%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140829040437+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140829040437+01'00') /Title (A People Apart: the Jews in Europe, 1789-1939) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4602 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(A People Apart: the Jews in Europe, 1789-1939)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Any reviewer must experience an initial sense of admiration if not awe in picking up this 900-page magnum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opus. The publisher's blurb on the flyleaf informs us that "This powerful and stimulating new analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represents a watershed in our understanding of the history of the Jews in Europe." Leafing through it, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quickly sees that it is based on a prodigious familiarity with primary sources in Hebrew, Yiddish, German, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French, Russian, as well as English. A closer reading gradually reveals a treasure trove of fascinating and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfamiliar details about the history of the Jews in most countries of Europe from the end of the 18th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the beginning of WW II. Certainly, few would seem to know the modern history of the Jews in Europe as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensively or as intimately as David Vital, now an emeritus professor, at the pinnacle of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguished career, both as a scholar and earlier as an Israeli government official.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No review, even one twice as long as this, could hope to convey adequately the complexity, range of issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(covered, and subtlety of this volume -- or, indeed, the nature of its problems. The author's interpretative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stance presents an especially imposing challenge to present fairly, for this is a decidedly idiosyncratic work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a number of regards bafflingly so. A scholar of Vital's accomplishments is certainly entitled to some self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indulgence in writing about what he considers most important, and in many regards he does so impressively, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but parts of this volume verge on the capricious in terms of what is covered and what is not; other parts are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all-too transparently tendentious. It is obviously the case that any work this ambitious will almost inevitably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffer from imbalances or lacunae; it will likely stumble into inconsistencies, overstatements and errors of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one sort or another. But some of the problems in this volume go beyond what can be easily nationalised, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they tend to undermine the book's arguments. Given Vital's erudition, his impressive intellectual gifts, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expects more. There is throughout a sense of complex narratives that fail to connect satisfyingly, arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(142)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 October, 2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Vital)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(907pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Albert S. Lindemann)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5123 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that are not effectively pulled together. And whether this work can be accurately termed a new analysis is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly questionable; it might be more fittingly described as an elaboration on old and familiar themes. As far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as its being a watershed in our understanding -- well, publishers will be publishers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A more friendly reading might simply conclude that Vital remains so anchored in his primary sources and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides such an abundant sense of the complexity, the messiness of the historical record, that no effort to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make the greyness of theory prevail over the greenness of reality could turn out to be all that neat or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistent. But the grey, giving expression to Vital's resolute Zionist convictions, is unmistakably there: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scholars familiar with recent histories of Germany and Russia may at times rub their eyes in disbelief at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vital's interpretations. His description of a decadent German-Jewish mentality, to cite one of the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking examples, echoes hard-line Zionism of a very old vintage, and his presentation of the much criticise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("rising tide" theory of German anti-Semitism, culminating in Nazism, is disappointingly thin. It is both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising and troubling that Vital does not even mention the points made by the many critics of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zionist theories, let alone try to refute them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vital's openly announced concern with politics is by its nature old history, and thus one should not expect to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(find much here about such recent concerns as gender, culture, or class. Not surprisingly, as a Zionist Vital is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressed with the power of Jew-hatred, and again no particular surprise, he scrutinises the Gentile rulers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Jews with a jaundiced if certainly expert eye. Paradoxically, in a book with the title )] TJ ET BT 454.616 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A People Apart)] TJ ET BT 528.608 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes seems that Vital is more interested in those rulers than in the Jews themselves; or if that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overstates the matter, one is nonetheless tempted to remark that his eye seems almost equally jaundiced in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking at Jewish leaders, while the Jewish people, the more anonymous masses, remain, well, pretty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anonymous: Again, this is an older variety of history, one concerned primarily with leaders, their ideas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions, and activities, and not with the masses.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vital emphasises from the beginning that he has by no means attempted to write a comprehensive account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of the Jews in modern Europe. "This is a political history." Those five words stand starkly alone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the opening paragraph of the Preface and are consonant with the Zionist Revisionists' single-minded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on the centrality of political activity. The ensuing paragraphs explain that the book is largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unconcerned with many of the themes familiar to readers of Jewish history. Famous Jewish artists, inventors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientists, novelists, or philosophers are mostly missing and are included only insofar as their activities had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(palpable political implications. At the same time, the book is no mere compendium of political events; even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the political focus is dominated by strict principles of selectivity: "The function . . . of anecdotal detail had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be limited to the support and elucidation of argument. Description had never to be more than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handmaiden of analysis." \(viii\) Vital offers the further warning that these pages, because focused on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political, will be sombre in tone -- concerned, "like it or not . . . [with] what is harshest, ugliest, and most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dangerous in human conduct." [vii])] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7795 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a letter to the )] TJ ET BT 113.000 784.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times Literary Supplement)] TJ ET BT 242.996 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, further discussed below, Vital described his overall goals more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succinctly and provocatively than in the book itself: He has tried, he wrote, to explore how much "the Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people [were]. . . not mere incidental objects of the . . . history of other nations but were possessed . . . of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history that was . . . genuinely their own. Were they . . . participants . . . in the making of their own political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history . . .?" However, direct, cogent answers to these questions are not so easy to discern in this volume. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That is unfortunate, for they obviously suggest some qualification of the key notion of Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerlessness, some sense in which Jews were responsible for their own fate. And therein lies a minefield: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For many observers, mention of Jewish responsibility suggests a forbidden direction -- "blaming the victim." )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vital's exact position on the matter tends to get lost in a thicket of inconclusive remarks. Some of them seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to suggest his agreement with those who reject the notion of Jewish responsibility: He informs us, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, that dealing with the political, with the power of one group over another, means confronting an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arena "touched with pathology." If modern anti-Semitism is essentially pathological -- a widely held view -- )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then Jews have no significant responsibility for it. If Gentile hostility to Jews, on the other hand, had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something to do with the way Jews really were, if it was normal in the sense that different groups normally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compete, have different interests, and experience friction producing hostility, then Jews might be said to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have some degree of responsibility for the hatred they have faced.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These contrasting notions beg to be amply and clearly analysed -- above all in a book that claims to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily analytical -- but, to repeat, Vital tends to leave them dangling. Reading between the lines of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scattered remarks on the matter over hundreds of pages, one might certainly conclude that he sees )] TJ ET BT 506.240 515.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pathological hatred and normal hatred, but he neglects or postpones addressing explicitly their relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and relative strength. On p. 760, come the following remarks: "It needs to be said at this point [!], that it has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not been part of the purpose of this book to )] TJ ET BT 243.992 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(account )] TJ ET BT 284.984 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the rise and gathering of forces hostile to Jewry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either before the First World War or in the years subsequent to it." And then on p. 774, even more explicitly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on p. 802, Vital seems to recognise that, of course, there were differences between a hatred based to an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important degree on "objective" factors \(as was, he notes, the case in interwar Poland\), compared to that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on "doctrine" \(pathology\) as in Germany, where he asserts that there was no objective basis at all for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostility to Jews. But he then appears, frustratingly, to be more comfortable with recounting what various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnesses had to say, then moves on to other matters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vital's lack of a systematic consideration of the nature of anti-Semitism is one of the more puzzling aspects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of this volume. He describes what various historical figures wrote about it. Here and there, in presenting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what ostensibly reflects his own conclusions, he alludes to the roles of religion, cultural friction, class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tension, economic envy, or a plain, crude desire to take over Jewish goods. He notes that Theodor Herzl )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("made no serious attempt to examine the twin questions . . .: )] TJ ET BT 326.564 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Why )] TJ ET BT 350.888 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did the Jews constitute a source of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perpetual tension and conflict? )] TJ ET BT 184.652 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(What,)] TJ ET BT 212.984 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( when all was said and done, were the true roots of anti-Semitism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its explanation?" He then adds, "but that hardly mattered." [443] Whether it hardly mattered in Herzl's case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be contested, but a lack of a comparable serious attempt in a book like this does matter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herzl himself came close to the position of blaming the victim; at least insofar as he considered the defects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Jews in Europe to be the most fundamental reason that they were hated by non-Jews. Herzl is not an easy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man to pin down, but a number of scholars have arrived at the paradoxical conclusion that this founder of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Zionism might be considered a "self-hating Jew." His admiration of the Gentile world -- his fondest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dream was to be reborn as a Prussian Junker -- was remarkable, whereas his comments in his diary about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the Jews he met and worked with were often caustic, even cruel and ugly. No less remarkable was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herzl's apparent lack of hatred for Gentiles, even the anti-Semites among them. The Jewish state he hoped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create was to be liberal-democratic, having few if any connections with Jewish tradition \(about which, at any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rate, he was not particularly well informed\). Again, in a book so massively detailed and one in which Herzl )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be described as the hero, Vital devotes curiously little attention to these glaring paradoxes and mostly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignores the recent secondary works that have brought them up.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That Vital provides a mere two-page Preface and no Conclusion whatsoever \(only another two-page )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Epilogue\) is suggestive of larger organisational and analytical deficiencies. What he terms the Introduction is )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7819 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closer to a six-section prologue, devoted mostly to historical narrative, with shorter scope analyses of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various sorts -- without question often learned and fascinating -- but containing few analytical passages that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly address the entire scope of the book. The analytical perspectives implicit in the organisation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following chapters are often expressed in an intriguingly terse fashion \(typically they are given a single-word )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(title: Proposals, Disjunctions, Movements, Crystallisation, Dnouement\), but they tend to resemble the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentences and paragraphs, not, to be sure, in their length but rather in their tendency occasionally to leave the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader uncertain, if not baffled, as to what they finally mean, how they fit together. The table of contents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides descriptive titles to the sections within the chapters, potentially a most useful aid in following the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book's complex narrative, but in the text itself those titles are left out, with Roman numerals taking their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place. Can it be that Vital's readers are expected to have memorised them all, or to have understood that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must flip back and forth to the table of contents as they read? This may seem a pedantic point, but it suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how challenging, indeed fatiguing, it can be at times to follow the general themes of this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A question naturally emerges: Who are this volume's intended readers? Surely not a broad reading public, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for only those who are already quite knowledgeable about the history of the Jews in Europe will likely be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(able to avoid a recurring sense of losing the thread of the argument, if not being utterly lost. Vital writes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his Preface that he is offering an account of the "absolute essentials," inevitably leaving out much. So we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have 900 pages of absolute essentials, with scant regard for readers ignorant of the background. Revealingly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when Paul Johnson reviewed )] TJ ET BT 176.660 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A People Apart )] TJ ET BT 253.652 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the )] TJ ET BT 288.308 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Times Literary Supplement)] TJ ET BT 418.304 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Vital complained, in a letter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the editor a few weeks later \(containing the description of the book above quoted\), that Johnson, in spite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his generally favourable comments, seemed to have misunderstood the book, or at least had failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(present in the review what was essential to its purposes. [June 18, 1999, pp. 3-4; and July 2, 1999] The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complaint had some validity, but nonetheless a fair question emerges: If Johnson failed to grasp Vital's main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points, just how many others might also experience some difficulty with them?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are other aspects of this volume that may put off all but a highly motivated readership. Vital's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex, often serpentine sentences, his tendency to austere, precise understatement, are major challenges in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves: As readers brave clause after clause, copious qualifiers, and frequent parenthetical remarks, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(must get used to taking long breaths, as when reading German, in anticipation of the relevant verb or other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key word. Paragraphs sometimes go on for pages. A few reviewers have praised Vital's writing style as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stately and elegant. Others have dismissed it as turgid and nearly unreadable. These are, no doubt, matters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taste, but it seems fair to warn that Vital's sentences, no less than the organisation of his material and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretative purposes, are not suitable for those in search of light entertainment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One would expect a work of this sort to provide ample historiographical discussions. But again Vital does so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only sporadically and not very satisfyingly. It is unlikely that he is ignorant of recent controversies among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians about many of the topics he discusses, but for whatever reason he repeatedly ignores recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secondary literature, tending to cite older secondary sources, but more often basing his account almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely on primary sources. His related, more general tendency to skim quickly over or completely ignore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various topics may to some extent reflect simple oversights; in some instances there seem to be little rhyme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or reason to them. For example, he does not even mention Moses Hess, the Beilis Affair, or the Protocols of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Elders of Zion, all unquestionably important. A suspicious reader might speculate that the Beilis Affair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not fit comfortably into a Zionist narrative, since Beilis, charged with ritual murder, was found not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guilty by a jury of very ordinary Russian subjects, and his release was hailed ecstatically in Russia and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the world, by both Jews and non-Jews. But such speculation would be based on flimsy grounds; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-Semitism in Russia was hardly exposed as ephemeral because of the result of the Beilis Affair. But why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then was this important affair ignored and others, less important \(e.g., Xanten, Tiszaeszlar\) included?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kindred suspicions might arise in other contexts: Why would a book of this length and detail skip almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely over the period of Alexander II, while amply discussing the previous reign of Nicholas I and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following reigns of Alexander III and Nicholas II? Is it because the reforming 1860s and 1870s seemed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promising, because Jews were treated better and many prospered during it? Again, Vital does not offer any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation for this curious hiatus. Why an almost total neglect of pre-war Hungary, with its large Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population? One might speculate, again not very persuasively, that it was because in the period prior to WW )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 5237 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I, at least, Hungary seemed a success story for Jews and provided very little support for Zionist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations. In a way even more striking is the neglect of Italy. Its Jewish population was small compared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Hungary, to say nothing of Russia, but the extent to which Italian Jews prospered in almost every sense, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a Jewish prime minister \(Luigi Luzzatti\) in the same late nineteenth century period that anti-Semitic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements were appearing elsewhere, certainly would seem to deserve some comment. During the initial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stages of fascist rule, Jews were even more prominent, serving in the leading ranks of the Fascist Party and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in high government posts. Vital's remark that "Mussolini['s] . . . ideas on the matter of the Jews, while vague, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were for a time not ungenerous" \(893\) is wholly inadequate to suggest Mussolini's long, complex and often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intimate relationships with Italian Jews.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vital devotes much attention to the Kishinev pogrom of 1903, and appropriately so, since it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unquestionably an event of great importance in Jewish history. But his pages are devoted mostly to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description of the horrific events and the reaction to them, again without question in perceptive ways. But he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(devotes almost no attention to the long-range historical background to those events. A number of obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions go unasked, let alone unanswered. Would the Kishinev pogrom have occurred -- or indeed many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the riots in others cities in the south of Russia where pogroms were most important -- if the Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population had not grown so phenomenally, large numbers often moving in from other parts of Russia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the past decades?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These critical remarks are not meant to suggest that the above issues are simple; analyses of them are bound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be contested, final answers elusive. Entirely satisfactory explanations of the origins of urban rioting, let )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alone anti-Semitism, cannot be provided by reference to population growth, economic change, or class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict, but they do need to be taken into serious and systematic consideration, something Vital repeatedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(falls short on. He does offer much statistical information about Jewish population growth and movement, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he only feebly addresses the natural question of how much that growth and movement had to do with rising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hostility to Jews in the same period. He disdains as irrelevant to his story the familiar narratives of Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, but is it not conceivable that the Jewish rise -- in numbers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth, indeed in many arenas -- had something quite central to do with Gentile hostility to Jews?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vital observes in his Preface that " . . . it has been difficult . . . to avoid writing this book in any other spirit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than . . . 'savage indignation,' but the effort has been made." And no doubt it has, often impressively. But if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he had marshalled a larger part of his 900 pages to confront, directly and seriously, objections to his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worldview, rather than ignoring them or giving them such short shrift or obscuring their very existence with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the weight of this tome, his efforts surely would have been even more impressive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 287.551 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 269.771 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 269.771 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/142)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 268.377 m 322.316 268.377 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 243.400 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 229.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/764)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 268.6915 322.3157 280.5715 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/142) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000555 00000 n 0000000637 00000 n 0000005291 00000 n 0000005400 00000 n 0000005510 00000 n 0000005619 00000 n 0000009180 00000 n 0000009308 00000 n 0000009392 00000 n 0000009457 00000 n 0000014633 00000 n 0000014698 00000 n 0000022546 00000 n 0000022611 00000 n 0000030483 00000 n 0000030567 00000 n 0000035857 00000 n 0000035985 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36080 %%EOF