%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R 34 0 R 39 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417184159+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417184159+01'00') /Title (The Public Face of Early Modern England Artfully Revealed) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2903 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Public Face of Early Modern England Artfully Revealed)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1421)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 23 May, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Tittler)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199585601)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(63.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(216pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780199585601.do#.UZ3yu7U4sb0)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tarnya Cooper)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780300162790)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://yalebooks.co.uk/display.asp?K=9780300162790)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.483 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.227 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Helen Pierce)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << 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predilection for portraiture in post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation England was something both recognised and respected by the journalist and his peers: ?No )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nation in the world delights so much in having their own, or friends?, or relations? pictures; whether from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their national good-nature, or having a love to painting, and not being encouraged in that great article of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious pictures, which the purity of our worship refuses the free use of, or from whatever other cause ... )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And accordingly, in fact, face-painting is no where so well performed as in England?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 445.256 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 445.256 711.795 m 459.248 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet Steele?s claims sit somewhat awkwardly with the fact that the majority of pre-eminent artists practicing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in England during the 16th and 17th centuries were themselves foreigners, arriving primarily in London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either by accident or design, to take advantage of this ?delight? found in visual representations of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarch and their courtly retinue. Steele?s own Kit-cat portrait, for example, a visual marker of his entry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the Whig club of the same name, was painted by the Lbeck-born, Dutch-trained artist Godfrey Kneller; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kneller?s own appointment as principal painter to William and Mary, followed those of Antonio Verrio to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James II, and Peter Lely to Charles II, with the inaugural title of ?Principal Painter in Ordinary? being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bestowed by Charles I on the Flemish Anthony Van Dyck in 1632. English names ? Andrew Wright, Robert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peake, George Gower, appear with far greater regularity in connection with the less specialised role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Serjeant-Painter at the Tudor and Stuart courts, for whom portraiture formed part of a wide range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibilities, alongside the decoration of coaches and barges, the production of temporary banners and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hangings for festivities and the maintenance of palace interiors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This pattern of monarchical and aristocratic patronage drawing skilled, foreign-born artists to England was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar and longstanding one, as reflected in the words of Henry Peacham; writing exactly 100 years earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than Steele, Peacham highlights the absence of native artists working within elite circles, and the contrasting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence of their European competitors: ?Onely I am sory that our courtiers and great personages must seeke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farre and neere for some Dutchman or Italian to draw their pictures, and invent their devises, our Englishmen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being held for ?Vaunients? [worthless persons]?.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 268.628 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 268.628 431.187 m 282.620 431.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is therefore not surprising that from Hans Holbein the Younger, Nicholas Hilliard and Isaac Oliver, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rubens, Mytens, and Van Dyck, through to the later impact of Lely and Kneller, the study of foreign-born )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artists working at court has dominated our knowledge of the patronage and production of art during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tudor and Stuart periods. But this dominance is at risk of compromising a more thorough and rounded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the comprehensive ?delight? in portraiture present in the English psyche, as suggested by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Steele at the beginning of the 18th century; the court?s tastes and activities might have been influential, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely cannot represent the totality of experiences and preferences of the nation in relation to face-painting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the early modern period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two important publications, by Robert Tittler and Tarnya Cooper, have begun to redress this imbalance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turning their focus on English portraiture away from the 16th- and early 17th-century courts and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated members to a much broader populace, comprising the ?middling sort? of people, within London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and out into the provinces. Both Tittler and Cooper offer a social and visual shift from elite artworks by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holbein, Gheeraerts and Mytens, commissioned by the nobility and, often, royalty \(as covered thoroughly by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karen Hearn in the 1996 Tate Britain exhibition )] TJ ET BT 267.980 208.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dynasties)] TJ ET BT 315.308 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and its accompanying catalogue\) to the work of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an extensive range of artists, both known and unknown, and notably of native, as well as foreign, birth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(training.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In )] TJ ET BT 47.012 154.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Portraits, Painters, and Publics in Provincial England, 1540?1640)] TJ ET BT 369.692 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Robert Tittler?s approach tracks most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closely that of the revisionist historian, to produce, by the author?s own admission, a study ?undertaken from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an historical rather than curatorial or connoisseurial perspective? \(p. 14\). Although acknowledging the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinct stylistic qualities and aesthetic quirks of vernacular art, Tittler?s purpose in this book is to place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local or regional portraiture within a socio-economic rather than stylistic framework.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tittler emphasises the limitations which influenced and shaped the output of the regional portraitist, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediately making these works distinct from those produced for royal or courtly patrons. A lack of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 445.2557 712.1095 459.2477 723.9895 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 268.6277 431.5015 282.6197 443.3815 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7664 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aesthetic or creative input on the part of the artist commonly informs the vernacular portrait, with little or no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demand for artistic agency, itself a factor understood as a catalyst for creative development and change in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Renaissance Europe. The portraits of John Kaye and Dorothy Kaye of Woodsome near Huddersfield, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painted in 1567 by an unknown artist and now part of the Kirklees Museum and Galleries Collection, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described by the author as ?intriguing and remarkably crude? \(p. 61\), and reveal the typical hand of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual trained or employed in the broader categories of craft production, which included decorative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painters, plasterers, masons and glaziers, rather than a specialist in portraiture. The figures of Kaye and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wife are static representations rather than physiognomic likenesses, their twin figures surrounded by lengthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textual inscriptions highlighting their status and genealogy, and supported by possibly putative coats of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arms. Even sartorial flourishes are symbolic inclusions stressing the documentary nature of these artworks; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dagger grasped by Kaye hints at his social aspirations, not quite the sword which sumptuary laws granted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nobility to openly bear, but a clear reference to status and upward mobility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Painters, whether applying pigments to wooden panels, to canvas, or to plastered walls, would often find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited support and training in any specialist field within the regional guild systems. In the city of Chester, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long-standing focus for Tittler?s archival research, the Company of Painter-Stainers, Glaziers, Embroiderers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Stationers provided opportunities for apprenticeships and, upon completion, the freedom to practice and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade as an independent master; by the author?s own calculations, however, of the 63 individuals apprenticed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to that Company between 1571 and 1635, just 14 went on to become freeman painters within Chester, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representing a ?drop-out? rate of 78 per cent \(p. 64\). Those aspiring artists who did complete their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apprenticeships commonly faced a precarious initial period as a journeyman-painter, embarking on an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itinerant life working on short-term contracts for more established guild members, whilst accumulating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessary capital and contacts to set up shop independently. For those who had failed at apprenticeship level, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to leave this system represented a breach of contract; the only option for many was to leave the city of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original and curtailed training for more secluded, rural surroundings, beyond the interests and reach of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant authorities. These conditions go some way towards explaining why vernacular artists often extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their range of professional activities to include employment as barbers, glaziers, translators and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlicensed surgeons, with the painting of portraits forming part of a varied craftsman?s )] TJ ET BT 455.276 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(oeuvre)] TJ ET BT 487.928 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great emphasis in this study is placed on the nuts-and-bolts \(or pigment and panels\) process of portraiture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production, with its practical and economic elements. Tittler presents a highly detailed investigation into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional painters? resources, the cost and availability of which had their own impact upon the distinctive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?look? of vernacular art. Outside of London, the availability of specialist materials ? certain expensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pigments, finer quality wood panels such as those from the eastern Baltic region ? could not be guaranteed. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although artists with access to ports on the east coast of England such as Hull, Newcastle and Ipswich, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more likely to be able to secure such materials via Antwerp, the European trading centre for luxury goods, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provincial craftsmen and workshops across the country were largely dependent on more local resources, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as such, faced the consequence of inferior results in terms of the finished product. Brushes used to apply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pigments to panel or canvas also played a critical role in the resulting painting; fine ?pencil? brushes made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from squirrel and sable tail hairs, which enabled artists to work up carefully blended skin tones and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elaborate details of lace collars, Turkey-work carpets and the play of light on jewels, were specialist tools )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arriving in London from Antwerp and Augsburg. Many vernacular painters relied on locally-produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brushes of a much coarser nature, and through necessity commonly substituted the delicate merging of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pigments to shape and shade the contours of a face, for a distinctive, heavy outline in lead or charcoal. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painters practicing at some distance from London, the limited training offered by apprenticeship and guild )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(membership was further compounded by the restricted availability of artistic treatises circulating in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital: translations of Continental manuals such as Robert Peake?s English edition of Sebastiano Serlio?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seven Books of Architecture)] TJ ET BT 169.652 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or Richard Haydocke?s A Tracte Containing the Artes of Curious Paintinge, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carvinge and Buildinge, translated from the Italian of Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo, and manuscript copies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatises by Nicholas Hilliard and Edward Norgate. Instead, the vernacular artist was largely dependent on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reproducing variants on a stock number of portraiture models, lightly adjusted according to the requirements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of individual patrons.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7675 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The presence of the patron beyond the portrait itself remains a largely unknown quantity. Although archival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study into wills and inventories has shed some light on the commissioning and ownership of artworks in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern England, Susan Foister?s 1981 )] TJ ET BT 251.660 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Burlington Magazine)] TJ ET BT 353.996 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( article on paintings in 16th-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inventories being a pioneering example of this research, the question of the individual sitter or patron?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wants and needs remains a largely unknown quantity.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 291.308 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 291.308 726.051 m 305.300 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 305.300 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Tittler?s study emphasises the presence of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common, ?provincial vocabulary? of visual props to accompany sitters in their portraits, constructing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(version of the sitter?s identity and, on occasion, personality, that could at once be highly individual, yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generic in its execution: ?The common run of provincial imagery extends to items like books, gloves, swords )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(as opposed, for example, to lances or armour\), hourglasses, clocks, skulls, scrolls, and distinctive \(but not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always elaborate\) forms of dress? \(p.129\). These props are to be read primarily, if not exclusively, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documentary elements, assuming the same role as descriptive inscriptions and heraldic devices. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presence and significance of such objects can take precedence over the appearance and likeness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual sitter; the posthumous double portrait of John and Joan Cooke, Mayor and Mayoress of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gloucester, dated to c.1600?20 and today in the Gloucester Folk Museum, records the shift in responsibility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(handed, quite literally, to Joan Cooke, on the death of her husband in 1528. With Joan named as chief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(executor of his will, and held responsible for the establishment of a grammar school as part of the terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that will, the prominent placement of a pair of gloves in her left hand signals the translation of financial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civic obligations from husband to wife, with gloves providing a common visual marker of gentility, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspicuous display, and, to members of the urban gentry, the status of freeman within a civic population. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Accurate physical likenesses of the long-deceased Cookes have been superseded by the symbolic richness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the gloves held by Joan and the red, fur-lined mayoral robes worn by her husband, their linked hands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enabling the transfer of responsibility and respect.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tittler provides in this important monograph a valuable window into the production of painted portraits by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category of artist until now little-studied within the history of English art, largely for reasons of modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aesthetic and intellectual taste. As the author states from the outset, this is a work grounded in archival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research, and conscious of current historical and cultural conversations regarding the public and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular ?sphere?. From this perspective, such portraits are most fruitfully understood as objects rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artworks, functioning ?as an affirmation of personal or official legitimacy, religious belief, political loyalty, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual or cultural engagement, personal friendship, and/or as a memorial for posterity? \(p. 174\). Yet to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analyse and interpret vernacular art primarily in terms of its potential as historical, documentary evidence, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to downplay the tricky questions of its aesthetic appeal, and broader iconographic significance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this respect, an alternative, yet complementary approach is provided by a second work on English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portraiture of the 16th and early 17th centuries, produced, displayed, and viewed, beyond the elevated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confines of the court. Tarnya Cooper?s )] TJ ET BT 224.300 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Citizen Portrait: Portrait Painting and the Urban Elite of Tudor and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jacobean England and Wales)] TJ ET BT 176.996 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, again addresses art for the ?middling sorts?. The ?urban elite? of the title here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include citizens as literal members of the freemanry of a particular city, successful in commercial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterprises, but also involves a much broader band of professionals: lawyers, scholars, physicians, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy, and an emerging creative body of playwrights, poets and actors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cooper?s research, drawn from both her doctoral thesis and her current curatorial activities at the National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Portrait Gallery, is concerned with London as a centre for artistic activity, in addition to regional practices, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but as with Tittler, the ?middling sorts? of people are the focus here. The urban elite are not a homogenous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group, however, but subdivided by the author into specific categories, with particular wants and needs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both their portrait and its artist.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tudor and Jacobean portraits are considered from the outset in their response to post-Reformation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgements on visual material. The previously-discussed portraits of John and Dorothy Kaye \(which also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature in this book\), far removed from more modern concepts of aesthetic appeal and mimetic accuracy, fit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neatly into the contemporary Protestant belief that such artworks should take care not to ?ravish? but to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?please? the eye, documenting rather than explicitly reproducing an individual?s appearance. This response )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to religious and cultural restrictions conveniently worked in tandem with the more practical lack of training )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 291.3077 726.3655 305.2997 738.2455 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 7688 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(open to native artists on a local and regional level; as such, both the patron?s wariness, and, more broadly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the artist?s limitations, were implicit in the production of a portrait ?likeness?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In London, the Painter-Stainers? Company, by its very name, represented a more focussed collection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional painters than comparable companies in smaller cities, such as the Company of Painter-Stainers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Glaziers, Embroiderers, and Stationers in Chester examined by Tittler. The London Painter-Stainers? existed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a regulatory guild, one of its primary roles being to provide training aimed at maintaining certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical, rather than creative standards. The latter were positively discouraged: ?As far as the Painter-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stainers? Company was concerned, artistic practice was not about innovation or invention? \(p. 46\); instead, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Company pursued the upkeep of approved standards of practical application of pigments to wooden or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canvas supports. A triple portrait by an unknown artist, dated to 1632, depicts a master of the Company, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Potkin, together with two of his wardens, Thomas Carleton and John Taylor; the men are dressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uniformly in sober black with expensive lace collars and cuffs, with Taylor holding a parchment displaying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the personal coats-of-arms of all three sitters. Mirroring, one presumes, their own daily duties as practicing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artists painting the likenesses of the capital?s professionals, these men are depicted as gentleman citizens, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?attempting to show their family credentials and their status as worthy civic figures rather than practicing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painters? \(p. 45\). In contrast, George Gower?s remarkable self-portrait of 1579, today in a private collection, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sees the sitter emphasising his ambition in relation to his handiwork, rather than his family history. This half-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(length portrait retains a familiar stylistic flatness, but is enlivened by several additions: the artist prominently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holds a palette in his left hand, whilst at his shoulder a pair of miniature scales find Gower?s coat of arms, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and status as a member of a Yorkshire gentry family, outweighed by a compass, representative, in his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind, of his artistic achievements and their future potential. In 1581 Gower was appointed as Serjeant-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Painter to Elizabeth I, and this portrait in certain respects pre-empts similar sentiments found in the treatise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his contemporary at court, Nicholas Hilliard, who in )] TJ ET BT 300.980 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Arte of Limning)] TJ ET BT 397.988 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(c.1600\) describes his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artistic speciality of miniature painting as ?a kind of gentle painting?, that is, a gentlemanly accomplishment.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 440.931 m 48.008 440.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cooper tracks the development of the portrait as a marker of status, achievement and ambitious potential for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England?s emerging urban elite across the 16th and early 17th centuries. The increasing wealth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence of merchants and traders during the Tudor period means that they are one category of sitters for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom portraits began to be commissioned in significant numbers. Their upward social mobility ran counter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a developing Protestant understanding of the acceptance of one?s fixed rank and calling in life, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sins of pride and greed were easily understood as by-products of both the luxury goods a merchant might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trade in, and the profits to be made from their sale. No surprise then, that sermons, treatises, and conduct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books stressed the importance of humility and the dangers of social aspirations. William Chester, a draper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and alderman whose portrait of c.1560 forms part of the collection of the London Drapers? Company, found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself the dedicatee of one such treatise, an English translation of Pierre Boaistuau?s )] TJ ET BT 451.280 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Theatrum Mundi)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in 1574. However, as Cooper points out in her analysis of Chester?s earlier painted portrait, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alderman cleverly uses this visual marker of wealth and success \(he was appointed Mayor of London in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1560\) to stress his personal humility and piety. In the background the figures of Christ and Death sit upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weights suspended from a clock; with the rise and fall of the weights signalling the passage of time, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures come to demonstrate the fluctuating presence of sin in the life of every Christian. Chester is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented in a three-quarters position, turning away from the coat-of-arms at his left shoulder to the clock at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his right, keeping a keen eye on matters of the soul rather than the consequences of financial success )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recorded in any account ledger.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While William Chester was able to shrewdly promote both humility and upward mobility in his painted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likeness, as an urban professional and commercial citizen, other categories of sitters faced a range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectations relating to their professional activities. Judicial dress appears to have standardised many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portraits of many sitters belonging to the legal profession, for example. A series of at least ten portraits of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judges, commissioned around 1619 by Sir Thomas Chamberlain of Gray?s Inn, presents a uniform collection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of half-length portraits on panel, each sitter portrayed simply and flatly in his robes of office, with his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surname inscribed on the dark backdrop. In contrast, many portraits of the more creative types circulating )] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 441.2455 48.0077 453.1255 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 7476 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within a middle-class, professional population ? actors, artists, poets, playwrights ? are conspicuously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual or experimental in their capturing of a likeness: ?The surviving literary portraits subtly differ from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other portraits of this period in that they show sitters who are more playful with the traditional conventions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sometimes ? seemingly aware of the artifice of presence and the nature representation as a type of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance? \(p. 171\). The actor Nathan Field, for example, represented in a portrait of c.1615 which hangs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today in Dulwich Picture Gallery, is informal in his presentation, dress, and actions, gazing directly at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewer as if about to address them, in what Cooper describes as ?an orchestrated or artful informality? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.185\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout )] TJ ET BT 93.680 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Citizen Portrait)] TJ ET BT 169.364 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Cooper?s work draws strongly and skilfully on the use of technical analysis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enabling the modern researcher to deduce much more than previously possible about the ?social life? of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painted panel or canvas, and, by extension, certain motivations of the artist, sitter, or patron. Partial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overpainting, the recycling of existing panels, and unsympathetic later restoration, are all commonplace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities associated with surviving Tudor and Jacobean artworks, which can make dating, attribution and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identification of sitters especially difficult. The publication of this book coincides with the National Portrait )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gallery?s current major research project, ?Making Art in Tudor Britain?, and certain of its scientific findings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are acknowledged here. For example, infra-red photography of a half-length portrait of Elizabeth I of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(c.1580?90, from the collections of the National Portrait Gallery, reveals an earlier portrait of an unknown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(woman beneath the painted surface, together with the inclusion, subsequently painted over, of a serpent held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the queen?s hand. The reuse of existing panels is most likely to have been prompted by the cost and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(availability such materials. The recent discovery, however, of an existing painting of the Virgin and Child )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beneath a portrait of the staunchly Protestant ?spymaster? to Elizabeth I, Sir Francis Walsingham, also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes possible something of a private joke on the part of the artist, known or more likely unknown to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular sitter.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.000 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.000 469.443 m 123.992 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 123.992 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nor was the recycling of panels a practice limited to the early modern period; a portrait )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of c.1580?90 of a female innkeeper, Margaret Craythorne, belongs today to the collections of the Cutlers? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Company in London, having passed into the Company?s possession following Craythorne?s death in 1591. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although this portrait appears originally to have been the work of a painter confident in decorative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commissions rather than portraiture, as a physical object the portrait seems to have been held in some esteem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since its creation. The archive of the Cutlers? Company records the purchase of the painting, together with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(curtain of silk with a gold fringe to adorn Craythorne?s likeness in the parlour of the Cutlers? Hall; there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also evidence of a number of later restorations to the work, including the 19th-century replacement of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two side panels, which x-radiography reveal to have been acquired from existing artworks. The viewer is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oblivious to a foot and cloak dating stylistically from the early 15th century, hovering over Craythorne?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right shoulder, now firmly painted over.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Citizen Portrait)] TJ ET BT 109.700 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is accompanied throughout by excellent colour and black-and-white illustrations, many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them full page \(and many being of artworks in collections which are private or difficult for the public to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(access\); )] TJ ET BT 74.996 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Portraits, Painters, and Publics in Provincial England)] TJ ET BT 337.676 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( fares poorly \(and somewhat unfairly\) in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison, with black-and-white half-page illustrations distributed across the text in limited numbers, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving the reader scant opportunity to appreciate and analyse certain complex and intricate artworks for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves. This is, however, a criticism directed primarily at the publisher, rather than the author, and one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made with the full understanding that the current financial climate means that academic publishing in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field of art history is increasingly subject to aesthetic constraints.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study of early modern British art has been enlivened by these valuable contributions to the broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of the patronage, production \(and survival\) of English portraiture beyond the familiar confines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the royal court and its satellites. Rather like the proverbial buses, scholars and students have been waiting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some time for even a single focused and meticulous study on this subject; that wait has now been deeply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rewarded by publication of two complementary books.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.051 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 53.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Selections From The Tatler and The Spectator of Steele and Addison, edited with an introduction and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 109.9997 469.7575 123.9917 481.6375 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R ] /Contents 40 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Length 3449 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes by Angus Ross \(Harmondsworth and New York, NY, 1982\), p. 496.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.972 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.972 795.075 m 473.960 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry Peacham, Graphice, or the Most Auncient and Excellent Art of Drawing and Limning Disposed )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into Three Bookes \(London, 1612\), sig. 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