%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827200157+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827200157+01'00') /Title (The Crusader States) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4042 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Crusader States)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In comparison with the many recently published one-volume histories of the crusade movement, Malcolm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barber has undertaken a relatively modest task: a history of the crusader states from the time of the First )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusade \(1096?1109\) to the end of the Third \(1187?92\). As such, it covers roughly the same territory as)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East, 1100?1187)] TJ ET BT 333.008 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the second installment of Steven Runciman?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still popular three-volume history of the crusades. Despite what is, by standards of medieval history, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glutted market of books about the crusades, surveys of the crusader states have been surprisingly rare. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Because tremendous advances have occurred in the scholarship about these settlements, Barber?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sophisticated and impressively detailed history makes a welcome addition to the crusade historian?s library.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The greatest area of progress in crusader studies has been the advances in our understanding of cultural and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic relations between Frankish settlers and the Muslim and Eastern Christian communities with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom they necessarily had to interact. For this topic the work of Joshua Prawer has been foundational. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prawer, drawing insights and inspiration from colonial theory, provided students of the Frankish Levant a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thorough reconstruction of the legal and economic foundations of that world. The more recent work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ronnie Ellenblum, based on archaeological work, has built on Prawer?s legacy while at the same time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1413)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 9 May, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malcolm Barber)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300113129)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://yalebooks.co.uk/display.asp?K=9780300113129)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jay Rubinstein)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7820 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggesting a radically different interpretation. Rather than living as distant colonial settlers, Ellenblum has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taught us to see a greater degree of integration with local societies than we might otherwise have suspected. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Recently Christopher MacEvitt, following Ellenblum?s lead, has further deepened our understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these issues by showing the many ways in which Syriac and Armenian Christian communities ? as little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noticed by modern historians as by their medieval Latin counterparts ? helped shape the world of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frankish Levant. At the same time, the monumental work of Carole Hillenbrand, both in her path-breaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book )] TJ ET BT 61.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives)] TJ ET BT 233.324 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and in her translations of previously unknown Arabic sources, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made the nuances of 11th- and 12th-century Islamic society more intelligible to Latin medievalists than has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever before been the case. Finally, undergraduate and graduate students have grown more familiar with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide range of Arabic and Latin sources thanks to Ashgate?s ongoing project of publishing Crusade Tests in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Translation. All told, it is an extremely propitious moment for a new assessment of this most difficult area in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval history, one whose relevance to the modern world seems more obvious with each passing headline.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While )] TJ ET BT 66.344 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Crusader States)] TJ ET BT 164.348 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( does integrate almost all of this recent scholarship into its narrative, Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barber avoids engaging with it on a theoretical plane. Instead his book?s approach remains, like crusade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography in general, traditional ? a series of military engagements and political maneuvers led by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notable men and quite a few remarkable women. ?Political and military narrative inevitably forces itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon anybody who reads the sources in depth?, Barber observes in the book?s preface \(p. xii\). Such an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertion is, of course, questionable. Historians have any number of options before them when they set out to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make sense of their sources. One might argue that the narrative approach Barber advocates is best suited for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a survey volume such as this one, but in the case of the crusader states, a straightforward political recounting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not necessarily make the material more accessible. The story is so labyrinthine, so full of fascinating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but largely forgotten characters, that even the simplest chronological threads become quickly, hopelessly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tangled. The task of keeping track of events would be difficult enough if Barber were just focusing on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin settlers \(and their relatives back in Europe\). But it becomes well nigh impossible when their crossed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bloodlines run through an ever-shifting network of Turkish, Kurdish, Greek, and Arab enmities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alliances. What seems the most straightforward and welcoming approach thus brings its own difficulties. At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same time, a political and military focus risks detracting from the spiritual and ideological components )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by which the crusaders themselves would have made sense of their purpose and activity in the world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this connection, some of the book?s finest passages are those where Barber sets aside the constraints of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronology and examines artistic or archaeological evidence. Early in the book, for instance, he leads his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers on a descriptive tour of Jerusalem that really brings the medieval city to life. The discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundation and construction of the abbey of St Lazarus et Bethany is similarly dazzling, as is Barber?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the massive, if ultimately ephemeral, construction project of the Church of the Annunciation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazareth. His use of the famous column capitals from the Church of the Annunciation, unearthed in 1908, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially effective and affecting ? sophisticated historical analysis that reads like bravura storytelling.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The lion?s share of the book, however, is, as promised, a careful, chronological retelling of the first century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the history of the crusader states \(not of the entire 200 years, as the title implies\). It is a story so intricate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it requires about 50 pages of setup. After a perfunctory summary of the First Crusade in the opening )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, followed by, in the second chapter, a superb overview of the topography, climate, and cultures of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestine and Syria, Barber settles into his narrative proper. He devotes the third chapter to the first two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years of the kingdom of Jerusalem. Being a kingdom built essentially out of nothing except a warrior ethos )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and an appreciation for Davidic Kingship, the circumstances of the birth of Frankish Jerusalem are crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for understanding its subsequent development. The key aspects of the drama grow out of the vexed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships between the kingdom?s first rulers and the Latin patriarch Daibert, who attempted to impose an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ecclesiastically-centered vision on the structure of the new government. In the usual retelling Daibert is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either a radical Gregorian reformer or else a man of boundless greed and ambition, a papal legate who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sought to turn Jerusalem into his own sacerdotal fiefdom. His dreams were apparently helped along by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Godfrey of Bouillon, the kingdom?s first ruler. As a crusader, Godfrey was best known for wrestling with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giant bear and for cutting a Saracen in two with a single stroke of his sword. As ruler of Jerusalem, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemingly turned into something of a milquetoast, refusing out of humility to wear a crown and preferring )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7353 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not to be called King but rather ?Advocate of the Holy Sepulcher?. When Godfrey died suddenly after less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than a year in Jerusalem, Daibert aggressively sought to appoint his own candidate as ruler ? either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bohemond of Antioch or else Bohemond?s nephew Tancred. The patriarch failed in these plans, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Godfrey?s brother Baldwin assumed not only the office of king but also the title. Daibert, however, did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wring some fairly substantial concessions out of both Godfrey and Baldwin, including, perhaps, a promise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventual control of the entire city as well as the possession of a substantial quarter within the nearby city of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jaffa.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barber?s analysis of these highly contentious moments is both balanced and cautious. The nebulous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character of Godfrey?s title, for example, probably grew out of the genuine uncertainty and unease of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creating a Christian king where none had been before, or at least at doing so without the hand of a pope to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guide the crusaders and infuse their decisions with an appropriate sense of sacrality. As for Daibert, what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seemed to some contemporaries an unseemly ambition was probably instead a simple determination born out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of what were surely Urban II?s direct instructions to him: ?to strengthen the Latin Church in the East as far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as he was able? \(p. 59\). Barber?s circumspect reading of his sources is commendable, though a reader such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as me might wish for more blood and thunder ? or at least for a sudden flash of heavenly light. For in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meticulous reconstruction of the vexed relations between king and patriarch, Barber passes over the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatic confrontation between the two offices, when the miracle of the Holy Fire failed to appear on Holy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday in 1101. So dire were the consequences of this near liturgical disaster that Daibert temporarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resigned his office as patriarch, and Baldwin reportedly considered setting aside his crown \(which, unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Godfrey, he had accepted in a coronation celebrated the previous Christmas in Bethlehem\). In a narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(driven-history, it is an odd decision to pass over one of the best documented and most theatrical moments in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of the kingdom, giving it only a brief mention, without any analysis of its political and spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implications \(p. 68\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But setting aside particular criticisms over authorial decisions, I must express genuine admiration at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope of Barber?s narrative ? especially in its central chapters, which give nearly equal treatment to each of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the four crusader states. In doing so, Barber balances his use of Latin and Arabic sources, thus providing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multiple viewpoints for the book?s several interlocking narratives. During the first half of the 12th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Syria, Palestine, and Egypt together constituted a kaleidoscopic frontier society. The Sunni Turkish world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was divided into several mutually hostile sultanates and emirates. The Egyptian Shi?i Fatimid Caliphate was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in serious decline but nonetheless a dangerous adversary. The Latin Christian principalities meanwhile ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despite their common point of origin at the First Crusade ? presented nothing like a unified front against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their many rivals. Complicating the picture further were the frequent intervention of outside powers, notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rome, Baghdad, and Constantinople, the last of which maintained a proprietary claim to most, if not all, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the territory occupied by the crusader states. Enmities and alliances rapidly intertwined, broke apart, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rearranged themselves. As early as 1108, Baldwin of Edessa and Tancred of Antioch fought against one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another at the Battle of Turbessel \(or Tell Bahsir\), each side employing Turkish warriors. Less then a decade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after Jerusalem?s conquest, therefore, one Latin-Turkish army had already taken the field against another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Latin-Turkish army, with Baldwin?s warriors supported by Armenian troops representing the Armenian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leader Kogh Vasil.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As noted, juggling all these different characters and cultures requires real concentration, on the part of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author and the reader. For if there is one theme that unites the whole story, it is an ongoing, continually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worsening, state of crisis. The kings of Jerusalem were singularly unfortunate in their inability to establish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(orderly dynastic successions. Male heirs were in short supply, necessitating often desperate marriage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategies and creating frequent long periods of unsteady regency governments. Baldwin IV of Jerusalem, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, when he succeeded his father Amalric as king in 1174, was famously both a minor and a leper. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further complicating the political landscape is the regularity with which prominent crusade leaders were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken prisoner by the Turks. To take only two examples, Bohemond as Duke of Antioch was held captive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1100 to 1103, and Baldwin II was imprisoned both as Count of Edessa from 1104 to 1108 and again as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King of Jerusalem from 1123 to 1124. Such chronic instability allowed several extraordinary female leaders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to hold power for significant intervals, notably Melisende and Sibylla, as queens of Jerusalem, and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6660 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constance, as duchess of Antioch. Among the few cohesive forces in the 12th-century Latin East were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military orders ? the Templars and Hospitallers ? whose origins and growth are seamlessly woven into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grander historical narrative here. Indeed, Barber?s earlier, definitive history of the Templars probably made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him the researcher most able to bring some degree of clarity and orderliness to an otherwise entropic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical reality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Real clarity, however, does begin to characterize the final third of )] TJ ET BT 352.268 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Crusader States)] TJ ET BT 450.272 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, when Barber?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balanced narrative style gives way to a more familiar, Jerusalem-centered description of the rise of Saladin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the collapse of crusader rule. The build-up to the battle of Hattin and the conquest of Jerusalem in 1187 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is obviously well-trodden historical ground. As Saladin successfully and aggressively united Syria and Egypt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under his rule, bringing an end to the Shi?i Fatimid Caliphate in the process, the Frankish leaders remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as divided and quarrelsome as ever. The calamitous failure of the Second Crusade \(1145?9\), moreover, had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discouraged large-scale intervention from the homeland. On a related note, Barber adds, a subtle, important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(change in the culture of crusading in Europe had occurred. In the immediate aftermath of the First Crusade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Franks could count on regular large-scale pilgrimages whose leaders would willingly be co-opted into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the local princes? own expansionist plans. In the latter 12th century, by contrast, European crusaders capable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of fielding large armies ? men like Philip of Flanders ? invariably arrived in the Levant with their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agendas, which did not necessarily coincide with what the Frankish princes deemed essential. There still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were many less prominent pilgrims who journeyed east and who were willing to help in whatever ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary. Their middling status, however, meant that they were unable to make any meaningful military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions to the Frankish war effort.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Barber discusses the outcome of the Battle of Hattin, he suggests that Saladin?s victory was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitable. The unpopular of King of Jerusalem, Guy of Lusignan, might actually have prevailed, a point that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be apparent to modern readers if we could only rid ourselves of the curse of hindsight. But the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and military situation of Jerusalem, as Barber has described it, would seem to suggest otherwise. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The traditional interpretation of Hattin as an all but predetermined Muslim victory still seems the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plausible. The steadily increasing disunity that characterized the Latin settlers, who continued to behave as if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were living in a frontier society with no formidable, centralized powers to oppose them, could not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long withstood the greater cohesion with which Saladin had, almost literally, encircled them. If not at Hattin, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Frankish Levant could not have maintained its established way of life and borders much longer. The real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprise is that they were able to regroup at all after the Third Crusade and soldier on, albeit in a truncated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form, for nearly another century after Barber?s narrative ends.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nuanced, balanced, and densely presented, )] TJ ET BT 243.284 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Crusader States)] TJ ET BT 341.288 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will takes its place as the new standard work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the 12th-century Frankish Levant. Crusade specialists, graduate students, and advanced undergraduates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alike will learn to consult its pages as a court of first resort. Because of its intricately constructed narrative, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, it likely will not reach a readership beyond these specialized academic circles. Barber has aimed at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoroughness, perhaps at the expense of a good story. The ever delightful Usama ibn-Munqidh, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is notable for his near total absence. But even as a reference aid, )] TJ ET BT 344.924 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Crusader States)] TJ ET BT 442.928 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not as accessible as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one might hope. While Barber has packed his book with numerous, terrifically useful maps, he \(or his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publisher\) have provided readers with only a single, one-page genealogy of the descendants of Baldwin II of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jerusalem ? a chart which, strangely, does not include Baldwin III. Given the importance of bloodlines to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative, several more genealogies would have been appropriate, tracing not just the lineages of the several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crusading clans, but also of the European, Byzantine, Turkish, and Kurdish families who play such crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roles in the story. With the maps, we are well served; with the chaps, less so.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3309 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A more serious lacuna in the text is Barber?s reluctance to engage with the theoretical paradigms associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the crusader states. In the book?s conclusion, he describes the Frankish settlements as ?entities which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resist the stereotyping of modern historical constructs and predetermined models? \(p. 356\). The observation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is certainly valid \(and true of most every other historical phenomenon\), but economic and social modeling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are important tools of the historian and have played significant roles in crusade historiography. In a scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overview such as this one, readers will miss the kind of informed and thoughtful guidance that Barber could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have brought to theoretical underpinnings of his subject.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The same scholarly readers, however, will be deeply grateful to Barber for providing such a thorough, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often engaging, account of the crucial personalities, events, and cultural achievements of an era and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscape still too often overlooked, avoided, or ignored by students of the medieval world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review, and does not wish to respond.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 591.653 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independent)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-crusader-states-by-malcolm-barber-yale-)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 561.747 m 560.900 561.747 l S BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25-8202639.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 547.491 m 117.020 547.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 120.020 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historyextra.com)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.historyextra.com/book-review/crusader-states)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 518.979 m 311.300 518.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 314.300 520.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 515.647 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 497.867 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 497.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1413)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 496.473 m 328.316 496.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 471.496 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 457.096 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/61980)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-crusader-states-by-malcolm-barber-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.440 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yale-25-8202639.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 414.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.historyextra.com/book-review/crusader-states)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 562.0615 560.8997 573.9415 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-crusader-states-by-malcolm-barber-yale-25-8202639.html) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 547.8055 117.0197 559.6855 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/reviews/the-crusader-states-by-malcolm-barber-yale-25-8202639.html) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 519.2935 311.2997 531.1735 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.historyextra.com/book-review/crusader-states) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 496.7875 328.3157 508.6675 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1413) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000529 00000 n 0000000611 00000 n 0000004705 00000 n 0000004814 00000 n 0000004924 00000 n 0000005033 00000 n 0000008594 00000 n 0000008722 00000 n 0000008806 00000 n 0000008871 00000 n 0000016744 00000 n 0000016809 00000 n 0000024215 00000 n 0000024280 00000 n 0000030993 00000 n 0000031098 00000 n 0000034460 00000 n 0000034587 00000 n 0000034759 00000 n 0000034886 00000 n 0000035058 00000 n 0000035185 00000 n 0000035292 00000 n 0000035420 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35516 %%EOF