%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827231404+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827231404+01'00') /Title (Armenians and the Allies in Cilicia, 1914?1923) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4056 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Armenians and the Allies in Cilicia, 1914?1923)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is interesting that well into the 21st century two books written by Turkish authors belonging to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography of the Armenian Genocide should be so vastly different in argument. Whereas Ugur mit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ngr and Mehmet Polatel have produced a starkly realistic and thoroughly researched account in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Confiscation and Destruction: The Young Turk Seizure of Armenian Property)] TJ ET BT 407.012 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Continuum in 2011, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledging that what occurred to the Ottoman Armenians in 1915 and 1916 was undoubtedly a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genocide, Yucel Gl in his )] TJ ET BT 176.660 202.043 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Armenians and the Allies in Cilicia, 1914?1923)] TJ ET BT 405.668 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with University of Utah Press )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(published only a year earlier\) has produced a methodologically flawed account that rejects the label of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genocide for the very same events.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This has much to do with the authors themselves. Whereas ngr is an academic and Polatel an aspiring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one, Gl is first counsellor of the Turkish Embassy in Washington D.C., and therefore not an academic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but a member of the Turkish Foreign Affairs Department, which has since its inception propagated the view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that what befell the Ottoman Armenians was not a genocide. So clearly Gl carries on his shoulders some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very heavy baggage as a member of a Turkish government department, while ngr and Polatel have no ties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Turkish state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A further factor to account for this is that the Utah Series in Turkish and Islamic Studies specialises in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1419)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 23 May, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ycel Gl)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780874809565)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(296pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Utah Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salt Lake City, UT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrekos Varnava)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7661 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publishing works which reject the label of genocide for what occurred against the Ottoman Armenians in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1915 and 1916. So Gl?s book belongs to a long line of books which take a similar view: Guenty Lewy?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account rejects the label of genocide because in his opinion what befell the Ottoman Armenians was not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same as what befell the Jews in the Holocaust; while Justin McCarthy?s work claims that the Armenians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(came out second best because they were the weaker of the two groups in what was an ethno-religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(struggle, thus shifting the onus of responsibility equally onto the Armenians themselves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such views do not hold up when tested by the hard and cold facts, as numerous historians from various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backgrounds acknowledge that the Ottoman government attempted to destroy the Ottoman Armenians, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either through direct or indirect death, or through conversion, because some Armenians living near the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russo-Ottoman border joined the Russian army. This telling quote from ngr and Polatel says much: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?What made the massacres genocidal is that the killings targeted the abstract category of group identity, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that all Armenians, loyal or disloyal, were deported and massacred?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 362.612 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 362.612 626.259 m 376.604 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 376.604 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( On 12 May 2012 the Genocide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Education Project hosted a presentation by Dr Ugur mit ngr, who is an Assistant Professor in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Department of History and Art History at the University of Utrecht, where he expanded on the quote I have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selected above, by showing in a most lucid lecture \(available on You Tube\) that the genocide did not merely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involve the processes of deportation and massacres, but a whole range of destruction processes, eight in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(total, which were sometimes sequential and sometimes overlapping. Ugur mit ngr listed these processes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as follows: persecution, namely of civil servants, who were removed from their positions by the end of 1914; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decapitation of Armenian elites \(political, religious, economic, intellectuals\), which started on 24 April )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1915; deportation of the general Armenian population which began soon thereafter; expropriation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armenian properties, which was legalised; mass murder, under the government established ?special )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation?; forced assimilation of mostly teenage girls and children, which was an assault on cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity; enforced famine for those sent to the desert; and finally the destruction of material culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly of religious buildings. I would add to this a ninth process, and that is the very swift move to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deny that what was happening was organised by the Ottoman government and at the same time to shift )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility onto the Armenians themselves. Gl?s account belongs to this last process.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gl beginsby establishing that the Armenian Genocide is contested, but fails to say by whom it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested and why. He refers to the Armenian Genocide as the ?Armenian tragedy?, and the Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?relocations?, and attempts to turn the Armenian victims into the perpetrators of their own victimhood. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a very sad reflection of the denial of certain Turks of the official Ottoman policies to eradicate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armenians from the Ottoman Empire, which ngr and Polatel, as well as numerous other authors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(including other Turks, such as Taner Akcam\), have firmly established was the case. At every turn, using )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selective archival sources, almost always without any historical context, Gl attempts to blame the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armenians for forcing the Ottoman government into ?relocating? them, or more appropriately, into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroying them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gl also claims that he was denied access to Armenian archives, while Turkish archives were free for all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to use. I cannot comment on the freedom of Armenian archives, although I was not denied access to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nubarian Library in Paris. I can also say that I was given access to the Prime Minister?s Office Ottoman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archives \(BOA\), Istanbul. But it is not true to say that )] TJ ET BT 297.668 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(all)] TJ ET BT 310.340 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the Turkish archives are open, because the Turkish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General Staff Military History and Strategic Studies Directorate Archives \(ATASE\), in Ankara, are not open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to researchers unless they undergo and pass a Turkish military security check which can take up to two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months. This is something that researchers do not encounter at other archives. This check is invasive of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(person?s personal freedom and I did not wish to subject my family to it, even though this may mean that I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will never get access to the necessary archival material on my research areas, namely the Armenian Legion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and on Cyprus during the Great War. This present review was due for publication a year ago, but I delayed it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while I visited Istanbul as a Visiting Professor at Bogazici University in the hope that I could obtain access )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the ATASE files I needed to continue my work.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gl?s book should have been the definitive account of the Armenian Legion, since the title suggested that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it would explore the relationship between the British and the French on the one side, and the Armenians on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the other, in relation to Cilicia. The Armenian Legion, initially called the Legion of the East, was formed in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 362.6117 626.5735 376.6037 638.4535 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7572 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the autumn of 1916 by attempting to recruit Armenian survivors of the genocide \(the nucleus of the Legion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were the survivors of the Musa Dagh resistance, a story made famous in Franz Werfel?s fictional 1933 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account, )] TJ ET BT 77.336 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Forty Days of Musa Dagh)] TJ ET BT 224.324 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), Armenian prisoners of war held by the British in India, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armenians in the diaspora, especially in the United States. Gl mentions the Legion, and claims that its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation must be understood within the context of a longstanding attempt by the British, the French and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armenians to destroy the Ottoman Empire. As part of justifying his denial of an Ottoman genocide of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armenians, he claimed that the Ottoman decision to ?relocate? the Armenians was based on intelligence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which found that the British and French were planning a landing at Alexandretta with Armenian support, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even though no such landing took place, and the British rejected Armenian assistance. On the contrary the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Legion was formed after many proposals to form such a Legion were rejected by the British, the French and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even by Armenian political elites, during various periods throughout 1915 and early 1916. In reality the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Legion was formed only after the Sykes-Picot Agreement was signed in May 1916, which had assigned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cilicia and areas surrounding it, where there was a significant Armenian population, to be under direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French control after the war. Therefore, the Armenian Legion became the agent of French imperialism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the idea was sold to the Armenian political elites as the opportunity to obtain a safe homeland under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French control, not, as later claimed by Gl, an independent state.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 361.292 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 361.292 581.235 m 375.284 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gl implies that the desire of Armenian elites for a safe and secure homeland, which they aimed for under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French ?protection?, was somehow illegitimate and unjust. In the areas assigned to France by the Sykes-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Picot Agreement, Armenians composed of at least 30 per cent of the population, usually on par with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kurdish population, with the Turkish and Greek populations following. It may seem harsh, but the eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provinces of the Ottoman Empire, where this demographic pattern mostly existed, should have been divided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the three main demographic groups, and a population exchange carried out. But the Turkish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist forces of Kemal Attaturk were against the cession of any Ottoman territory to the Armenians, let )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alone to the Kurds, and so the new Armenian state was formed solely from Russian Armenia. Gl argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the Armenians received their just deserts: expulsion and no territory to form a safe and secure homeland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and no compensation either. For this he blames their failed alliance with the British and the French, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were too weak and lacked the motivation to follow through with their promises to the Armenians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, Gl fails to explore the process by which the Turkish nationalist forces ethnically cleansed Cilicia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the defeat and withdrawal of the French forces in 1922. For many Armenians this meant becoming a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugee for the second time in a matter of years. Many of these people settled in the French mandates of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hatay, Syria and Lebanon, and the British possession of Cyprus. This process of forced migration is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explored by the author.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I cannot recommend this book for a variety of reasons. Methodologically it takes a flawed approach, having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begun with the rejection of the label of genocide, and at every turn blaming the Armenians \(and the Allies\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for what befell them, and also highlighting Armenian violence \(in the aftermath of the armistice\), while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(playing down Ottoman government-sponsored violence. The author has not exhausted the archives in Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and France, as there is a great many more documents for the war years in particular, on the Armenian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Question? and on the Armenian Legion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.099 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ugur mit ngr and Mehmet Polatel, )] TJ ET BT 255.668 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Confiscation and Destruction: The Young Turk Seizure of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Armenian Property)] TJ ET BT 157.004 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2011\), p. 165.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 274.328 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 274.328 151.827 m 328.316 151.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 138.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the formation of the Armenian Legion see my forthcoming article, Andrekos Varnava, ?The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British, an Armenian legion, and deliberations on where to attack the Ottoman Empire, November )] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1914?April 1915: imperialism first, the war second?, )] TJ ET BT 320.984 110.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historical Research, )] TJ ET BT 423.308 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forthcoming in 2014.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.972 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.972 109.059 m 552.632 109.059 l S BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 94.803 m 90.344 94.803 l S 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 79.471 526.499 1.500 re S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 61.691 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 61.691 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1419)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 60.297 m 328.316 60.297 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 35.320 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 361.2917 581.5495 375.2837 593.4295 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 274.3277 152.1415 328.3157 164.0215 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 524.9717 109.3735 552.6317 121.2535 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 95.1175 90.3437 106.9975 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 60.6115 328.3157 72.4915 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1419) >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 154 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/63845)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000549 00000 n 0000000631 00000 n 0000004739 00000 n 0000004848 00000 n 0000004958 00000 n 0000005067 00000 n 0000008628 00000 n 0000008756 00000 n 0000008840 00000 n 0000008924 00000 n 0000016638 00000 n 0000016668 00000 n 0000016796 00000 n 0000016832 00000 n 0000016944 00000 n 0000024569 00000 n 0000024599 00000 n 0000024727 00000 n 0000024763 00000 n 0000024891 00000 n 0000024946 00000 n 0000025074 00000 n 0000025129 00000 n 0000025254 00000 n 0000025309 00000 n 0000025435 00000 n 0000025531 00000 n 0000025596 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 25802 %%EOF