450)] TJ ET BT 366.020 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, NY, London, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 526.988 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 526.988 501.459 m 554.648 501.459 l S BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 487.203 m 90.344 487.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 474.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most notably: G. Garnett, )] TJ ET BT 190.676 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marsilius of Padua and ?The Truth of History?)] TJ ET BT 418.364 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2006\) and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays collected in )] TJ ET BT 156.332 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World of Marsilius of Padua)] TJ ET BT 315.344 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. G. Moreno-Riao \(Turnhout, 2006\) and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Companion to Marsilius of Padua)] TJ ET BT 238.364 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. G. Moreno-Riao and C. J. Nederman \(Leiden, 2012\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 522.308 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 522.308 444.435 m 549.968 444.435 l S BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 430.179 m 90.344 430.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 417.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the latest assessment of the former: T. Shogimen, ?Medicine and the body politic in Marsilius of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Padua?s )] TJ ET BT 106.340 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Defensor pacis)] TJ ET BT 178.664 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, in)] TJ ET BT 199.328 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( A Companion to Marsilius of Padua)] TJ ET BT 376.676 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 71?115.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 439.004 403.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 439.004 401.667 m 492.992 401.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 388.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. Miethke, ?Die Traktate ?De potestate papae?. Ein Typus politiktheoretischer Literatur im spten )] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mittelalter?, in )] TJ ET BT 138.344 374.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les genres littraires dans les sources thologiques et philosophiques mdivales: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dfinition, critique et exploitation. Actes du Colloque international de Louvain-la-Neuve, 25-27 mai )] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1981)] TJ ET BT 88.016 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Louvain-la-Neuve, 1982\), pp. 193?211.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 285.308 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 285.308 344.643 m 339.296 344.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 331.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Giles of Rome?s ?On Ecclesiastical Power?)] TJ ET BT 276.332 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 282.332 331.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Medieval Theory of World Government)] TJ ET BT 481.964 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. and trans. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by R. W. Dyson \(New York, NY, 2004\); )] TJ ET BT 262.652 317.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(James of Viterbo, De Regimine Christiano. A Critical )] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Edition and Translation)] TJ ET BT 179.372 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. and trans. by R. W. Dyson \(Leiden, 2009\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 407.336 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 407.336 301.875 m 461.324 301.875 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 289.018 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Jones, )] TJ ET BT 110.684 289.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eclipse of Empire? 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