%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 28 0 R 36 0 R 50 0 R 62 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140707072126+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140707072126+01'00') /Title (How Revolutionary were the Bourgeois Revolutions?) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4476 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(How Revolutionary were the Bourgeois Revolutions?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neil Davidson?s substantial and erudite book is a concerted defence of the concept of ?Bourgeois )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.676 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.676 271.929 m 105.668 271.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 105.668 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is composed on a heroic scale. Numerous theorists, both historical and contemporary, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laid-out, discussed and critiqued with unflagging intellectual energy. The author implies that he shares with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marx and Engels an epistemologically privileged position: because they adopted the standpoint of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proletariat they understood the bourgeoisie better than the bourgeoisie understood themselves \(p. 125\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Going even further, he argues that only a socialist perspective can properly engage with the concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?bourgeois revolution?, if only inadequately this side of the world-consciousness-changing socialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution \(p. 328\). Unsurprisingly, in light of this, Davidson deprecates the ?false impartiality and narrow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specialization? of academic life \(p. 277\) ? though he does have time for some ?conservative materialist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians? \(p. 464\), particularly Norman Stone. Davidson certainly does not seek to flatter an academic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(audience that might be expected to hold more to Weber?s distinction between fact and value. Nonetheless, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be entirely wrong not to engage with his important contribution to a topic of enduring interest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Bourgeois revolution? is not a term we hear much these days, except from those taking issue with it. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem for the standard Marxist viewpoint was the elision of ?capitalist? with ?bourgeois?. The gentry and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nobility who led the long English struggle for a constitutionalism to hem in the Crown ? climaxing with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civil wars of 1640s and more durably with the 1688 Glorious Revolution ? may well have been capitalist, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1420)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 23 May, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neil Davidson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781608460670)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(840pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Haymarket Books)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.haymarketbooks.org/pb/How-Revolutionary-Were-the-Bourgeois-Revolutions)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chicago, IL)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marc Mulholland)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.6757 272.2435 105.6677 284.1235 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7270 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so far as their income derived from farming organised for exchange and profit ? but they were in no more a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?bourgeoisie? than the nineteenth-century Prussian Junkers who likewise organised their estates on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial basis. Honour, status, and politicking remained their primary determinants of existence. As for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the bourgeoisie proper, unless engaged in the American trade most merchants supported the royalists in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Civil Wars. The intentions of the Roundheads in the English Civil War did not differ so radically from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocrat-led rebels of the Fronde. We can legitimately see the English Civil Wars as part of a general crisis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 17th-century world.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 159.992 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 159.992 709.539 m 173.984 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The French Revolution, in contrast, certainly was made by a bourgeoisie, but not a particularly capitalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one. Many were tax-farmers, lawyers, civil servants, and so on, and those few engaged in living by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commerce or industry generally had little time for subversion. Karl Kautsky, the chief theorist of Marxism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the generation after Marx and Engels, made just this point in a book published for the Revolution?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centenary: those pre-1789 French bourgeoisie most directly engaged in capitalist enterprise were the least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely to be anti-royalist revolutionaries.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 227.000 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 227.000 612.003 m 240.992 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bourgeois modernity, therefore, was not usually an outcome of the middle classes taking over the state. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be seen as emerging somewhat adventitiously from a conflict between two established social forces. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The aristocracy tended to favour a representative parliamentarianism that would inhibit the executive state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from interfering with the laws, privileges and rights of the propertied. The crown, for its part, struggled to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subordinate over-mighty magnates, open landed estates to the law of the realm, and encourage the prosperity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of taxable commerce and trade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What emerged in 18th-century Britain, after the Glorious Revolution, was a balance. Parliament limited the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power of the crown, and the aristocracy were enjoined to observe the rule of law. This constitutional balance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protected the productive economy from arbitrary rent-seeking, which in turn increased the tax-base. As fiscal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instruments were arrived at consensually through parliament, the state?s credit rating benefitted and it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amply financed in its pursuit of foreign and imperial aims. The executive preserved its freedom of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manoeuvre in international affairs while the aristocracy continued to dominate governance. As trade, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commerce and in time industry flowered, an urban bourgeoisie proper developed, but it did not seek to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invade the prerogatives of government. They benefitted from the constitutional balance, knowing that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rested upon the freedom and prosperity of their pursuits. The tax-credit state in balance left the bourgeois )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goose un-plucked, laying its golden ages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain?s success drew envious looks from the continent. It was no easy thing to reproduce its lineaments, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, particularly as land borders made it all the more difficult for governments wary of foreign armies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to sacrifice independence from interfering representative assemblies for the sake of economic and fiscal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength down the line. The French Revolution showed what might happen if reform turned into revolution. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here a bourgeoisie already used to involvement in government \(being a good deal less commercial than its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British counterpart\) tried to cut out the aristocracy altogether, but proved inadequate as a genuinely ruling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class and fell under the wheels of Napoleonic militarism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19th-century liberalism saw much more clearly the precise function of an individualistic middle class. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocracy had traditionally lived by bending local and central government to its will, as an instrument of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rent-seeking and fount of status and privilege. The bourgeoisie, in contrast, lived by myriad trans-societal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(networks: businessmen via the market, administrators via the governed territorial state, professionals via )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information linkages.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 136.676 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 136.676 164.835 m 150.668 164.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 150.668 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( They did not wish to seize upon the executive, as they did not make a living from it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as such. They would support, not seek to displace, a government that left commerce to fructify.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After 1848, it became clear that the bourgeoisie were destined to be a foundational rather than a governing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class. Revolutions ?from above? were common ? Bismarck being the most famous ?white revolutionary? ? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as governments introduced civil and political liberties and representative institutions, the better to foster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial development and fiscal strength.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For liberals, the hero of the story was not the bourgeoisie as a conqueror, but rather as the class that in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 159.9917 709.8535 173.9837 721.7335 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.9997 612.3175 240.9917 624.1975 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 136.6757 165.1495 150.6677 177.0295 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7280 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quietly protecting its own interests held the balance between government and political faction. It buttressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutionalism, reined in the aristocracy, tempered the democracy, and checked the arbitrary state without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destroying its efficacy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether ?bourgeois revolution? as such survives such a view as I have put is debatable. Davidson wishes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defend a much more full-blooded version, though perhaps at the price of minimizing its specifically political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(content.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather than define his understanding of ?bourgeois revolution? at the outset and then systematically defend )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it, Davidson proceeds by analysing, and often excepting at informative length, those who have built up the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual apparatus. Part one of his book engages with contemporaries and near contemporaries of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Civil Wars \(he doesn?t have much time for the Glorious Revolution\) and the French Revolution, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Hobbes and Harrington to Edmund Burke and his critics. Part two then tracks the Marxist tradition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from Marx and Engels themselves to a body of work he defines as ?Classical Marxism?. This latter category )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is selective. It scants important thinkers of the Second International, such as Karl Kautsky, while taking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leninism as unproblematically continuous with the founders. Such a definition of ?classical Marxism? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscures more than it reveals. Lenin?s himself implied discontinuity when he argued that Marx and Engels? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualified defence of the bourgeoisie as a progressive constitutionalist class, relative to ?reactionary? social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces and state structures, had been rendered out-of-date by the development of ?imperialism? in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advanced countries.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 129.320 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 129.320 528.723 m 143.312 528.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 143.312 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This was an important and controversial break.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In part three, Davidson attacks modern critiques of the concept of bourgeois revolutions. The establishment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionists are given a chapter, but most of the attention is laid upon heterodox Marxists, such as Robert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brenner, George C. Comninel, Ellen Meiksins Wood, and the World Systems theorists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davidson?s exegesis and commentary is extremely impressive. He is profoundly well-read and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observations are clearly the fruit of many years? thought. As an archival expert on 18th-century Scotland, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brings to bear a sharp eye for empirical detail and comparative nuance. This book is invaluable as a guide to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thorny historiography and societal complexity together. It is also written with an enviable clarity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propulsive energy. No one can fail to learn a great deal from it, and be entertained throughout.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As we go into part four, Davidson finally begins to elaborate his own take on ?bourgeois revolution?, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he contextualises as a development of the Trotskyist framework, filtered through the theorisations of Tony )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cliff.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 59.684 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 59.684 335.907 m 73.676 335.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 73.676 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Cliff?s argument that Communist Russia, post 1928, and all other Communist states from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundation, were ?state capitalist? might seem nothing more than a rather unconvincing saving of face for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leftists. Its deeper significance, however, was as an attempt to rescue the Leninist conviction that 20th-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century capitalism was no longer supportive of constitutionalism and democratisation. If ?state capitalism? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Stalinist model represented the )] TJ ET BT 218.000 280.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ultima ratio)] TJ ET BT 275.012 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of modernity under conditions of class inequality, then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lenin?s dismissal of the viability of democratic capitalism might be broadly acceded to as true for the epoch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at least. In contrast, if Communist Russia shows what is likely to happen when the path to industrial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity is hewn without use of capitalist markets and the pluralism of bourgeois civil society, then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leninism is in trouble.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davidson seems to accept the Brenner definition of capitalism as involving a social process of endogenous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competitive accumulation that forces both owners of capital and direct producers to continually drive up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(productivity \(p. 400\). This sturdy formulation appears almost entirely inapplicable to Communist command )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economies. I can't see much use in defining such regimes, even though certainly committed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developmental industrialisation, as capitalist in any form, still less products of bourgeois revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Davidson, Trotsky's theory of ?Combined and Uneven Development? is the most ?important discovery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in C20th Marxism? \(p. 286\). Basically, this theory amounts to the claim that once integrated into an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international division of labour, a national economy is likely to comingle reservoirs of rural backwardness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with cutting-edge industries. In a ?backward? country seeking to ?catch-up? with great power rivals, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state forces the pace of defence-related industries at break-neck speed. Consumer spending is suppressed and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 129.3197 529.0375 143.3117 540.9175 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 59.6837 336.2215 73.6757 348.1015 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 42 0 R 45 0 R 48 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 7715 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the peasantry burdened with taxes. Politically and socially, therefore, we can expect to see a wracked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditionalism cheek-to-jowl with hyper-modernity. Any notion of stately ?stages of modernisation? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becomes inapplicable. The relevance of all of this to Tsarist Russia is evident, though it might have been fair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to note that Trotsky owed these observations to the analyses of liberal historians such as )] TJ ET BT 459.632 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paul Miliukov)] TJ ET BT 527.960 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 530.960 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 530.960 752.307 m 544.952 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davidson wishes to demonstrate that ?combined and uneven? development helps to account for the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paths to ?bourgeois revolution?. A ?backward? country with a weak middle class might well seek to destroy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the remnants of feudalism ? guild restrictions, usury laws, a recalcitrant peasantry attached to micro-farms, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aristocratic privileges, and so on ? in order to catch up with geo-political rivals. The result is state-driven )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutions from above more often than from below. The first such example, Davidson argues, is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation of Scottish society from above in the 18th-century. In like form, socialism can begin to push )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond capitalism even in countries where the proletariat is numerically weak, as in Russia 1917.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trotsky \(as Davidson acknowledges\) was not alone amongst Marxists in re-thinking the inexorable rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bourgeois liberalism before the advent of socialism. From about 1870, the seemingly inevitable association )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of modernity with liberalism became more doubtful. This owed much to the organisation across continental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe of mass conscript armies backed by large-scale munitions industries. It became much more difficult )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for liberals to keep the state on slim-rations and still able to stay ahead of threatening rivals. Hypertrophy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the militarised state, moreover, helped provoke the growth of rhetorically revolutionary socialist movements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the working-class, that in turn made the bourgeoisie even more wary of promiscuous political and civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberties.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second International Marxists, who cleaved to economic determinism, were inclined to explain declining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal animal spirits by reference to the economically driven statizing of capitalism. Nonetheless, Marxists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and socialists still broadly accepted that the bourgeoisie were progressive at least relative to aristocratic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militaristic cliques that continued to hold disproportionate political power. For Lenin, however, at least from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1914, ?bourgeois liberalism? had become untenable, and the only alternatives left were authoritarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?imperialism? and ?proletarian dictatorship?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davidson holds to the Leninist-Trotskyist view in rejecting the proposition that bourgeois constitutionalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was still a progressive ?stage?. He identifies ?stages theory? with the Kautsky era. Right-thinking Marxists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davidson says, have only ?revulsion? for such Second International determinism \(p. 521\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 466.616 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 466.616 362.163 m 480.608 362.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 480.608 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This contempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the Marxism of the ?Golden Age? is unfortunate, as Davidson is a skilled guide through the thickets of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory and interpretation elsewhere. Second International theorisation of ?bourgeois revolution? is rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caricatured. This is a pity, as it contained nuances that anticipated later revisionist critiques, as we saw with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kautsky above. Kautsky also \(as Davidson notes\) readily acknowledged the possibility of socialists seizing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power in Russia as early as 1905, even if he thought that an attempt to transcend capitalism on an immature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material basis would prove disastrous.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davidson?s most substantial diversion from the classical interpretation of ?bourgeois revolution? is to empty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it of its specific political content. For Second International socialists, the development of constitutionalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was intrinsic to ?bourgeois revolution?. The Danish socialist Gustav Bang, in 1909?10, wrote that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bourgeoisie ?more and more consciously ? strove for a new constitutional form, a republic or a constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchy, where the centre of gravity would be in a )] TJ ET BT 288.284 194.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(representative assembly, where the wealthy bourgeoisie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(had the upper hand)] TJ ET BT 127.676 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(''.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 134.996 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 134.996 179.091 m 148.988 179.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 148.988 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This emphasis upon the constitutionalist tendency of bourgeois political thought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a channelling of Marx.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.984 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.984 164.835 m 184.976 164.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 184.976 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Marx had often enough made the point that bourgeois liberalism was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promoted and honestly avowed by its partisans as transcending narrow class interest, even as he sought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncover the sordid class interests lurking beneath. Davidson does not and from his point of view cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept the centrality and authenticity of political reform and ideology to his theorisation of bourgeois )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davidson does not set out his view of what constitutes ?bourgeois revolution? in any sustained way. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does, however, state it on page 420:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 530.9597 752.6215 544.9517 764.5015 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 466.6157 362.4775 480.6077 374.3575 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 134.9957 179.4055 148.9877 191.2855 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 47 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 164.9837 165.1495 184.9757 177.0295 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R ] /Contents 51 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Length 6688 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The theory of bourgeois revolution is not ? about the origins and development of capitalism as a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socioeconomic system but the removal of backward looking threats to its continued existence )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the overthrow of restrictions to its further development. The source of these threats and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restrictions has, historically, been the pre-capitalist state, whether estates-monarchy, absolutist, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or tributary in nature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 689.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Broadly speaking, therefore, Davidson is a ?consequentialist?: revolution need only promote capitalism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the future to be classified as ?bourgeois?. It does not require an ideology that promotes commercial civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society as vital to the body politic. When revolutionaries talked of ?religious or constitutional liberties? this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was only a kind of ?false consciousness? \(pp. 565, 619\). In 1640s England, 1790s France, 1860s United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States, etc., ?leaders, consciously or unconsciously, had to mobilize the masses under ultimately deceptive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slogans of universal right? because otherwise workers, peasants etc. would fail to stir themselves simply to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(swap old feudal oppression for new capitalist exploitation \(p. 145\):)] TJ ET BT 64.016 565.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In no bourgeois revolution did the revolutionaries ever seek to rally popular forces by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 551.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proclaiming their intention to establish a new form of exploitative society ? but did so by )] TJ ET BT 64.016 536.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variously raising demands for religious freedom, representative democracy, national )] TJ ET BT 64.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence, and, ultimately, socialist reconstruction ?\(p. 510\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This last reference to ?socialist reconstruction? is because Davidson ? not very convincingly ? sees all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communist seizures of power \(except Russia 1917\) as instances of bourgeois revolution. The last bourgeois )] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutions, therefore, were in 1973?5: the Communist ?Derg? coup in Ethiopia, US defeat in Indochina, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decolonisation of the Portuguese Empire \(p. 621\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 415.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This surely stretches the concept of bourgeois revolution far beyond breaking point. Such ideologically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disparate movements cannot be grouped in this way. It makes more sense to see the liberal constitutionalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 386.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the modern era, inflected though it was by mass democratic impulses, as rooted in the real conditions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 372.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial civil society. The ideological content of capitalist civilization is not a mere crutch for crude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic rapacity. Bourgeois revolution is motivated by, and eventuates in, a settlement that seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discipline the state via constitutionalism and the enveloping fiscal mesh that connects government, national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 329.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debt, and capitalist markets.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(True, exasperated middle class loyalty to constitutionalism has often been brought to the brink and beyond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of repudiation. The crisis of constitutionalism peaked in the 1914 to 1945 Age of Catastrophe, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militarism was endemic and communism seemed to threaten bourgeois civil society. After the defeat of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 260.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nazism, however, liberal capitalist constitutionalism regained the upper-hand, and from the collapse of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 246.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communism became the near default setting on a global basis. It is not difficult to understand the Arab )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spring as an iteration of ?bourgeois revolution?. Rather than the era of bourgeois revolution having ended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the unlikely champions of Mengistu?s Derg, it is perhaps with us yet. This consideration alone would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 203.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make Davidson?s important and stimulating book well worth reading.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.867 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 138.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It follows Henry Heller, )] TJ ET BT 182.324 138.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Birth of Capitalism: A Twenty-First-Century Perspective)] TJ ET BT 476.984 138.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2012\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 123.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 122.595 m 118.004 122.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 109.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 109.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A position recently re-stated impressively by Geoffrey Parker, )] TJ ET BT 366.284 109.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Global Crisis: War, Climate Change )] TJ ET BT 64.016 95.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Catastrophe in the Seventeenth Century)] TJ ET BT 276.332 95.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New Haven, CT, 2013\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 398.636 95.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 398.636 94.083 m 452.624 94.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 81.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bertel Nygaard, ?Karl Kautsky and the French Revolution? \(2006\), <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 66.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://pure.au.dk/portal/files/2455820/Kautsky_article.pdf)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 65.571 m 342.332 65.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 345.332 66.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 359.324 66.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> \(accessed 15 March 2013\), p. 16.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 528.380 66.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 528.380 65.571 m 556.040 65.571 l S BT 64.016 52.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 51.315 m 90.344 51.315 l S endstream endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 122.9095 118.0037 134.7895 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 398.6357 94.3975 452.6237 106.2775 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 65.8855 342.3317 77.7655 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://pure.au.dk/portal/files/2455820/Kautsky_article.pdf) >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 528.3797 65.8855 556.0397 77.7655 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 51.6295 90.3437 63.5095 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R ] /Contents 63 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Length 6914 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jerrold Seigel, )] TJ ET BT 136.340 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modernity and Bourgeois Life: Society, Politics, and Culture in England, France, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Germany since 1750)] TJ ET BT 163.328 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, 2012\), pp. 14?5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 307.976 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 307.976 780.819 m 361.964 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lenin, ?Under a false flag? \(1915\), in )] TJ ET BT 247.628 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collected Works)] TJ ET BT 327.284 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, vol. 21 \(London, 1970\), p. 146.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 483.944 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 483.944 766.563 m 537.932 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cliff founded the British Socialist Workers Party \(SWP\). We can see Davidson?s filiation in some )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(SWP stylistic tics ? references to theoretical ?stick-bending?, for example, or quoting Shakespeare on )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ?flood-tide of human affairs? as a literary warrant for vanguard-led revolutionism \(pp. 174, 283?4\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 709.539 m 118.004 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Melissa Kirschke Stockdale, )] TJ ET BT 203.996 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paul Miliukov and the Quest for a Liberal Russia, 1880?1918)] TJ ET BT 501.332 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Ithaca, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(NY, 1996\), pp. 69?70.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 171.668 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 171.668 681.027 m 225.656 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davidson is an avowed Leninist. The Leninist revolutionary party was a great innovation and is as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary now as ever \(pp. 223, 504, 629\). Not least of Stalin's crimes was to adopt the position of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second International and Menshevism \(p. 249\). One might think that Stalin?s flirtations with )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?Menshevism? ? in the period of NEP, during the Popular Front against Fascism, the quasi-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconciliation with democratic parliamentarianism after 1945 ? though undoubtedly disingenuous, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compare positively to his bouts of collectivisation, Third Period ultra-leftism, the Great Terror, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaboration with Nazism. Davidson identifies with the Trotskyist position. So, Popular Frontism )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against fascism was ?entirely reactionary? \(p. 434\). A rather unexceptional version of Marxist thinking )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the ?bourgeois revolution? is summarily dismissed as absurd because of its Stalinist provenance )] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp. 254?5\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.336 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.336 538.467 m 176.324 538.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 525.610 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gustav Bang, )] TJ ET BT 132.344 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crises in European History)] TJ ET BT 264.680 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, trans. Arnold Peterson \(New York, 1916\), p. 38. Emphasis )] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in original.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.684 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.684 509.955 m 170.672 509.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 497.098 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, Karl Marx, ?Bourgeoisie and the counter-revolution? \(1848\), )] TJ ET BT 447.260 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Marx-Engels )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collected Works)] TJ ET BT 143.672 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Vol. 8, London, 1977\), p. 159.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.996 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.996 481.443 m 359.984 481.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Notes & Commentaries)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://mccaine.org/2013/03/17/book-review-neil-davidson-how-revolutionary-were-the-bourgeois-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 426.675 m 507.596 426.675 l S BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutions/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 412.419 m 91.352 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 94.352 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Socialist Review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.socialistreview.org.uk/article.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 383.907 m 251.996 383.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 254.996 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(International Socialism)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.isj.org.uk/index.php4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 355.395 m 194.024 355.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 197.024 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 352.063 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 334.283 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 334.283 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1420)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 332.889 m 328.316 332.889 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 307.912 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 293.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/63848)] TJ ET BT 34.016 279.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://pure.au.dk/portal/files/2455820/Kautsky_article.pdf)] TJ ET BT 34.016 264.827 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://mccaine.org/2013/03/17/book-review-neil-davidson-how-revolutionary-were-the-bourgeois-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 250.456 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutions/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 236.056 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4] http://www.socialistreview.org.uk/article.php?articlenumber=9151)] TJ ET BT 34.016 221.656 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5] http://www.isj.org.uk/index.php4?id=869)] TJ ET endstream endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 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