%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140820164512+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140820164512+01'00') /Title (A Monarchy in Letters: Royal Correspondence and English Diplomacy in the Reign of Elizabeth I) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2038 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A Monarchy in Letters: Royal Correspondence and English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Diplomacy in the Reign of Elizabeth I)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1407)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 2 May, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rayne Allinson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781137008350)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(58.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(270pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.palgrave.com/products/title.aspx?pid=577812)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Estelle Paranque)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7839 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rayne Allinson?s new book, )] TJ ET BT 175.004 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Monarchy in Letters: Royal Correspondence and English Diplomacy in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reign of Elizabeth I)] TJ ET BT 129.680 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, highlights some of the gaps missing in the historiography of the queen?s own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement in foreign affairs. The author acknowledges that there is a curious void here; what about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(queen?s own words? Obviously, the queen?s preferences were central to certain aspects of foreign policy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But this is the first full-length monograph paying attention to the utterances of the queen and how they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(received by her contemporaries.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 187.964 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 187.964 711.795 m 201.956 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 201.956 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The author not only sheds a light on Elizabeth?s writings, she also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyses the answers that the queen received and thus gives us a detailed account on Elizabeth?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships with other monarchs. Allinson looks closely at the distinctions to be made between holographs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and autographs. Holographs were considered more private and personal than autographs which were written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on behalf of a prince. However, both forms of letters represented the monarch?s authority, as Allinson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains: ?authority and authorship had become inextricably linked in European court culture by the mid-to-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late sixteenth century? \(p. 17\). Futhermore, Allinson explains the risk of conflict starting when monarchs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cease from corresponding with each other at this direct and personal level \(see p. 71 regarding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence with Philip II of Spain and p. 89 concerning the correspondence with Mary Queen of Scots\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The primary sources used by Allinson are extensive and well documented: letters sent around Europe and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Ottoman Empire and to Russia. Allinson analyses them to demonstrate royal rhetoric, royal diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skills and establishment of royal amities. She highlights the importance of both autographs and holographs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and helps the reader to understand what was at stake. She has found letters that were not analysed before or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not fully examined, notably some exchanged between Elizabeth and Henry IV of France: ?despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of Anglo-French relations in the 1590s and the large number of their letters available in print, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relationship between Elizabeth and Henry has remained largely unstudied? \(p. 152\). Readers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Monarchy in Letters)] TJ ET BT 142.340 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( have here the opportunity to look at Elizabeth?s most complicated, unpredictable and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intense international relationships and thus to grasp how alliances were built both in public and in private, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it were \(from the personal relationships established by writing and the public political relationships created )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by that correspondence\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The writing style of the author is engaging, clear and precise. The reader can easily follow the arguments in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each chapter. The book is divided into ten chapters. Three of them are introductory. The first describes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolution of writing and how this skill was developed and became more and more important in royal duties. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allinson explains that during the medieval period ?reading and writing were skills practiced almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusively by the clerical elite? \(p. 2\). She explores in this chapter how these skills were used by monarchs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and for what purpose. According to her, humanist learning had an impact on monarchs? education and it fed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly into royal correspondence with foreign courts. She claims that: ?Henry VII?s European education )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also had an indirect effect on the development of the English letter writing? \(p. 6\). Consequently, his sons )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were taught how to use ?rhetoric and written expression? \(p. 7\). In the second chapter, Allinson explores the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differences between holograph and autograph letters, especially regarding Elizabeth I?s case. She argues that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the queen?s ?conspicuous involvement in the letter-writing process demonstrated her active participation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs of state?. The main goal of this chapter is to prove that Elizabeth I was extremely aware of her letters? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact on foreign policy-making even though she did not write herself all her letters. Finally, to finish with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the introductory chapters, Allinson focuses on the first two years of Elizabeth I?s reign, and examines letters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sent to foreign monarchs to notify them of her accession. These introductory chapters not only allow the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader to know more about the history of the letter-writing process but also explain how letters played an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important role in Elizabeth?s policy-making. After the three introductory chapters, Allinson moves on to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seven case study chapters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four focuses on the tumultuous relationship between Elizabeth I and Philip II. Through the medium )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of their letters, Allinson looks at the development of their friendship/rivalry during their reigns. She also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains and determines the importance of ambassadors and how they played the role of ?verbal extensions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the letters? \(p. 54\). From 1559 to 1584, Allinson analyses their evolving relationship and the ?crucial role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in keeping the channels of communication open, despite the mutual expulsion of ambassadors in 1568 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1572? \(pp. 54?5\). What is crucial here is how the continued exchange of letters served to stop the constant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties, and perhaps the more hawkish tendencies of their counsellors, from moving further into outright )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 187.9637 712.1095 201.9557 723.9895 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 5759 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostility. As Allinson states, ?it was only when their correspondence ceased that the real war began? \(p. 71\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter five looks at the correspondence of Elizabeth with her ?closest relative and sister queen, Mary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stuart? \(p. 73\). Their relationship, over the years, was tense, courteous, silent and deadly. Many works have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused on their relation but few have looked specifically and only to their correspondence. Allinson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains how, from a private correspondence, their letters became a public matter \(p. 89\). Elizabeth refused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for years to reply to her cousin. She wanted to distance herself from her and to isolate her. We can see here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that silence represents not only distrust but was also used as a powerful political device to punish Mary. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allinson demonstrates, by refusing to reply to Mary, the English queen no longer recognised her as ?an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independent, diplomatic equal? \(p. 88\). Furthermore, as royal correspondence allowed monarchs to maintain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a certain level of amity, breaking royal correspondence ?could have significant consequences for how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic relations were enacted and perceived? \(p. 91\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter six is, in my opinion, somewhat controversial. It focuses on the correspondence exchanged between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine de Mdici and Elizabeth. Legitimately, Allinson examines this correspondence during Francis II?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Charles IX?s reigns, as Catherine de Mdicis was queen regent of France. Therefore, Elizabeth needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to secure a bond of amity with her. However, when in 1574, Henry III came to the throne, the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine needed to be redefined. Everyone could agree that she continued to play a major role in French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy making but she was no longer the queen regent and had lost her regency powers. For that reason, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been interesting to have a chapter looking at the correspondence between Henry III of France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Elizabeth from 1574 to 1589 and see what kind of bond the English queen could secure with the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king and then to compare this bond with the one established with Catherine. Catherine was certainly seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and used \(even by Henry III\) as a powerful counsellor who had great experience in politics but she was not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal equal. Allinson argues that ?Elizabeth considered Catherine as an equal. Sometimes, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine pushed the bounds of her assumed equality with Elizabeth too far and received a stern reminder of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her honorary nature of her position from the English queen? \(p. 94\). In this chapter, Allinson highlights this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicated relationship between two women who dealt with religious turmoil and tried to avoid civil strife )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at home \(p. 104\) as well as to establish their own authority. Allinson demonstrates that through their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence Elizabeth and Catherine built a strong diplomatic relationship which enabled them to face a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common enemy, Philip II of Spain. Beyond religious belief, it seems that a feminine solidarity prevailed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter seven is a very intriguing case study. Allinson sheds light on the mysterious and secret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correspondence between Elizabeth and the Tsar of Russia, Ivan IV. The real asset of this study is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand how each country perceived governance and how it differed from each other. These differences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in writing style and diplomatic structure demonstrate that culture played also an important role in foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy making. Ivan had specific expectations from Elizabeth and wanted her to follow his lead: ?Ivan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insisted that Elizabeth?s written responses to these ?secret? proposals should replicate the exact wording, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(format, and language of his own letters and be validated by a variety of epistolary rituals prescribed by him, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as the ?kissing of the cross? in the presence of ambassadors ? an act likely to be distasteful to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant queen? \(p. 112\). This case study highlights the importance of commerce in royal correspondence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and how Elizabeth and the Tsar of Russia established a political alliance despite their cultural differences.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 6783 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter eight is, in my opinion, the most original. It looks at the correspondence between Sultan Murad III )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Ottoman Empire and Elizabeth I. Again, their interests were mainly commercial as they signed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1580 ?the charter of trade? \(p. 132\). Allinson explains how the English queen and the Ottoman Sultan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managed to build an amity despite their different faith. They, however, seemed to agree on certain grounds: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?by asserting her contempt for idolatry, Elizabeth underscored a shared concern of Islam and Protestantism ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the primacy of the written word over images ? in implicit contrast to their common Catholic enemy, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Habsburgs? \(p. 138\). Therefore, Allinson explains that this ?rejection of idolatry? played a strategic role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the establishments of good relations between England and the Ottoman Empire. Despite the difficulties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linked to the translations of their languages, Elizabeth managed to build a stable relation with Sultan Murad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(III and to ?rearticulate her authority as a Christian monarch, in order to protect her merchants? trade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforce her ambassador?s authority, and secure Murad?s military support? \(p. 149\). This chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises the unique relationship shared by a Christian ruler and her non-western counterpart.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters nine and ten look at two more known streams of foreign correspondence. Allinson examines the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?unstudied? \(p. 152\) correspondence of Henry IV of France and Elizabeth I. She explains the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a good amity between the two monarchs to preserve peace between England and France. The turning point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in their relationship is certainly Henry IV?s conversion to Catholicism, a conversion which might have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen as a betrayal for the English queen who counted on him to help her defend the Protestant faith; on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other hand, Henry?s confessional change of heart was not going to be allowed to disrupt the essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secular logic of the Anglo-French stand against Philip II. According to Allinson, Henry valued his friendship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the English queen and was devoted to ?her leadership? \(p. 155\). Allinson also explores the role of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambassadors to keep this good amity between the two princes even after the conversion of the French king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 159\). Their perpetual friendship and its importance for the balance of powers in Europe are underscored. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In chapter ten, another close and crucial friendship for the English queen is examined, her relation with her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(godson James VI of Scotland. Their correspondence is one of the most prolific exchanges between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchs. Furthermore, many holographs were exchanged between them reinforcing the importance of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good and intimate relation on the political stage. At first, Elizabeth tried to impose her authority over her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(godson but soon enough, by asserting his own authority, ?he inevitably began to test the limits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth?s presumed authority over him? \(p. 173\). This enabled him to assert his own legitimacy as king of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scotland as well as the rightful English heir \(though he was never proclaimed as such by his godmother\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Monarchy in Letters)] TJ ET BT 155.336 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Allinson shows the importance of royal correspondence in foreign policy making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and how good relations between monarchs helped to preserve peace between realms. Elizabeth I wrote or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictated many letters through her life enabling her to become a powerful monarch on the international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political scene. By looking closely to her words and those of her counterparts, the reader can better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand all the issues at stake during this period. Through well-documented and also through less well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studied primary sources, Rayne Allinson shrewdly enhances our understanding of early modern royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(epistolary relationships. We cannot always determine exactly the balance of opinions within the council and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court which led to letters of this kind going out in the format that they took; but the queen?s signature was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the end the crucial issue, the thing that meant she could not be a cipher.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.099 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Ilona Bell, )] TJ ET BT 138.008 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth I: The Voice of a Monarch)] TJ ET BT 316.988 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York, 2010\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 411.296 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 411.296 166.083 m 465.284 166.083 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 150.751 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 132.971 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 132.971 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1407)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 131.577 m 328.316 131.577 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 106.600 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/61047)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 411.2957 166.3975 465.2837 178.2775 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 131.8915 328.3157 143.7715 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1407) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000596 00000 n 0000000678 00000 n 0000002768 00000 n 0000002877 00000 n 0000002987 00000 n 0000003096 00000 n 0000006657 00000 n 0000006785 00000 n 0000006869 00000 n 0000006953 00000 n 0000014845 00000 n 0000014875 00000 n 0000015003 00000 n 0000015039 00000 n 0000015104 00000 n 0000020916 00000 n 0000021007 00000 n 0000027843 00000 n 0000027971 00000 n 0000028026 00000 n 0000028154 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28250 %%EOF