%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140724224405+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140724224405+01'00') /Title (French Crime Fiction and the Second World War: Past Crimes, Present Memories) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4020 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(French Crime Fiction and the Second World War: Past Crimes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Present Memories)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claire Gorrara's latest study on French crime fiction blends academic criticism of a popular genre with both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war studies and memory studies. In the interdisciplinary study of memory, 'memories of a shared past are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collectively constructed and reconstructed' \(p. 3\) in the present. Narratives, whether oral histories or fictional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations, reflect the perspective of the speaker, formed by the narrator's socio-political surroundings. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fictional representations, such as crime fiction, considered as cultural memory, function as a shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative making the past accessible. The role of popular fiction in cultural memory is largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underestimated until a novel like Didier Daeninckx's )] TJ ET BT 289.808 125.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Meutres pour mmoire)] TJ ET BT 399.788 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reminds the public of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential to harness 'generic conventions of crime fiction for an expos' \(p. 10\), which in the case of that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular novel, contributed to the trial of the then-elderly Maurice Papon for war crimes. By focusing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crime fiction series by select authors and publishers, Gorrara filters out random crime narratives to consider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only those that follow the narrative template. Crime fiction texts stand alongside other memory texts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('amongst a cluster of other shared cultural reconstructions of the past' \(p. 15\), and are as vital to the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1422)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 23 May, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claire Gorrara)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719082658)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2012)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(60.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(176pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/cgi-bin/indexer?product=9780719082658)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michelle Emanuel)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8433 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a historical period as other resources. Her analysis starts with publications from the 1940s and 1950s, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continues through subsequent chapters on the decades that follow, up until the 1990s and 2000s where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives come less frequently from survivor memories and more from 'civic memories' \(p. 16\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French crime fiction in the 1940s and early 1950s challenged the mainstream message of the resistance epic: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half-victim, half-vanquished. An idealized version of men taking up arms in the countryside as an act of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance represents only part of the occupation experience. This 'heroic [model] of masculine subjectivity' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 29\) does not reflect those sent to labor camps or, worse, concentration camps, nor those who profited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the occupation through collaboration or activities on the black market. Crime narratives, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those in the style of the )] TJ ET BT 148.676 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(roman noir )] TJ ET BT 206.012 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? where multiple murders lead to both a reveal and a resolution, instead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the standard 'whodunit' ? reflected the realities of marginalisation, violence, and moral ambiguity, though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in a fictionalised form. Crime fiction of the period offered a voice for those reluctant to share their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stories, and a way to empathise with the suffering of others without engaging with actual situations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gallimard's )] TJ ET BT 92.504 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Srie Noire)] TJ ET BT 147.500 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, started by surrealist Marcel Duhamel, initially published French translations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British and American crime novels before publishing French authors writing in the same style, and tending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to use a 'darkly dystopian cityscape' setting \(p. 27\). The )] TJ ET BT 303.632 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(roman noir)] TJ ET BT 357.968 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ? as presented by novelists Jean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Meckert, Andr Hlna, and Gilles Morris ? allowed the representation of a France different from that of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Vichy-sponsored values of family, work, and fatherland' \(p. 28\) and from that of the Gaullist 'French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sovereignty during wartime' \(p. 23\). The archetypes of crime fiction, including the femme fatale and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male victim, are easy to place in a war or occupied setting, where heroes are in short supply. The fictional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives of crime fiction, combined with the 'rsistancialiste myth' \(p. 22\), still fail to represent all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences, but the gap between the myth and the reality is made slightly smaller.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the second chapter, Jewish wartime experiences as represented in several novels by Lo Malet and Hubert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monteilhet are analyzed, raising issues of guilt and complicity. During the transition years of 1958?61, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(De Gaulle's Fifth Republic in place as the Establishment and the wars of decolonisation intensifying, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially in Algeria, alternate narratives contrasting with the official 'resistance epic,' including those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish persecution and deportation, starts to appear to the general public. These stories had been previously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hidden or ignored due to marginalisation, a general lack of public awareness as to the extent of the atrocities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against Jews, including those in France, in addition to lingering anti-Semitic sentiment, 'which propagated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images of Jewish treason and a lack of resistance' \(p. 44\), though the act of resistance was a luxury for many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French citizens. The desire of those survivors to put their horrible experience behind them and reintegrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into society meant that their stories were not being shared. At the end of the 1950s, these narratives start to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form a 'haunting presence' \(p. 44\). Two novels by Lo Malet, )] TJ ET BT 330.944 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Du rbecca rue des Rosiers)] TJ ET BT 463.580 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 486.908 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Des )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kilomtres de linceuls)] TJ ET BT 138.668 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(incorporating the Parisian landscape of the Marais and the Sentier respectively\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflect crimes against Jews perpetrated by other Jews, in addition to genocide. In )] TJ ET BT 424.268 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rosiers)] TJ ET BT 460.268 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the perpetrator, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former collaborator, assumes the identity of a Holocaust victim. In )] TJ ET BT 356.636 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Linceuls)] TJ ET BT 397.304 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a woman is revealed to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denounced her own family because they disapproved of her non-Jewish lover. Though many stereotypes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continue to be perpetrated, especially those of Jews and their relationship to commerce, the placement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those stories within the crime fiction template is remarkable. In Montheilhet's )] TJ ET BT 409.472 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le retour des cendres)] TJ ET BT 513.788 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentration camp survivor is hired to impersonate herself by those who believe her to be dead. With her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diary serving as the primary narrative, we have a Jewish narrator interacting with the other Jews who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(betrayed her and confronting their attempts to justify their actions. In addition to the standard issues of guilt, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicity and responsibility found in the crime fiction formula, this novel addresses questions of Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity, both with Elisabeth trying to reclaim her Jewish heritage and Stan trying to disavow his. With both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors, the return to Paris after the war is a 'deferral of fate' \(p. 53\); the Liberation does not bring happiness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to all and there are 'no tidy endings and no neat resolutions' \(p. 55\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter three traces the evolution of the representation of wartime collaboration in light of revelations in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1970s and early 1980s by a new generation of writers and historians. As the resistance epic became the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standard narrative in the early post-war years, so did Sartre's )] TJ ET BT 327.104 90.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Qu'est-ce qu'un collaborateur)] TJ ET BT 470.888 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( reflect attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about those who sided with the occupiers. Using social and psychological terms, Sartre envisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaborators in terms of individual agendas, without considering groups or institutions. In his essay, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8416 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaborators share a number of features, including a rejection of French republicanism and democracy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an attraction to foreign models of authority in addition to what Sartre calls 'un curieux mlange de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masochisme et d'homosexualit' \(p. 61\). This weak and submissive image of the collaborator has no place in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the resistance epic of heroism and was therefore further marginalised in the 1950s and 1960s. By the 1970s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a new generation of historians and other writers had come of age and started questioning this limited view, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pushing for investigations of the Vichy rgime. Their findings concluded that there was no singular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profile for collaborators: individual or group, motivated by greed or fear or by navet. The national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversation was further stoked by the 1971 release of Marcel Orphuls's seminal documentary )] TJ ET BT 490.412 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le)] TJ ET BT 505.412 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(chagrin et )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(le piti)] TJ ET BT 67.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, about life in occupied Clermont-Ferrand, where 'victims and heroes, could not always be easily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinguished' \(p. 64\). )] TJ ET BT 141.176 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le mode rtro)] TJ ET BT 209.168 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which openly challenged the pervasiveness of the resistance epic, was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible only after De Gaulle had retired from public life and a generational shift allowed such questions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be posed by a new generation. Meanwhile, fictional narratives began to present collaboration as a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicated series of choices, both for individuals and groups, which affected all classes of society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Following the lead of Patrick Modiano, crime fiction authors used a 'kaleidoscopic vision of the wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past' \(p. 64\), drawing on history, biography and fiction to craft their narratives. Jean Mazarin's )] TJ ET BT 489.248 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collabo-Song)] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is notable for its female viewpoint, in the form of Laure Santenac, a collaborator who turns against her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adulterous husband before taking other collaborators as lovers, and her maid, a double agent. Laure's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(situation is not a result of coercion or seduction, but of choices and responsibility as they intersect with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pervasive anti-Semitism and victimisation. Georges-Jean Arnaud's )] TJ ET BT 356.468 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Maudit Blood)] TJ ET BT 422.804 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( considers the impact of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime activities on the collaborators' lives after the war. Louise and tienne Marchand, complicit in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murdering Jews seeking safe passage, try to reinvent themselves after the war as a respectable bourgeois )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(couple, until their past catches up with them and the fate of their daughter ? who believes herself adopted ? is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jeopardised. In this scenario, the 'non-transmission of the past can be corrosive' \(p. 70\) for the generations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who follow. In )] TJ ET BT 108.008 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Meutres pour mmoire)] TJ ET BT 217.988 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Didier Daeninckx considers the possibility of collaboration among )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civil servants: were they following orders willingly or against their better judgment? Inspector Cadin makes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the connection between a historian murdered after using the Toulouse municipal archives and the death of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his father a generation earlier after consulting the same dossier that revealed the banality of deportations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the occupation. Collaboration is represented as efficient and state-sanctioned. By representing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime collaboration as multifaceted, both historians and novelists further cracked the facade of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resistance epic and increased empathy for the Jewish experience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French crime fiction of the 1980s and 1990s, coinciding with a series of significant milestones observed on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(worldwide scale, revolved around the testimony of the survivor-witness to persecution and extermination but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also required 'contextualisation and interpretation' \(p. 101\) in the face of unreliable narrators. The stories told )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during those decades one less concerned with the guilt and responsibility of individuals or even of single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nations, but with the web of complicity across Europe. As the generation that experienced the Second World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War first hand began to grow old, transference of memory became increasingly urgent. With the collapse of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, archives in the eastern bloc previously unavailable to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians in the west opened to provide new viewpoints on previously accepted narratives. 'Delayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memories' \(p. 85\) have as significant an impact as those originally shared. France's reawakening of Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory, prompted by external factors including American film and television, coincided with the rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right-wing extremism in the form of Jean-Marie Le Pen's Front National and the phenomenon of Holocaust )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denial. Additionally, the high profile trials against Klaus Barbie, Paul Touvier and Maurice Papon for crimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against humanity kept these horrific revelations in the public consciousness. These trials 'revealed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fundamental incompatibility between the legal context and historical record that could not be bridged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without contortion of the historical evidence on the one hand and legal process on the other' \(p. 87\). A new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation of crime writers born with no personal memory of the war combined scholarly investigation with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their narratives which tended to be more interested in the failure of the justice system as a whole than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual atrocities. The hybrid crime novels of Grard Delteil, Thierry Jonquet, and Konop include )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protagonists with experience in concentration camps or in contributing to the mass persecution and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extermination of Jews. In Delteil's )] TJ ET BT 201.488 85.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(KZ retour vers l'enfer)] TJ ET BT 305.720 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, an unnamed journalist from the ?successor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generation? saves Paul Liebman, a concentration camp survivor, from a racist attack, inspiring him to reveal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his life as Ren Maillard. Revelations about how some prisoners colluded with the SS guards against other )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 8115 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisoners, and how the communities surrounding camps profited from the camps' activities, undermine the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standard narrative of victim and perpetrator and provokes to a reconsideration of collective guilt beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(borders of one single country. Jonquet, in )] TJ ET BT 236.324 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Les Orpailleurs)] TJ ET BT 311.996 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, uses survivor-testimony only in fragments. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young examining judge, Nadia Lintz, herself the daughter of a war profiteer, becomes the empathetic listener )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a Holocaust survivor. This narrative avoids all references to German crimes, focusing instead on both past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and present-day activities in Poland and France. Jonquet also comments on the industry of Holocaust 're-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentation' \(p. 96\) and the post-war trafficking of Jewish possessions, not limited to any singular country. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally Konop's )] TJ ET BT 113.516 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pas de Kaddish pour Sylberstein)] TJ ET BT 270.848 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has a Jewish police inspector trying to solve murder in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish district of Belleville on the 50th anniversary of the rafle du Vlodrome d'Hiver. The survivor-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witness, Sylberstein, is revealed to be a disguised Ukrainian war criminal, Kravniouk, who had reinvented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself in the chaos of the war's end. The inspector learns through the course of the novel of the number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former SS agents who reinvented themselves as communist leaders in the then-emerging East Germany )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, combined with the unreliable narration of the survivor-witness, render moral certainties less than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solid. Even within established accounts of historic events, there are more viewpoints and interpretations than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously considered.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter explores the role of children's crime fiction in forming a 'civic memory' of the Second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World War. Questions of collective responsibility are addressed in the classroom but are supplemented by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fictional readings. The late 1990s were marked by the official recognition by the state, most notably in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995 address by President Jacques Chirac where he apologized for the actions of the Vichy regime for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicity in the persecution and extermination of Jews. With the collective aging of the remaining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survivors of the war, an increasing percentage of successor generations have little to no direct family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience with war memories. Finding the appropriate way to incorporate this historical era into the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system of education has been especially challenging, but at the end of the 20th century, a sophisticated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internationalised curriculum was adopted that was 'placed in an expanded chronological frame, harnessed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a human rights discourse and inflected by debates on the legacies of war for present-day society' \(p. 112\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Within this curriculum, fictional accounts are used as ancillary materials to reflect moral and ethical issues. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Until the 1980s, children's crime fiction in France had been limited to translations of British and American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(works from Arthur Conan Doyle to Caroline Keene. Founded in 1986, the )] TJ ET BT 392.636 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Souris Noire)] TJ ET BT 453.644 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( series from Editions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Syros has recruited celebrated authors of adult crime fiction to write mysteries for a younger audience. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Boudet's )] TJ ET BT 114.176 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mon prof est espion)] TJ ET BT 209.840 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, aimed at a pre-teen audience, includes fragments of war memories as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(young detective suspects that his teacher is not who he says he is. Though the teacher does have a secret to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncover, he has not committed any crime, but it is revealed that his real parents had been persecuted during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war. Instead of a story about justice, it is a story about identity and responsibility. Similarly, Mireille )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Szac's )] TJ ET BT 66.500 314.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Un lourd silence)] TJ ET BT 146.492 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has issues of identity and responsibility, but in the sense of knowing one's family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. In this story, a young boy wants to learn more about his grandfather, who is revealed to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collaborated in the same militia as Paul Touvier. Rather than keep this discovery to himself, the boy takes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility and tries to make right with descendants of those victims wronged by his grandfather. Romain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Slocombe's )] TJ ET BT 91.844 256.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Qui se)] TJ ET BT 125.840 256.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(souvient de Paula)] TJ ET BT 211.832 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, from the )] TJ ET BT 261.824 256.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rat Noir)] TJ ET BT 303.500 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( collection, differs from the other two in that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protagonist/narrator is not from a successor-generation but has actual wartime experience. In this novel, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survivor wants to learn what happened to his sweetheart, believed to have died, presenting the effects of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lifetime of survivor guilt. In each of the three novels, recognition of the persecution of Jews is pivotal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding the period, and civic responsibility for the past carries more weight than individual efforts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gorrara illustrates how French writers of crime fiction have used their genre to integrate cultural and social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values with the war memories of their characters to give a voice to the Second World War experience. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cultural context precedes changes seen in that period, before examples of fictional representations, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each chapter focused on one or two decades, giving a well-rounded portrait to those studying the half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century following the Second World War in France.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 99.967 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 82.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 82.187 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1422)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 80.793 m 328.316 80.793 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 55.816 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 81.1075 328.3157 92.9875 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/1422) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 154 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/63864)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000586 00000 n 0000000668 00000 n 0000004740 00000 n 0000004849 00000 n 0000004959 00000 n 0000005068 00000 n 0000008629 00000 n 0000008757 00000 n 0000008841 00000 n 0000008906 00000 n 0000017392 00000 n 0000017457 00000 n 0000025926 00000 n 0000026010 00000 n 0000034178 00000 n 0000034304 00000 n 0000034400 00000 n 0000034465 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34671 %%EOF