%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141124071654+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141124071654+00'00') /Title (Socialising the Child in Late Medieval England, c. 1400-1600) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4458 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Socialising the Child in Late Medieval England, c. 1400-1600)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Socialising the child explores the role of the household and school in socialising the children of the gentry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the middle ranks of urban society between 1400 and 1600, outlining how childhood was imagined by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers and educators, and how it was presented to child and adult readers in the 15th and 16th centuries. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploring the centuries before and after 1500 Bailey follows in the footsteps of Judith Bennett and Marjorie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McIntosh, whose scholarship has done much to enable historians of women to rethink notions of continuity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and change across the late medieval and early modern divide, although she approaches the period from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different angle to these social historians.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 227.984 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 227.984 172.137 m 241.976 172.137 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 241.976 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The primary aim of her book is to explore how late medieval and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern people wanted and expected children to behave, so whereas Bennett and McIntosh turned to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the provincial and metropolitan records of guilds and parishes to explore the everyday experiences of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women, Bailey instead examines an impressive array of courtesy poems, didactic tracts, instructional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manuals, and educational books in both manuscript and print form, as well as Elizabethan grammar school )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statutes and account books. Throughout her book Bailey compares variations between manuscripts, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction contains a useful discussion of the historiographies of medieval language, manuscripts and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(print culture. Few historians will be surprised to discover that many of these sources focus on the upbringing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of male youths under the age of 15, and Bailey uses this imbalance in the literature to highlight differences )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1412)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 9 May, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Merridee L. Bailey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781903153420)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(50.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(284pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boydell and Brewer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.boydellandbrewer.com/store/viewItem.asp?idProduct=14063)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woodbridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tim Reinke-Williams)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 227.9837 172.4515 241.9757 184.3315 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7479 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in focus as to how male and female children were to be raised, noting that most conduct literature for girls )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consisted of translations of mainland European sources which were conservative in tone.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter one focuses on medieval courtesy poems. Written in English, courtesy poems were owned primarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by merchants and gentry, and their main audience were the male youths who served in the households of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobility. Courtesy poems provided guidelines for male youths as to how to obtain a place as a servant in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(household of a noble by teaching them how to mimic the behaviour of elite householders, promoting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultivation of abstract qualities as well as the acquisition of practical attributes. The development of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traits was linked to broader questions about how boys from the upper echelons of medieval society were to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(develop strong aristocratic identities, and the poems make frequent reference to warfare, violence, humour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and chivalry, as well as to more gentle traits such as meekness, piety, chastity, courtesy, and good table )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manners. With two exceptions the poems Bailey examines emphasise the importance of self-monitoring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when addressing young male readers, who were expected to be responsible for their own socialisation, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such poems also assumed that male youths would be in need of appropriate information, provided by an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experienced adult in the form of the narrator or author.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whereas the first substantive chapter of the book focuses on traditional medieval society, chapter two offers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a comparison of courtesy literature before and after 1500. As Bailey notes, the period from 1450 to 1550 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnessed numerous changes to the structure and power of the English elite, including a shrinking peerage, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the emergence of a more powerful court, and the growth in political and social significance of the gentry. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Courtesy literature developed to suit the needs of what Bailey regards as an increasingly important gentry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and bourgeoisie, arguing that such texts began to resist the older values of courtesy and chivalry outlined in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the previous chapter. During this period of transition the courtesy literature began to display concerns about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dress and appropriate behaviour of young males beyond the household. Some texts were structured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around a narrative of the day, beginning with rising in the morning, washing and breakfast, before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressing to labour or attendance at school. During breakfast moderation and safe eating were emphasised, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the stress on schooling is indicated by the inclusion of tables of numbers in English and French. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period also witnessed the development of an urban bourgeois literature for girls based on mother-daughter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives, highlighting the importance of church attendance, appropriate dress, and care in courtship, as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as expressing concerns about allowing girls and young women to drink alcohol and sell goods at market. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bailey notes that the literature aimed at female youths was characterised by an emphasis on the fear of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shame, with especial attention paid to gesture and the need for girls to have constant companions in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prevent them getting into trouble.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three changes tack to examine the role of printers in developing readers? choices with regard to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courtesy literature. Bailey examines six incunabula printed between 1476 and 1487, arguing that the primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers of such texts were an urban bourgeoisie of merchants and wealthy craftsmen, and that such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals not only consumed, but also promoted, supplied and encouraged the publication of texts. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter begins with an extensive and well-informed discussion of the materiality of print. Some publications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were adaptations and translations of works from mainland Europe, but prologues were used to emphasise an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English context and ideology. Multiple poems were printed together in one binding, and consumers could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choose to bind together different items. Woodcuts were used to reinforce the concept of a message aimed at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(youths, although such visual aids also suggest a family unit readership. Bailey argues that the introduction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(printed texts coincided with a shift away from a focus on the elite household to a London setting, and from a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern with noble patronage to general sponsorship and the market. Early printed texts displayed a concern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with over-courtesy and false behaviour, leading greater emphasis to be placed on the cultivation of inward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morality as opposed to outward forms of social behaviour which might be unreliable guides to the true )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character of an individual. In terms of the behaviour of female youths the literature promoted a sanitised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female identity which emphasised the importance for women of chastity, purity, observance of hierarchy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and obedience to fathers and husbands, as well as physical perfection, beauty, and appropriate dress. Printed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(texts thus articulated messages which were applicable to the middling levels of society as much as to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobility and aristocracy, and Bailey argues that the works printed by Caxton displayed a particular concern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about metropolitan youths. Such works also offered advice to adult householders with regard to topics such )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7202 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as servant management, emphasising the importance of the parental role in parent-child relationships, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although \(whilst mutual obligations between parents and children were considered important\) the primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument was that children were responsible for their own actions and salvation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(According to Bailey print led to diversification in how socialisation was articulated. By the 16th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers of conduct literature were emphasising the importance of familial relationships, primarily those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between parents and children within the patriarchal household, in inculcating morality and virtue into young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people, both female and male. Moreover it was the smaller non-elite kin-based household family which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated the literature. Building on these findings, chapter four explores the commercial reasons for book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production, the reading locations which books described and anticipated, and representation of socialising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns. As mentioned previously, English printed books tended to contain translations and reproductions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainland European texts, and although some humanists emphasised the need for young women to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literate, for the most part such texts promoted conservative attitudes to women, such as an emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women?s household skills as nurses and chaperones, and the notion of the household as a safe environment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for girls and young women. Indeed, men were largely absent from the socialising strategies of girls, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were expected to emulate their mistresses, whilst avoiding the company of servants. As such the process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialisation was not seen as being purely the duty of parents, but also as the responsibility of dames and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guardians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whilst chapter four has much to say about the socialisation of young women, chapter five shifts the focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(back on to male youths by examining 16th-century schools. In post-Reformation England schoolmasters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were held up as moral exemplars, and the growth in the market for education led to increasing monitoring of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schools across the 16th century. One of Bailey?s main arguments is that schools were intended to fit children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for adulthood and service in the Elizabethan state. As public and civic spaces, similar in layout and adapted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from medieval halls, grammar schools acted as inculcators of sociability, courtesy, virtue and religion, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as monitoring the hygiene and dress of pupils. The social diversity within 16th-century grammar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(schools was reflected in the roles which specific sorts of children were expected to fulfil within such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions; for example, in London schools poor scholars were to be trained up to be apprentices, whilst at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Almondbury they were asked to gather moss for the school roof and clean desks. Bailey also draws attention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to contemporary concerns about the behaviour of pupils outside the school walls, in particular in the liminal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space of the street and in the boarding houses in which some pupils lodged. Advice about appropriate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour offered to scholars who were boarded out displays evidence of educators seeking to extend their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence into the domestic sphere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall Bailey argues for a mixture of continuity and change across the period from 1400 to 1600. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of obedience, duty and meekness were constant refrains within the literature, but cyclical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns can be discerned too, such as the decline and re-emergence of courtesy. Courtesy poems focused on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite households as the primary location for socialisation, but the ideas contained within such texts circulated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst and came to appeal to a wider urban bourgeois audience. As this audience grew in importance as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body of consumers the texts themselves were modified to increase their appeal to these social groups, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the increasing depiction of an interiorised, domestic, patriarchal household as the primary forum for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialisation. These shifts were accompanied by the growth of new technologies of production. Publishers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showed awareness of what sold, and of what had a market, and books came to address parents rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(children, but Bailey argues that the role of print has been overplayed, and that its main contribution was to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increase the number of texts in circulation. Moreover the extent of change varied between texts aimed at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young women and those directed at male youths, with greater continuities in the literature aimed at girls, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular a continued emphasis on passivity and chastity. By 1600 schools and the Church were acting as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forums in which good Elizabethans were created, with the importance of education for both sexes being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasised.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Socialising the Child)] TJ ET BT 134.696 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( makes a number of significant contributions to the existing historiography. By arguing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the creation of an adult male identity involved the cultivation of different, often conflicting traits, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bailey?s work should be read alongside that of Ruth Mazo Karras, who has argued for the importance of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 27 0 R 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 5899 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chivalry as the bedrock of adult male identity at the upper levels of late medieval European society, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose account of the formation of medieval male identities differs from that of Bailey in other respects.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 532.928 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 532.928 780.819 m 546.920 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bailey also argues for the importance of connections across the 15th and 16th centuries, especially in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period from 1450 to 1550, following trends in the current historiography of the later middle ages which see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period as an important age of transition between the medieval and the early modern.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 458.276 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 458.276 738.051 m 472.268 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 472.268 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that her chronology is virtually identical to that chosen by Eamon Duffy in his groundbreaking )] TJ ET BT 491.636 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Stripping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of the Altars)] TJ ET BT 93.356 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it was surprising to find so little mention of the Reformation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 391.688 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 391.688 709.539 m 405.680 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 405.680 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( With the exception of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to the work of Thomas Salter, in which he recommended that good Protestant women read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Acts and Monuments)] TJ ET BT 134.672 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, there is little sense that this was a period which witnessed the destruction of a religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system which had taken the best part of a millennium to construct. If the texts have little or nothing to say )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about religion this in itself is a striking feature which deserved to be emphasised. Yet to end on a critical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(note would be unfair for this is a well-researched and thoughtfully argued monograph which I hope receives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant attention from social and cultural historians of late medieval and early modern England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 590.499 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 559.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(J. M. Bennett, )] TJ ET BT 134.684 559.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ale, Beer and Brewsters: Women?s Work in a Changing World, 1300?1700)] TJ ET BT 498.656 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996\); M. K. McIntosh, )] TJ ET BT 181.676 545.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Working Women in England, 1300?1620)] TJ ET BT 377.996 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2005\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 472.316 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 472.316 544.227 m 526.304 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R. M. Karras, )] TJ ET BT 132.668 531.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(From Boys to Men: Formations of Masculinity in Late Medieval Europe)] TJ ET BT 479.972 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Philadelphia, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(PN, 2003\), chapter 2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 166.664 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 166.664 515.715 m 220.652 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For further examples see the works by Bennett and McIntosh cited above, as well as A. Wood, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The 1549 Rebellions and the Making of Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 367.664 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2007\) and C. Dyer, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Country Merchant, 1495?1520: Trading and Farming at the End of the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 480.668 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012\). The ongoing work of Dr Justin Colson on the London Livery Companies will mark a further )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution to our understanding of this liminal period.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 332.012 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 332.012 444.435 m 386.000 444.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 431.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Duffy, )] TJ ET BT 112.004 431.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England c.1400?1580)] TJ ET BT 466.700 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1992\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 415.923 m 118.004 415.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author would like to thank the reviewer for this review.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 374.335 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 356.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 356.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1412)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 355.161 m 328.316 355.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 330.184 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.784 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/61977)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 532.9277 781.1335 546.9197 793.0135 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 458.2757 738.3655 472.2677 750.2455 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 391.6877 709.8535 405.6797 721.7335 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 472.3157 544.5415 526.3037 556.4215 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 166.6637 516.0295 220.6517 527.9095 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 332.0117 444.7495 385.9997 456.6295 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 416.2375 118.0037 428.1175 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 29 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 355.4755 328.3157 367.3555 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1412) >> endobj xref 0 42 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000563 00000 n 0000000652 00000 n 0000005162 00000 n 0000005271 00000 n 0000005381 00000 n 0000005490 00000 n 0000009051 00000 n 0000009179 00000 n 0000009263 00000 n 0000009292 00000 n 0000009420 00000 n 0000009456 00000 n 0000009521 00000 n 0000017053 00000 n 0000017118 00000 n 0000024373 00000 n 0000024506 00000 n 0000030458 00000 n 0000030488 00000 n 0000030616 00000 n 0000030652 00000 n 0000030682 00000 n 0000030810 00000 n 0000030846 00000 n 0000030876 00000 n 0000031004 00000 n 0000031040 00000 n 0000031168 00000 n 0000031223 00000 n 0000031351 00000 n 0000031406 00000 n 0000031534 00000 n 0000031589 00000 n 0000031716 00000 n 0000031771 00000 n 0000031899 00000 n trailer << /Size 42 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31995 %%EOF