%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221205227+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221205227+00'00') /Title (Mobilizing Nature: The Environmental History of War and Militarization in Modern France) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4184 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Mobilizing Nature: The Environmental History of War and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Militarization in Modern France)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chris Pearson?s )] TJ ET BT 114.008 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mobilizing Nature)] TJ ET BT 202.352 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: )] TJ ET BT 208.688 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Environmental History of War and Militarization in Modern France)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a recent offering from the ever-growing subfield of environmental history that is focusing on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship between militaries, war and environment. A number of large projects and research networks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have emerged in recent years that have brought scholars working within these broad parameters ? from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental histories of the American Civil War to contemporary studies of boundaries in the Gaza strip, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to name two examples ? into closer contact and sustained dialogue. Despite the broad scope of potential )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects, the area has become more cohesive, and Pearson is a notably productive and active member of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community of environmental historians of war and military environments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the UK, an AHRC-funded large grant project ran at Bristol University from 2007 to 2010 that explored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Militarized Landscapes in the Twentieth Century: Britain, France and the US?. Pearson?s role as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postdoctoral researcher on the project produced the research that he draws upon in )] TJ ET BT 432.236 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mobilizing Nature)] TJ ET BT 520.580 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctoral student researching my own environmental history \(1\) of the UK Defence Estate, I worked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alongside Pearson and observed his research evolve. It is gratifying to review this finished work, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1416)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 16 May, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chris Pearson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719084393)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/cgi-bin/indexer?product=9780719084393)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marianna Dudley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7553 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(builds upon his previous published monograph, )] TJ ET BT 265.016 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scarred Landscapes: War and Nature in Vichy France )] TJ ET BT 530.984 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by widening his timeframe of study beyond the Vichy regime. By tracing the ?creation, maintenance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contestation of militarized landscapes in France? from 1857 ? the year of the first large-scale, permanent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military camp in France ? to the 21st century, Pearson has produced a comprehensive introduction to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militarization of the French environment in the modern age.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The title, )] TJ ET BT 80.348 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mobilizing Nature)] TJ ET BT 168.692 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is well-chosen, offering a clue to Pearson?s approach to environmental history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is discussed, but moreover, demonstrated, in the work that follows. In a thoughtful introduction that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains key terms and concepts ? making this a useful text for students and scholars new to the area of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military environmental history ? he defines militarized environments as ?simultaneously material and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural sites that have been partially or fully mobilized to achieve military aims? \(p. 1\). Mobilization, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central concept to the book, highlights the use of nature and environment by militaries and civilians to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepare for, wage, and survive war. The OED defines it first as the preparation and organization of troops for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war, and secondly as the organization of people or resources for a task. Pearson draws upon both senses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the word, but also, importantly, the emphasis on activity that it conveys. It presents the environment not just )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a setting for warfare ? as military history tends to relegate it ? but as an active agent that has been used by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(humans materially and symbolically, and that forms its own responses to the impacts of militarization \(as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter four, ?The mangled earth of the trenches?, portrays particularly powerfully\). This understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment replaces the notion of passive landscape and invites a rethinking of ?artificial? notions of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?nature? and ?culture? divide. Pearson argues convincingly that a study of militarization is necessarily a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more-than-human history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book progresses chronologically, and grounds itself from the outset in an important category of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militarized environment that is often overlooked in favour of battlefields and conflict zones: training camps. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At these sites, preparations for war maintain a military presence over a sustained period of time, during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which time the military interacts with the environment and inhabitants within and around the camp. Chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one, ?The Emperor?s new camp?, introduces the first dedicated training camp in France, Chlons. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Established by Napoleon in 1857, it is presented as key to the Second Empire?s imperial ambitions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contemporary medical geographies of Chlons reflect the wider medicalization of French society in the 19th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, and the close connection between understandings of hygiene and environment at the time. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reclamation of ?waste? land is a recurring feature of military training areas internationally. Here Pearson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a fascinating early French example, made unique by its construction as a public space from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outset, where development of the camp was hoped to radiate beyond its boundaries to bring modernization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the region.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is followed by ?Militarized environments in the ?Terrible Year? \(1870?1\)?. This chapter begins bluntly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a discussion of the connection between environment and warfare in battlefields ? which are not, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsurprisingly, always in fields \(p. 40\). But it develops in subtlety and the discussion that follows on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of French military geography out of cartographic necessity during the war, proves an interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one. Furthermore, Pearson introduces a subject that he writes brilliantly on at several stages through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book: animals at war. Animal history is a key research interest for him, and he maintains an entertaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blog about dogs in history \(?Sniffing the Past?\).\(3\) This chapter recognizes animals as actors, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mascots, in war, and uses historical accounts to illustrate that visible animal suffering could sometimes move )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those accustomed to the hardships of warfare.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Remaking militarized environments in the wake of defeat, 1871?1914? follows the Siege of Paris with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of the modernization of a defeated army. Despite defeat, and the loss of Alsace and Lorrain, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Third Republic saw the army as the means to secure the nation?s security against future German aggression. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The mobilization of nature on the eastern border included the exertion of military control over forests, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were incorporated into plans for fortifying the strategic border region. This period also saw the establishment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of more military camps, including Mailly in the ?training heartland? of Champagne \(p. 74\). Pearson remarks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon the similarities in pro-military discourse surrounding the establishment of Mailly, in 1902, and that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chlons in 1957, drawing a line of continuity from the Second Empire to the Third Republic. He also invites )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reader to picture life in the camps, as depicted in turn-of-the-century postcards that are reproduced here. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7492 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This chapter achieves a difficult task, in that its relatively long timespan encompasses a period of major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political and social change. By focusing on the militarization of the French countryside for the purpose of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(training the army and securing remaining French territory, Pearson doesn?t over-extend, and brings the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental history of war and militarization in France up to 1914, and the beginning of its greatest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upheaval.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter four, ?The mangled earth of the trenches?, addresses ? how could it not? ? the environmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annihilation of the Western Front in the First World War. But, importantly, it extends its consideration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this environmental and human catastrophe to explore how the war was fought and sustained beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trenches too ? through gardens, farms, and natural resources. Again, Pearson brings the animal history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war to the forefront. )] TJ ET BT 133.652 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War Horse)] TJ ET BT 186.644 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has recently brought the plight of horses in the trenches to popular attention, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in print, on stage, and on the big screen. For those who doubt Spielberg?s cinematic depiction of equine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering, Pearson provides the historical source materials: staggering numbers and moving first-hand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts that confirm a grim reality. Despite technological advances, horses still pulled 80 per cent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artillery in the French army by the time of the armistice \(p. 97\). Pigeons and dogs were utilized, too, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strategic ways. Lice and rats were other familiar, if unwelcome, co-habitants of the wartime environment. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Attention to the animal histories of the First World War does not negate the human suffering of this period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather, it provides detail that augments our imaginings of the day-to-day experiences of soldiers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilians grappling to survive in the most extreme of environments. The trenches of the First World War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were crawling, literally, with life, amongst the detritus of death.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Accounts of soldiers connecting with nature during this conflict describe men clinging on to life. Birdsong, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the quiet of a forest, or a swim in a river were made so much more vital with the omnipresence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction. Pearson notes that this falls in with a Romantic tradition of nature as a source of spiritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nourishment. The solace found in pockets of surviving nature are nonetheless important, as they serve to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remind us that militarization, even on the Western Front, was never complete. Or, ?to use a term commonly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated with war in the twentieth century, it was not ?total?? \(p. 101\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though we may begin to comprehend the scale of destruction of the First World War, the ?Demilitarization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and remilitarization \(1918?40\)? of France that followed is subject to far less attention. Pearson addresses this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imbalance with a chapter that describes the transformation of war-damaged environments to peacetime uses. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the most mutilated places, identified on maps as Red Zones, there were three options: forestation, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorialization, or militarization.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here Pearson weaves an interesting narrative strand around trees, which were planted \(controversially\) to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reforest some Red Zones, or in memorial gardens where they were laden with national symbolism \(maples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commemorated fallen Canadian soldiers, for example\) \(p. 138\). Where trees stood on otherwise obliterated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landscapes, they were revered as survivors and witnesses \(p. 139\). Animals, like trees, were mobilized in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime )] TJ ET BT 76.340 263.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 94.340 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( used to commemorate the conflict, with imagery appearing on memorials across the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commemorative landscape. Battlefield tourism emerged, guided by literature such as the Michelin guides, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used here as source materials. And at Suippes, a former battlefield was transformed to a training camp. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(re-use of war-damaged land is a fascinating addition to our knowledge of militarized landscapes. In France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and elsewhere \(Britain, USA\) military engagement in conflict historically spurred expropriation of land for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military purposes, often in the ?wildest?, least-populated ? and most ?pristine? ? landscapes. Here, we learn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a landscape scarred by warfare that went on to be deployed for continuing military use. But the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expropriation that occurred in other places also took places at Suippes, where only two-fifths lay within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Red Zone, adding complexity to this site which, like many militarized places, has multiple layers of military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and civilian use, pre- and post-military history, inhabitants and evictees, human and non-human presences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After 1918, ?the French mobilized nature to commemorate and heal the physical and mental scars of war? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 156\). Militarization continued in the inter-war period with the expansion of camps and fortification of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maginot Line to defend the eastern border. But the phoney war, or )] TJ ET BT 355.952 80.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(drle de guerre)] TJ ET BT 430.604 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, saw a scramble for air )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bases by the Allies in France in preparation for a protracted war against Germany. The speed of the invasion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toppled the French government, killing people and displacing many more. It disrupted the environment, too, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7646 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but it did not repeat the four years of trench warfare that had taken place in the previous conflict.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While Pearson addresses the German presence as a strategic threat in peacetime and combatant in wartime, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is beyond his realm of expertise, as a historian of France, to assess how German troops experienced the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French environment. He notes in the footnotes for chapter six, ?Occupied territories?, that there is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive international historiography for the Second World War. This monograph makes an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution not only to our knowledge of environmental histories of war, but also to our understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the French wartime experience. It also identifies areas ripe for future research, the German experience of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French wartime environment being one of them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Occupied territories, 1940?67?, covers the war and its aftermath. Dense with source materials and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples, Pearson nonetheless retains an eye for detail, and utilizes the narrative power of a well-chosen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anecdote. We are told that British planes dropped nearly 600,000 tons of bombs over France during the war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the description of one that flattened half-a-dozen fruit trees and injured a cow in Calvados, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trivializing such a vast and damaging figure, grounds it and demonstrates that each military action has a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(localized, environmental, social, cultural and personal impact. This example itself encapsulates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental history?s capacity to add to our historical knowledge, complementing social and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories rather than diverting attention from them. Viewing history through an environmental lens can open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(our eyes to the extent human activity impacts on the natural world, and vice versa. It does not exclude the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human stories of the past, but contextualizes them and recognizes that we exist, and always have done, in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more-than human world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?A \(very\) large military camp? charts the ongoing militarization of post-war France, but by drawing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention to continuities in the mobilization of nature, bridges the wartime and post-war periods. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rearmament and modernization of the French military after 1945 continued the camp expansions of the pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war era. New pressures on the land increased tensions between military and civilians, in particular when it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came to forestry administration, and developing tourism in areas used for training. Decolonization, too, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impacted the militarized environment. The French state used the relatively secluded and secure training )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(camps to accommodate )] TJ ET BT 149.660 404.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(harkis )] TJ ET BT 182.660 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(the name given to Algerians who fought on the French side\) who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjected to persecution after the Algerian declaration of independence. Internment of )] TJ ET BT 450.572 389.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(harkis)] TJ ET BT 480.572 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( on army bases )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?was part and parcel of the wider reshaping of postcolonial France? \(p. 215\). Nuclear testing areas are added )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the list of militarized environments, although the ecological risks and political fallout were outsourced to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Pacific. The focus understandably remains on home territories here, although I would have liked more on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the impact of weapons testing on overseas territories, as they stand out as internationally significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental events.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Opposing military environments? is an important, and welcome, chapter in the book. ?A \(very\) large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military camp? hints at growing unrest towards the military use of land, and this chapter addresses it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(directly, providing a civilian-focused counter-narrative to militarization. The growth of environmentalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant that protest against the military \(on environmental grounds\) progressed from lone voices to become a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement that collectively viewed militarization as a threat to nature. This context informed public protests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a larger scale, such as at Canjuers camp. Analysis of the rhetoric and protest literature reveals a site-based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protest that was heavily informed by the profound and complex social and economic transformations taking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place in French society. Protests against Larzac camp, too, brought together campaigners with a range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agendas, who mobilized the local environment ? materially and symbolically \(for example, releasing sheep )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on to the grass of the Champs de Mars in Paris\) ? against the military presence. These accounts challenge the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?lazy assumption that rural France is backward-looking and politically reactionary?, but also make the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critical point that these protests were informed by local environmental, social and economic concerns. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Campaigners were not Deep Ecologists, motivated to fight for nature for its own sake, but rather, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighting to preserve the environment primarily for human use and enjoyment. Protests against the military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are a prominent feature of the militarization of environments internationally, and )] TJ ET BT 424.616 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mobilizing Nature)] TJ ET BT 512.960 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians with French examples to add to our body of knowledge on the subject. In the context of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself, this chapter is vital in balancing the narrative to acknowledge those who fought against the processes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of militarization described throughout. A short epilogue returns to this theme, and to the sites of Canjuers )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7633 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Larzac. It feels misplaced, as the content could have been included earlier, but serves as a final reminder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that militarized places and spaces are contested sites, home to histories that challenge the narrative presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the military.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mobilizing Nature )] TJ ET BT 125.360 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concludes with a chapter on the ?greening? of the French military. This describes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military?s adoption of environmental values in the last decades of the 20th century, mirroring developments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Britain, Sweden, and elsewhere.\(4\) Military-environmentalism, or the claim that militarism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmentalism can co-exist, is a global and controversial phenomenon. On the one hand, military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environments have become reservoirs of biodiversity amid civilian urbanization and industrialization. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military uses this discursively to present the organization as environmentally responsible. On the other hand, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critics argue that military activity is fundamentally incompatible with environmentalism and sustainable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development, and that the military-environmentalist discourse is no more than a cynical attempt to justify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military control of land \(p. 274\). This discord exists in France, as elsewhere. This final chapter explores the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?greening? of French militarized environments, introducing that concept in a clear manner to those who are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfamiliar with its multiple manifestations. It raises questions over the manipulation of the environmentalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse by the military ? but reminds us that military environmentalism in France is more complex and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profound than claims of ?greenwash? give credit, and that ?however flawed, partial and self-interested it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may be, military environmentalism needs to be added to the other ways in which military personnel perceive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and mobilize the environment? \(p. 275\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter, ??Greening? militarized environments?, is representative of )] TJ ET BT 411.584 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mobilizing Nature)] TJ ET BT 499.928 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as a whole. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It stands alone as a significant contribution to French history, but locates itself within international historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation into the history of war and environment. My criticisms of the book are minor, and in the main, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editorial. The inclusion of maps at the start is pleasing; the failure to demarcate all of the training camps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed, merely frustrating. The epilogue is a somewhat superfluous feature which in my opinion would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been better included into the main body of the book. But the work itself is exemplary. )] TJ ET BT 474.296 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mobilizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nature )] TJ ET BT 70.352 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates the capacity for environmental history to bring new and vital perspectives to our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings of historical events, actors and places. I often return to a quote by the historian Ellen Stroud, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who explains that)] TJ ET BT 64.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?environmental history is not simply another subfield of history, taking its place alongside )] TJ ET BT 64.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political, social and economic history. Rather it is a tool for telling better histories in all of these )] TJ ET BT 64.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fields ? it offers not merely another axis for analyzing relationships of power, but new sites and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources for uncovering those relationships?.\(5\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mobilizing Nature )] TJ ET BT 125.360 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduces French military areas as sites where the big events of modern French history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have made an impact. They are complex places where multiple narratives can be found. Pearson?s detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research and wide range of sources tease out those narratives, and presents a history of the French military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its relationship with the French environment that is engaging and enlightening. )] TJ ET BT 435.656 239.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mobilizing Nature )] TJ ET BT 527.000 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recommended to all historians and students of French history, whether they share Pearson?s \(and my\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preoccupation with the environment, are approaching the subject for the first time, or have a broader interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in modern French history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 162.099 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 131.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 131.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marianna Dudley, )] TJ ET BT 154.328 131.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Environmental History of the UK Defence Estate, 1945-present)] TJ ET BT 475.292 131.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2012\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 117.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 115.827 m 118.004 115.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 102.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 102.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chris Pearson, )] TJ ET BT 137.012 102.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Scarred Landscapes: War and Nature in Vichy France )] TJ ET BT 402.980 102.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Basingstoke, 2008\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 502.640 102.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 502.640 101.571 m 556.628 101.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 88.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 88.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://sniffingthepast.wordpress.com)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 87.315 m 240.008 87.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.008 88.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 257.000 88.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 8 March 2013].)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 390.056 88.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 390.056 87.315 m 444.044 87.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 74.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 74.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Coates, Tim Cole, Marianna Dudley, Chris Pearson, ?Defending nation, defending nature? )] TJ ET BT 64.016 60.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Militarized landscapes and military environmentalism in Britain, France, and the United States?, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 45.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Environmental History)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 116.1415 118.0037 128.0215 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 502.6397 101.8855 556.6277 113.7655 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 87.6295 240.0077 99.5095 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://sniffingthepast.wordpress.com/) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 390.0557 87.6295 444.0437 99.5095 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 1511 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 16 \(July 2011\), 456?91.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.340 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.340 795.075 m 238.328 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ellen Stroud, ?Does nature always matter? Following dirt through history?, )] TJ ET BT 428.648 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and Theory)] TJ ET BT 522.644 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theme Issue 42 \(December 2004\), 75?81.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 265.628 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 265.628 766.563 m 319.616 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is happy to accept this review and does not wish to comment further.)] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 724.975 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 707.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 707.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1416)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 705.801 m 328.316 705.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 680.824 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 666.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/62904)] TJ ET BT 34.016 652.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://sniffingthepast.wordpress.com/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 184.3397 795.3895 238.3277 807.2695 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 265.6277 766.8775 319.6157 778.7575 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 706.1155 328.3157 717.9955 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1416) >> endobj xref 0 38 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000604 00000 n 0000000686 00000 n 0000004922 00000 n 0000005031 00000 n 0000005141 00000 n 0000005250 00000 n 0000008811 00000 n 0000008939 00000 n 0000009023 00000 n 0000009088 00000 n 0000016694 00000 n 0000016759 00000 n 0000024304 00000 n 0000024369 00000 n 0000032068 00000 n 0000032173 00000 n 0000039859 00000 n 0000039986 00000 n 0000040022 00000 n 0000040150 00000 n 0000040186 00000 n 0000040311 00000 n 0000040400 00000 n 0000040526 00000 n 0000040562 00000 n 0000040660 00000 n 0000042224 00000 n 0000042352 00000 n 0000042388 00000 n 0000042516 00000 n 0000042552 00000 n 0000042680 00000 n trailer << /Size 38 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42776 %%EOF