%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150825144908+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150825144908+01'00') /Title (Claiming the Streets: Processions and Urban Culture in South Wales, c. 1830-1880) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4150 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Claiming the Streets: Processions and Urban Culture in South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Wales, c. 1830-1880)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul O?Leary?s )] TJ ET BT 113.324 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Claiming the Streets: Processions and Urban Culture in South Wales, c.1830?1880)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a detailed and lively account of mid 19th-century processional culture. It takes us on a journey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through Cardiff, Merthyr Tydfil, Neath and Swansea and investigates the diversity and complexity of street )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(procession in these towns. According to O?Leary, the period 1830?80 witnessed the growth, proliferation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and democratisation of processional culture, including ?funeral processions, the celebrations of friendly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies, temperance processions? \(p. 9\) as well as protest processions run by groups such as the Welsh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chartists \(see chapter 3\). O?Leary demonstrates that processions were part of the everyday rhythms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community in Wales and that they provided a unique mode of kinetic commentary on social and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues. Indeed, mid 19th-century processions were both ?exceptional and cumulatively routine? \(p. 9\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placing groups, individuals and societies on display. O?Leary?s book is centred on five themes: how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processional culture ordered, sobered, sacralised and diversified the streets of south Wales. In order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unpack and explore the contours of these themes, O?Leary turns to Chartists, Friendly Societies, temperance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements, and a number of religious denominations under the rubric of Anglicanism, Non-Conformism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Catholicism for his material.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the emergence of a strong processional culture in the 19th century, O?Leary argues that there is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1410)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 2 May, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780708321720)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Wales Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.wales.ac.uk/en/NewsandEvents/News/Press/Claiming-the-Streets.aspx)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cardiff)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lucinda Matthews-Jones)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8168 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive definition, from the period, of what made a procession. He notes that 19th-century journalists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and social commentators rarely provided a single definition of the term. This in part reflects the variety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processional culture in this period, he argues. There were, nonetheless, social rules at play which led to some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(street events being labelled processions while others were excluded. According to O?Leary, there were three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors which would admit a street event to the category of procession. Firstly, it needed to be ?orderly and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-disciplined?. Secondly, it had to be concerned with ?a specific goal other than walking the street? and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lastly, it needed to be a performative act that put processors on display. At the heart of O?Leary?s book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore, is a concern to consider the role of respectability in processions. Rather than perceiving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectability to be a form of emulation or cross-class blurring, however, O?Leary highlights that it was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(script which reinforced behaviour and enabled the processors to be seen in a positive light. Clothing, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, enabled processors to express self-discipline, collective identity, and appropriate gender ideals in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(front of bystanders and journalists. O?Learly thus builds and expands on Simon Gunn?s work to consider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more fully how people of all classes were able to articulate \(both orally and visually\) civic, religious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social identities on South Wales?s urban streets.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 264.992 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 264.992 609.747 m 278.984 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 278.984 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Processions enabled a large number of collective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities to develop and provided a space in which these identities were negotiated and re-configured. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Leary argues of his book, ?a study of processions had the potential to unlock some of the processes by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which individuals and groups come to feel at home in strange places and how new identities were inscribed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in public? \(p. vii\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet O?Leary?s book does much more than to simply refashion Welsh urban history. O?Leary encourages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians to reclaim the street as a serious site of historical study. Street culture offers us the opportunity, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, to explore Victorian society at a number of levels \(political, religious and social\) in a way that other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social spaces do not. Leif Jerram has recently argued that ?It is time to put the )] TJ ET BT 410.948 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(where)] TJ ET BT 440.276 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( into the )] TJ ET BT 482.612 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(what)] TJ ET BT 505.952 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(why)] TJ ET BT 53.348 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? in historical research and O?Leary makes important strides towards this goal in )] TJ ET BT 444.944 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reclaiming the Streets)] TJ ET BT 552.932 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 455.187 m 48.008 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The book carefully elucidates what 19th-century street culture was and how people sought to negotiate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and narrate it. ?One of the most elusive aspects of urban history is uncertainty about what actually went on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the street?, O?Leary points out \(p. 6\). Existing scholarship has tended to view the 19th-century street as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(site of danger, conflict and intrigue; a place of sexual harassment, prostitutes and criminals. O?Leary does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much to challenge this narrative by providing scholars with a detailed account of quite different kinds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(street culture. Individual chapters highlight the diversity and richness of street processions in the middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades of the 19th century and show how different groups used the street as ?a theatre of social action? in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different ways \(p. 1\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In order to recover the vibrant nature of 19th-century street processions, O?Leary has used newspapers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensively \(see pp. 15?6\). By building on the work of cultural studies as well as history, O?Leary not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a vivid account of processional culture, but brings the subject to life by considering the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(layers of processional culture such as the body and its movement, the material culture of individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processions through dress, and insignia, and finally the soundscape of the street procession. This provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vivid picture of street life and highlights the ways in which processors were able to articulate a sense of self )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at a personal, local and national level. If I had one small criticism, though, it would be that I felt the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been enhanced by a greater engagement with visual sources. As O?Leary notes throughout this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, processions knit streets and districts together. Yet, unless you had some familiarity with these Welsh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns, it was difficult to visualise the movement of the processions under discussion. The use of maps, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps even the use of GIS to map processional activities, would have helped readers to visualise the topic. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book contains four images that are left to stand on their own in the middle. These could have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embedded and referred to in the body of the appropriate chapter. I was left wondering why they had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included at all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Claiming the Streets )] TJ ET BT 135.020 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is, for the most part, structured thematically, with the first two chapters introducing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers to the book?s themes and to 19th-century South Wales. Chapter one, ?Street processions and ritual in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Victorian town?, outlines the theoretical and methodological basis for studying ritual, streets, walking, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dress, respectability and music. These themes form the basis of future chapters and O?Leary?s attempts to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncover the development of public identities through processional culture. He writes that ?making ?the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 264.9917 610.0615 278.9837 621.9415 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 455.5015 48.0077 467.3815 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7480 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public? a concrete and lived reality was a protracted and contested process; it was shaped and directed by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of urban growth and the reconfiguration of towns, as well as by social and economic instability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the first phase of the industrial revolution and the increasing demand for political rights? \(p. 24\). Chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two, ?Town and region: the urban context?, provides a detailed account of the book?s key civic, industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and urban centres to highlight the diversity of social, civil, religious and charitable groups involved in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processional culture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters three to seven provide readers with individual case studies which consider how various groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interwove street procession into their activities. Political protest kick starts O?Leary?s case studies as chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three examines ?Protest, processions and stability?. This chapter begins with an exploration of chartist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity in order to highlight how ?the use of public space was frequently a source of contention? \(p. 51\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(South Wales, in particular Newport and Merthyr Tydfil, had vibrant Chartist movements which led to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased crowd activity and demands for reform. By looking at street processions, O?Leary demonstrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how Welsh Chartists sought to connect themselves to a larger community and to reconfigure bourgeois )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public space through their actions. While memories of Chartist protest might dominate current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings of public space of this period, there were in fact attempts at the time to bring all classes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together through processional activity for key episodic moments such as the Dock procession of 1842 in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Newport. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From politics, O?Leary moves on to consider the processional culture of friendly societies in chapter four, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Ordering the streets: friendly society processions?. As he notes, voluntary associations ?were not restricted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to private meetings and discussions, but extended their remit to embrace public display? including the street )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(procession \(pp.79-80\). In this chapter, he charts the rise of friendly societies following the Poor Law Act of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1834. Friendly societies were keen to ?chart the connections between the important local institutions in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society: the public house and place of worship? \(p. 83\). Many towns in South Wales established yearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processions. These enabled friendly society members to publically interweave their social and religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs within an urban ceremony. For journalists, these events provided the means to scrutinise the behaviour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of processers \(and therefore local inhabitants\). Indeed, friendly societies, like the Oddfellows, Foresters and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Druids, were not without their critics. They were criticised for their ?extremely odd? carnivalesque rituals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regalia and symbolism, which appeared to challenge official religion \(p.8 4\) or, according to the )] TJ ET BT 497.924 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mail )] TJ ET BT 59.684 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1870, distracted members from their true purpose, ?to aid the weak, alleviate distress, and comfort )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mourner? \(p. 94\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The multiplicity of 19th-century processional culture can be highlighted by the development of temperance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and teetotal processions as discussed in chapter five, ?Sobering the streets?. If the ?symbolic urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geography of friendly socieities included the streets, the public houses and places of worship? \(p. 101\) then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Leary demonstrates how temperance organisations sought to provide alternative spatial reference points )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(chapel halls, tents, market houses and school rooms\) and refreshments \(tea and cake\). Furthermore, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(melodramatic tableaux used in Cardiff and Neath ?brought the hidden effects of drunkenness into the public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arena and established a link between behaviour in public and private spheres? \(p. 110\). Such public displays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not go unnoticed as the boisterous and dramatic battles were undertaken by brewers and publicans over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who owned the streets. Part of this contestation emerged, according to O?Leary, because the temperance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(street processions were challenging and questioning the gaze of the by-stander and as such creating an ?us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and them? distinction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Religion is an important theme throughout )] TJ ET BT 241.352 163.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Claiming the Streets)] TJ ET BT 339.356 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. But it is in the following two chapters that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed investigation and, for me, thought provoking assessment of public displays of religion in South )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wales is developed. Up until this point, O?Leary has largely considered religion in terms of fixed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environments like the church and chapel. What makes chapter six and seven a brilliant assessment of 19th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century religious faith is the way that O?Leary pushes religion out of the building and onto the street. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O?Leary notes, ?Street processions provide one example of the process whereby outdoor public space was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?captured? by religious organisations ? a process that served to ?sacralise? spaces that were usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered to be devoted to secular activities? \(p. 123\). In chapter six, ?Sacralising the street?, he considers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how religion was inscribed into these Welsh towns and cities by Protestant movements like the Orange )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 5073 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Order and \(Non-Conformist and Church of England and Wales\) Sunday Schools. Hymns, banners and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processors wove religion into the fabric of the city to sanctify public space. Processions could also be used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to illustrate differences between these Protestant bodies. This increasingly become the case when Non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conformist Sunday schools started to shape ?the identity of participants in more complex ways than simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforcing allegiance to a particular church, chapel or denomination? especially after 1860s when questions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of disestablishing the Anglican Church began to dominate political discourse \(p. 142\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contrast, the Salvation Army and the Irish Catholic Corpus Christi processions provide examples of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacralising the street was dependent on who was doing it and when it was being done. Chapter seven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers ?Diversity on the street? and how the Welsh religious landscape was not bound solely to Anglican )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Non-conformist struggles. While both groups highlight the diversity of South Wales?s religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(streetscape, they also reveal for O?Leary how processional culture was dependent on certain types of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered behaviours. The Salvation Army pushed the boundaries of respectability with their positioning and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour of female Salvionists, while the white dresses of the Corpus Christi female processor illustrated a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refined and respectable femininity. As such, Corpus Christi procession emulated and responded to traditions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of processional culture outlined throughout the book. Yet they did so by processing on Thursdays and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knitting the Marquis of Bute?s estate into the city. In doing this, processors highlighted that the sacred was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not necessary Protestant nor indeed contained to Sundays.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Claiming the Streets )] TJ ET BT 135.020 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a comprehensive and enjoyable study of streets processions. O?Leary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that the public sphere was variously inscribed by processors with religious, social and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(messages through banners, songs, clothes and the rituals of specific groups and organisations. The book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successfully marries together a social and cultural approach to urban history. It would be a great addition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any urban or 19th-century British history curriculum and will be of interest to all those working in modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British history. I just hope the price of 65 won?t put people off.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 423.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 393.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Gunn, )] TJ ET BT 131.024 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Public Culture of the Victorian Middle Class: Ritual and Authority in the English )] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Industrial City, 1840?1914 )] TJ ET BT 197.360 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester, 2007\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 294.332 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 294.332 377.667 m 348.320 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 364.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leif Jerram, )] TJ ET BT 125.660 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Streetlife: The Untold History of Europe?s Twentieth Century )] TJ ET BT 425.660 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford, 2011\), p. 4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 525.308 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 525.308 363.411 m 552.968 363.411 l S BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 349.155 m 90.344 349.155 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 333.823 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 316.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 316.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1410)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 314.649 m 328.316 314.649 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 289.672 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.272 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/61060)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 294.3317 377.9815 348.3197 389.8615 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 525.3077 363.7255 552.9677 375.6055 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 349.4695 90.3437 361.3495 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 314.9635 328.3157 326.8435 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1410) >> endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000665 00000 n 0000004867 00000 n 0000004976 00000 n 0000005086 00000 n 0000005195 00000 n 0000008756 00000 n 0000008884 00000 n 0000008968 00000 n 0000009059 00000 n 0000017280 00000 n 0000017310 00000 n 0000017438 00000 n 0000017474 00000 n 0000017504 00000 n 0000017630 00000 n 0000017666 00000 n 0000017731 00000 n 0000025264 00000 n 0000025369 00000 n 0000030495 00000 n 0000030623 00000 n 0000030678 00000 n 0000030806 00000 n 0000030861 00000 n 0000030987 00000 n 0000031042 00000 n 0000031170 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31266 %%EOF