%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R 43 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140921200947+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140921200947+01'00') /Title (Ascent of the Detective: Police Sleuths in Victorian and Edwardian England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3672 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ascent of the Detective: Police Sleuths in Victorian and Edwardian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?A detective?, wrote a crime-fiction reviewer in 1932, ?should have something of the god about him?:)] TJ ET BT 64.016 199.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was the divine, aloof, condescending quality in the old great ones of Poe, Gaboriau, Wilkie )] TJ ET BT 64.016 185.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collins and Sherlock Holmes that made their adventures so glamorously irresistible. A writer of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 170.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detective stories might have a style as brilliant as Poe?s, as consummately competent as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 156.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Collins?s, as pompously absurd as Doyle?s ? it did not matter: what mattered was whether he )] TJ ET BT 64.016 142.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gave us a detective whom we could worship.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.308 142.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.308 141.009 m 293.300 141.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 104.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even the most ardent fan of crime fiction might think ?worship? an overstatement; nonetheless, by the time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those words were written, detectives had indeed become among the most popular figures of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature. In the decades since that ?golden age? of crime fiction, )] TJ ET BT 350.264 75.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(police)] TJ ET BT 379.592 75.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( detectives have often even managed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to hold their own against their previously more celebrated private counterparts, whether in print, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1409)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 2 May, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haia Shpayer-Makov)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199577408)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(448pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199577408.do#.UYI9NUpX_To)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Carter Wood)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 279.3077 141.3235 293.2997 153.2035 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7482 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(television or at the cinema. As )] TJ ET BT 182.996 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ascent of the Detective )] TJ ET BT 317.300 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes clear, such trends are remarkable in view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the suspicion that greeted real-life police detectives in their early years and their frequent literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belittlement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ?ascent? in the title of Haia Shpayer-Makov?s fascinating book refers to two related trends: the rising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(professional status)] TJ ET BT 124.364 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and improving )] TJ ET BT 200.696 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(public reputation)] TJ ET BT 283.700 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of English police detectives during the Victorian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwardian periods. The book is correspondingly divided into sections that consider detectives )] TJ ET BT 488.960 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(as workers)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 54.344 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(as cultural icons)] TJ ET BT 134.348 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part one builds on the author?s pioneering research into the labour history of policing, embedding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of detective forces within the more general transformation of the state maintenance of public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 62.336 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 62.336 642.771 m 76.328 642.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 76.328 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Although London?s Metropolitan Police was founded in 1829, a detective force was not organised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until 1842; then, in 1878, detectives were reorganised into the Criminal Investigation Department \(CID\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such models spread outward from London, mainly to other urban forces. \(Except for brief asides, Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Irish contexts are not considered.\) The tasks of finding and arresting suspected wrongdoers were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new, having been previously undertaken by victims themselves or by voluntary associations, ?thief-takers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the quasi-official ?Bow Street Runners?; however, the shift toward state-employed detection was seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by many as a significant, and worrying, change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To assuage concerns that the new police forces would impose an ?un-English? system of spying and threaten )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purportedly traditional liberties, early police officials emphasised the goal of )] TJ ET BT 404.960 518.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(prevention)] TJ ET BT 456.284 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( rather than )] TJ ET BT 513.932 518.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(detection)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Nonetheless, even the uniformed police at first faced an ?atmosphere of hostility? \(p. 187\). Gaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceptance was a slow, step-by-step and ?piecemeal? \(p. 26\) process.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The expansion of detective forces, Shpayer-Makov argues, was driven by necessity: the growing sense in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1830s that preventive goals had failed was followed in later decades by new challenges, such as the end of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convict transportation, panics about street crime and the growth of terrorism \(whether anarchist or Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republican\). Nonetheless, vehement criticism continued, reflecting concerns about cost, doubts about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effectiveness, anxieties about oppression or revelations of corruption.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Devoting considerable attention to how detectives were selected and trained, Shpayer-Makov draws out the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctiveness of the police compared to other predominantly working-class occupations, such as ?on-the-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(job training, secure employment, wages not directly influenced by competitive forces in the external market, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and jobs within the police force filled by the promotion or transfer of workers who had already gained entry? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 63\). Such patterns, especially the reliance on internal recruitment from the uniformed branch, contributed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a strong institutional identity and ?esprit de corps? \(p. 76\). Detectives were part of a ?common police )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture? characterised by a mixture of ?traditional aristocratic paternalism? and ?modern middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notions of efficient management? \(p. 101\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Divisions quickly emerged, though, between the uniformed and detective branches. Although most police )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work was done by beat-walking, uniformed constables, detective service became ?a magnet? and seen by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many officers as ?the promised land? \(p. 100\). There was a growing sense that detectives formed a ?distinct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entity? \(pp. 105-6\) with higher pay, greater status and better opportunities for advancement. By the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwardian period, Detective Sergeants had achieved lower-middle-class ? and Chief Inspectors solidly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class ? status \(pp. 117?18\). Given detective departments? tiny size, competition to join a force?s CID )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was correspondingly fierce. Detective work also provided a distinctive degree of ?semi-autonomy? \(p. 123\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one that police supervisors sought to control by requiring extensive written reports: by the 1880s the now-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perennial police complaint of being buried in paperwork could already be heard.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In their relations with the public, detectives relied upon a flexible ?discretion? with regard to criminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrongdoing. Despite evidence of ?class-related bias against people of their own stock? \(p. 128\), Shpayer-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Makov emphasises that police held ?varied? political and moral views: they might share the beliefs of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they policed and could be kind or helpful to those they felt capable of rehabilitation. She finds little evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of detectives acting like the continental-style ?spies? their critics feared. Special Branch, initially formed )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 62.3357 643.0855 76.3277 654.9655 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7422 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the Met?s CID to deal specifically with anarchism and Irish terrorism, may have been an exception, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but even here Shpayer-Makov ? in a formulation that is evocative albeit somewhat evasive ? finds detectives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming to the ?threshold of political repression though not beyond? \(p. 135\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part two of the book leaves behind the relative solidity of institutional and labour history and turns to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitably somewhat nebulous topic of the detective as a ?cultural construct?. However, the author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successfully avoids discursive abstraction by focusing clearly on the )] TJ ET BT 364.964 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(agents)] TJ ET BT 396.296 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( involved: journalists, fiction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors and detectives themselves. Unusually for a working-class profession, an intense press attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanied detectives from the start, combining fascination, admiration and assessment. Police detectives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were expected to uphold ideals of public service and respond to democratising trends, and the press )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constantly \(and often critically\) evaluated their ability to solve crimes. Detectives were dependent on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public not only for approval but also for information, and thus the police concentrated on maintaining a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positive image.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The most important agents in the media depiction of detective work were journalists. Their relationship with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(police detectives was complex, characterised by mutual dependence, ?reciprocity? \(p. 186\) and a ?culture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exchange? \(p. 160\). The trade of )] TJ ET BT 193.292 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(information)] TJ ET BT 249.968 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for )] TJ ET BT 269.960 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(image)] TJ ET BT 299.288 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(or vice-versa\) between these two groups saw the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detective transformed from a ?menacing figure? to a ?national celebrity? \(p. 7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although even the middle-classes were initially anxious about the association of detectives with ?fakery?, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?dishonesty akin to spying? \(p. 189\) and the often corrupt practices of 18th-century ?thief-takers?, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickly became ? as they would remain ? the police?s most steady supporters, less likely to complain about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(police excesses than their sense that policemen were never around when needed. There were critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?dissenting voices? \(p. 224\) throughout the 19th century and several rough patches in police-public relations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as a corruption scandal in the late 1870s and the failure to solve the ?Ripper murders? a decade later. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But by the early 20th century, journalists had confirmed detectives as ?essential to society, designating a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public role for them as professional fighters for the public good? \(p. 186\). The working classes also, if more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?grudgingly? \(p. 192\), came to accept the police. An enduring political division in press coverage emerged, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, with liberal and radical papers tending to condemn police practice \(if not the policing model itself\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the conservative press tending to decry police )] TJ ET BT 276.632 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inaction)] TJ ET BT 315.968 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the meddling of lawmakers and the ?too liberal? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 208\) tendencies of English justice. There was a wide range of opinion, but Shpayer-Makov emphasises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?pivotal role? of the press ?in entrenching a tolerant attitude to official crime control? \(p. 224\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In crime fiction, however, the police detective remained overshadowed by his private, often gentlemanly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterpart. While Shpayer-Makov here relies on the extensive secondary literature on crime fiction, her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability to link this work to the experiences of real detectives and patterns in press narratives allows her to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strike several innovative notes. Detective fiction was one product of a late 18th- and early 19th-century shift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in focus \(and sympathy\) in fiction from criminals to the police, driven by increasing expectations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orderliness and a declining severity of punishment. Building on transitional genres, such as fictional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detective ?pseudo-memoirs?, detective stories flourished from the 1880s, offering, on the one hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excitement and exotic locales and, on the other, ?a sense of security? in the midst of a society undergoing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsettling process of urbanisation \(pp. 240?1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But while the fictional police detective might be depicted as dogged and worthy he was rarely brilliant and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently rather plodding. Sparkling intelligence was, with a few exceptions, reserved for the private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detective, who was seen as ?more competent and praiseworthy? \(p. 226\), a trend that both preceded and was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforced by the appearance of Sherlock Holmes stories in 1887. \(There was, however, a ?slight? \(p. 255\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift toward greater appreciation of Scotland Yard detectives in fictional works after 1900.\) The doubts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about literary police detectives may have initially reflected the real-world police scandals of the decades )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during which the modern genre was born \(the 1870s and 1880s\) and were likely kept alive by a combination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of ?lingering traditions? \(p. 256\) of real-life private law enforcement as well as class prejudice: real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detectives were too working-class to be celebrated in a middle-class genre, so gentleman heroes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominated.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7394 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While somewhat supportive of Marxist and Foucauldian claims that detective fiction ?upheld hegemonic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middle-class norms? and justified the ?centrality of surveillance in the new urban and industrialised milieu? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 266\), Shpayer-Makov counters that this fiction also presented ideals of )] TJ ET BT 392.960 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(limited)] TJ ET BT 426.296 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( state power, impartial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justice and a ?faith in tolerance? \(p. 271\). Ultimately, it presented ?a kind of middle way?an equilibrium )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between reliance on the individual and the state? \(p. 268\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Detectives not only shaped their public image through their interactions with journalists but also as writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves: in her final main chapter, Shpayer-Makov focuses on the published memoirs of actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detectives, which became popular reading from the 1880s onward. As authors, detectives fed into an already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing ? if sporadic ? critique of crime fiction, as those in the police force \(or their sympathisers\) sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set the record straight with regard to its many distortions. Detectives? engagement with literary culture is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly striking, as they could be seen as working-class authors, even if they primarily adopted an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?occupational? rather than ?social? identity \(p. 296\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As this summary suggests, )] TJ ET BT 165.020 589.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ascent of the Detective)] TJ ET BT 296.324 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( sets out to be both a thoroughly detailed and broadly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive study of police detection as an occupation and a cultural obsession. That it succeeds so well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in both cases rests upon Spayer-Makov?s skill in balancing and clarifying several related interconnections: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between real police work and its press image, between the uniformed and detective branches, between police )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and public \(or press\) viewpoints and between fictional and non-fictional accounts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alongside the rich detail of the book, some general themes emerge that are relevant beyond ?police history? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 491.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as such. For example, Shpayer-Makov portrays the emergence of the public-service detective as a triumph )] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over )] TJ ET BT 58.340 477.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(laissez-faire)] TJ ET BT 117.008 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ideology and evidence of an important cultural shift toward the acceptance of state power. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was nothing unique, as she emphasises, about the detection of criminals in itself, a service which had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been \(and continued to be\) privately supplied for those who could afford it; however ? whatever civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberties concerns it raised ? the rise of the police detective democratised criminal detection services.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another intriguing general aspect of this story is how media portrayals of detectives were vitally important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in establishing their institutional legitimacy and social standing. The vast majority of the public, after all, did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not encounter detectives in real life but rather in the pages of newspapers or detective novels. The fact that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these depictions were to the benefit of the police demonstrates the extent to which modern forms of state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power were legitimated by the media and highlights the role played by the imagination in shaping real forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of social and political life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is also interesting in this context, though, is the fact that most of the actual agents who were thereby )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimated were working-class. The working-class background of policemen \(and thus detectives\) is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established in the book?s early chapters and echoes throughout the book. It is important to see that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working-class group ? one often not recognised as such ? had a different set of relationships with their work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state, the public and the media than did any other group of workers. Along with her other achievements, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this book Shpayer-Makov continues to cast a new light on police history as )] TJ ET BT 409.988 239.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(labour )] TJ ET BT 444.992 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 213.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the book succeeds magnificently in its own aims, it raises several questions that go somewhat beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the geographical, topical and chronological boundaries that Shpayer-Makov herself sets.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 172.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, for example, in so far as London policing served as a model for the evolution of forces in other cities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 158.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and in the provinces ? Scotland Yard developed, Shpayer-Makov shows, into a ?singular? \(p. 50\) institution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? the book?s London-centric approach is certainly justifiable. Still, considering the recent shift in attention in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policing and crime historiography to areas outside of London )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.980 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.980 128.835 m 344.972 128.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 344.972 130.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , more attention to the uneven spread of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 115.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detective techniques and the mixture of cooperation and tension that characterised relations between the Met )] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and provincial detective forces would have been of interest. Detective forces remained small, locally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managed and predominantly urban on the eve of the First World War, and one wonders whether more might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been said about the diversity of professional practice among provincial forces. As Shpayer-Makov )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes, ?local diversification? combined with ?common values and practices? ? often with London?s CID )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 330.9797 129.1495 344.9717 141.0295 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 8954 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?setting the standard? ? became the ?double-edged trademark of English police detection? \(p. 61\). The book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises the latter aspects, but with so many small forces spread throughout the nation, it would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable to know more about instances in which the exchange of methods and practices was mutual.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second, the topic of Englishness warrants further consideration. As Shpayer-Makov notes, the image of real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detectives came to symbolise the ?quintessence of Englishness? \(p. 271\). However true, this raises the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of just how distinctive the English example really was, inviting a more comparative perspective. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After all, this period saw the emergence ? and broad acceptance ? of ?modern? police and detective forces in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many countries in Europe. As Shpayer-Makov demonstrates, fears that English detectives would become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continental-style ?spies? were chronic; moreover, some ? particularly those in Special Branch ? )] TJ ET BT 495.248 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did)] TJ ET BT 510.584 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( go )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond fighting )] TJ ET BT 113.348 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(crime )] TJ ET BT 143.672 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to engaging in more explicitly )] TJ ET BT 291.332 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(political)] TJ ET BT 331.340 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( forms of counter-terrorism. How different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were real English detectives, then, from their European \(or North American\) counterparts with regard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their public acceptance and political activities? Relatedly, it would be helpful to know more about how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Englishness of the )] TJ ET BT 125.012 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(fictional)] TJ ET BT 165.020 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( detective was perceived abroad. \(?Like the world itself, the detective novel is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controlled by the English?, observed Bertolt Brecht.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 283.988 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 283.988 597.747 m 297.980 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 297.980 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \) Intriguingly, Shpayer-Makov links the fictional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detective both to a complacent English sense of national superiority as well as to growing international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competition and fears of national inadequacy \(p. 302\). This mixture, too, inspires a comparative question: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were competing influences of national confidence and self-doubt distinctive to the construction of the police )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detectives in )] TJ ET BT 97.340 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England)] TJ ET BT 138.008 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, or were they in this case a specific national permutation of a more general European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(or Anglo-American\) modernising trend?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third, and related to the above issues, Shpayer-Makov?s compelling analysis sparks considerations that go )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond its chronological limits. During the First World War, the English police received many new powers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The decade that followed the Armistice saw an acute rise in anxieties about the police, many of them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused on detectives. While there was continuing admiration for the police \(especially for Scotland Yard\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was also a new flowering of earlier concerns that the English police had metamorphosed into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something like the police of \(depending on the commentator\) Soviet Russia, continental Europe \(especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France\) or the United States. Fears centred, as they had done earlier, on plain-clothes ?spying? and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(susceptibilities of corruption that came with extensive contact with the criminal underworld. In a pattern that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerges both from this book and from subsequent history, chronic problems suddenly became newsworthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through a series of scandals that, ultimately, created sufficient political pressure for a parliamentary inquiry. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the late 1920s, the police were responding to their image problems not only via the Metropolitan Police )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(press office \(founded immediately after the Great War\) but also with threats of libel lawsuits against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newspapers that printed stories accusing Scotland Yard detectives of ?third-degree? methods.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 482.252 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 482.252 329.139 m 496.244 329.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 1950s saw another wave of anxieties about the police and, since the 1970s, they have had a complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship with the press that has combined hostility, law-and-order cheerleading and sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questionable forms of collaboration. Considering Shpayer-Makov?s insightful mixture of real and fictional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contexts, one wonders whether the recent surge in film and television adaptations of the most archetypal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?private? detective of them all, Sherlock Holmes, is ? as was the case at the character?s birth ? at least partly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a result of contemporary doubts about the effectiveness and moral integrity of the real-life police, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longing for a figure who, to refer back to my opening quote, has ?something of the god about him? when it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comes to solving the chronic and insoluble problem of crime.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.587 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Little ?tecs have little crooks?, )] TJ ET BT 213.992 138.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(New Statesman and Society)] TJ ET BT 346.316 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(7 May 1932\), 594.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 442.304 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 442.304 137.571 m 496.292 137.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 124.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haia Shpayer-Makov, )] TJ ET BT 172.988 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of a Policeman: A Social History of a Labour Force in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Metropolitan London)] TJ ET BT 167.024 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Aldershot, 2002\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 258.344 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 258.344 109.059 m 312.332 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 96.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such as Joanne Klein, )] TJ ET BT 173.000 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Invisible Men: The Secret Lives of Police Constables in Liverpool, Manchester, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Birmingham, 1900?1939 )] TJ ET BT 208.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Liverpool, 2010\); John Archer, )] TJ ET BT 364.652 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Monster Evil: Policing and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Violence in Victorian Liverpool)] TJ ET BT 216.344 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Liverpool, 2011\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 307.664 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 307.664 66.291 m 361.652 66.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 53.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bertolt Brecht, ?)] TJ ET BT 143.672 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ber die Popularitt des Kriminalromans)] TJ ET BT 345.680 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, cited in Todd Herzog, )] TJ ET BT 465.320 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crime Stories: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 39.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Criminalistic Fantasy and the Culture of Crisis in Weimar Germany)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 283.9877 598.0615 297.9797 609.9415 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 482.2517 329.4535 496.2437 341.3335 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 442.3037 137.8855 496.2917 149.7655 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 258.3437 109.3735 312.3317 121.2535 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 307.6637 66.6055 361.6517 78.4855 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R ] /Contents 44 0 R >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Length 2991 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, NY, 2009\), p. 26.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 208.652 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 208.652 795.075 m 262.640 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Carter Wood, ??The Third Degree?: press reporting, crime fiction and police powers in 1920s )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?, )] TJ ET BT 108.680 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Twentieth Century British History)] TJ ET BT 272.360 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 21 \(2010\), 464?85 and ?Press, politics and the ?Police )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Public? debates in late 1920s Britain?, )] TJ ET BT 271.328 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crime, Histoire & Socits/Crime, History and Societies)] TJ ET BT 543.320 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16 \(2012\), 75?98.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 149.336 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 149.336 738.051 m 203.324 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Times Higher Education)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/418129.article)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 683.283 m 296.660 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 299.660 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/dec/23/ascent-detective-haia-shpayer-makov-review)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 654.771 m 476.924 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 479.924 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 626.259 m 240.992 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 622.927 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 605.147 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 605.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1409)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 603.753 m 328.316 603.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 578.776 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.376 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/61056)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.976 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/418129.article)] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.576 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/dec/23/ascent-detective-haia-shpayer-makov-review)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.176 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=37901)] TJ ET endstream endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 208.6517 795.3895 262.6397 807.2695 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 31 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 149.3357 738.3655 203.3237 750.2455 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 34 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 683.5975 296.6597 695.4775 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.timeshighereducation.co.uk/418129.article) >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 655.0855 476.9237 666.9655 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2011/dec/23/ascent-detective-haia-shpayer-makov-review) >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 626.5735 240.9917 638.4535 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=37901) >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 604.0675 328.3157 615.9475 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1409) >> endobj xref 0 57 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000591 00000 n 0000000680 00000 n 0000004404 00000 n 0000004513 00000 n 0000004623 00000 n 0000004732 00000 n 0000008293 00000 n 0000008421 00000 n 0000008505 00000 n 0000008534 00000 n 0000008662 00000 n 0000008698 00000 n 0000008782 00000 n 0000016317 00000 n 0000016347 00000 n 0000016473 00000 n 0000016509 00000 n 0000016574 00000 n 0000024049 00000 n 0000024133 00000 n 0000031580 00000 n 0000031610 00000 n 0000031738 00000 n 0000031774 00000 n 0000031886 00000 n 0000040893 00000 n 0000040923 00000 n 0000041051 00000 n 0000041087 00000 n 0000041117 00000 n 0000041245 00000 n 0000041281 00000 n 0000041409 00000 n 0000041464 00000 n 0000041592 00000 n 0000041647 00000 n 0000041773 00000 n 0000041828 00000 n 0000041947 00000 n 0000044991 00000 n 0000045119 00000 n 0000045174 00000 n 0000045302 00000 n 0000045357 00000 n 0000045484 00000 n 0000045588 00000 n 0000045715 00000 n 0000045853 00000 n 0000045980 00000 n 0000046081 00000 n 0000046209 00000 n trailer << /Size 57 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 46305 %%EOF