%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 41 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141001192133+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141001192133+01'00') /Title (Handbuch der europischen Verfassungsgeschichte im 19. Jahrhundert) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4152 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Handbuch der europischen Verfassungsgeschichte im 19. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Jahrhundert)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Six years after the publication of the first volume of the )] TJ ET BT 303.644 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Handbook of Nineteenth-Century European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Constitutional History )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 144.704 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 144.704 222.033 m 158.696 222.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 158.696 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the long-awaited second has appeared. While the first ranged from around 1770 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 1815 over 1224 pages, its successor covers the time between the Congress of Vienna \(1814/1815\) and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolutions of 1848 using 1504 pages. However, it is not just sheer size that identifies this as a milestone in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional historiography but rather the territorial scope and multifarious perspectives of the project. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volumes three \(1848?70\) and four \(to around 1900\) should appear in the near future, and each volume is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanied by a CD-ROM which includes constitutional sources. The CD-ROM which parallels volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two contains 965 texts concerning European constitutional history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The project was produced by the Historische Forschungszentrum der Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung \(Historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Research Center of the Friedrich-Ebert-Foundation\), which acts as the sponsoring institution, and the Institut )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fr Europische Verfassungswissenschaften der FernUniversitt in Hagen \(Institute for European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constitutional History at the University Hagen\), where the editors \(except Martin Kirsch\) are based. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other contributors \(of which there are more than 30\) are either experts for the country whose constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1423)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 30 May, 2013)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Werner Daum)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Brandt)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Kirsch)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arthur Schlegelmilch)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9783801241414)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(130.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1504pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dietz Verlag J.H.W. Nachf.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bonn)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Olaf Blaschke)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 144.7037 222.3475 158.6957 234.2275 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7356 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history they examine or experts from the country whose constitutional history they examine. The 21 chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cover all European nations, some of them which even didn?t exist at the time, like Norway \(Peter Brandt\), or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were in )] TJ ET BT 72.668 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(statu nascendi)] TJ ET BT 141.668 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( like the Romanian principalities \(Dietmar Mller, Leipzig; Ioan Stanomir, Bukarest; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bogdan Murgescu, Bukarest\). The United States of America \(Peter Brandt\) are included, since the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Declaration of Independence and the American Constitution of 1787 exerted a lasting influence on French, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British and German constitutional thinking, though less on southern Romanic countries. The project fulfills )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the modern demand of international and transnational perspectives. Russia \(Dietmar Wulff, Bielefeld; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michail Dmitrievi? Karpa?ev, Vorone?\), though without a written constitution, is also dealt with, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autocratic Ottoman Empire \(Tobias Heinzelmann, Zurich\), serves as a contrast to European developments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and as an explicit contribution to the discussion about Turkey being a part of or apart from Europe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The panorama of countries starts with Great Britain \(Hans-Christof Kraus, Passau\), which doesn?t fit into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the continental frame of the epoch between 1815 and 1848. It was the Great Reform of 1832 which ended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a long Ancien Rgime but separated an Old from a New Regime. Following this, the rather lengthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(article about France \(Martin Kirsch, Berlin; Daniela Kneil, Bonn\) discusses the three constitutions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regimes between the Charte of 1814 and the revolutions of 1830 and 1848.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most extensive are the chapters about Italy and Switzerland with about 90 pages each, and about the German-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speaking countries, which cover 300 pages. The explanation for this asymmetry lies not in the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origin of the book-project and the editors? affinity to Italy but in the heterogeneous and federal character of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subjects. The chapter about Italy concentrates on the Kingdoms of Sardinia and the Two Sicilies \(Werner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daum\), and on the central Italian principalities and the Papal States \(Francesca Sofia, Bologna\). The author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing with Switzerland \(Ulrich Zelger, Zrich\) is confronted with 19 cantons in 1814, with 22.5 in 1815 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, after some segregations, a civil war and re-arrangements, 22 cantons in 1848, all of them having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republican constitutions, except monarchic Neuenburg. The Swiss case includes as many countries as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rest of Europe, the German case doubles the problem. If Spain \(Walther L. Bernecker, Erlangen-Nrnberg; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jens Spth, Rom\), like France, created three constitutions in this period \(1812, 1837 and 1845\), the German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Confederation of 1815 \(Edgar Liebmann, Wuppertal\), with its own frail constitutional architectecture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consisted of 37 states and four cities. Some of them, like Baden, Wrttemberg and Bayern, adopted a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution in the first wave of constitutionalisation \(Hartwig Brandt, Marburg\) before 1819, others like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanover, Saxony and Hesse in the second wave \(Ewald Grothe, Wuppertal\) around 1830, and some of them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never made it \(Axel Kellmann, Kln\). The biggest German countries, Prussia \(Monika Wienfort, Berlin\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austria \(Markus J. Prutsch, Helsinki; Arthur Schlegelmilch, Hagen\), successfully refused it until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolution of 1848.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Medium sized articles of between 30 and 60 pages about the Netherlands \(Jeroen van Zanten, Amsterdam\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Belgium \(Johannes Koll, Wien\), Luxemburg \(Norbert Franz, Luxembourg\), Poland \(Martina Thomsen, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kiel\), Hungary \(Andrs Gergely, Budapest\), Liechtenstein \(Herbert Wille, Bendern\), Sweden \(Otfried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Czaika, Stockholm\) and Denmark \(Jens E. Olesen, Greifswald\), Finland \(Frank Nesemann, Speyer\), Serbia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Holm Sundhaussen, Berlin; Nenad Stefanov, Berlin\), Greece \(Ioannis Zelepos, Wien\) and Portugal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Antnio Manuel Hespanha, Lissabon\) complete the picture.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(200 pages seems rather long for an introduction, but this length is needed in order to explain the theoretical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and comparative approach, guiding the reader through the confusing landscape of European constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments. It deals with social and economic developments in Europe between 1815 and 1848 \(Peter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brandt\) and European constitutional thought \(Pierangelo Schiera, Trento\), but the heart of the introduction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and of the entire book is the comparative synthesis. Written by Werner Daum, except the part about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international relations and treaties \(Bardo Fassbender, Mnchen\), it offers an illuminating overview of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different constitutional categories, drawing lines between all the countries dealt with.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, the book follows a double organisational principle. While it proceeds from country to country each of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these studies is structured into 12 categories. The editors developed and exhaustively explained these in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume one. The twelve organizational categories are: 1. international relations, 2. constitutional structure at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state level, 3. suffrage, 4. basic laws, 5. administration, 6. justice, 7. military, 8. constitutional culture, 9. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7224 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church/religion, 10. education, 11. finances, and finally 12. economic and social legislation/public welfare. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This principle enables the reader to draw comparisons between the countries. But Daum has already done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most of the work, structuring his analysis according to the twelve categories and presenting a synopsis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(country-studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The twelve dimensions are substantial, allowing for a rather wide understanding of constitutional history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which is not reduced to the history of political structures or the history of constitutional law \(written or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unwritten\) as an autonomous sphere. On the other hand, the twelve constitutional fields protect the project )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from slipping into a )] TJ ET BT 132.020 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(histoire totale)] TJ ET BT 199.028 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Rather, the realistic understanding of constitutions ? as the arrangement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the entire institutions responsible for the regulation of society ? is guided by a specific view on social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments, on the interaction between political systems with the social and economic changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accelerating in the late 18th century. Beyond mere constitutional laws constitutional reality is taken seriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as well. It is the relationship between both which form ?the real constitution?.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Was constitutional history in Europe both diverse and capable of exhibiting common features? The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative approach allows us to move beyond such simplistic ideas. Though corporate, absolutistic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autocratic monarchies persisted, accompanied by a few republics, the post-Napoleonic era until 1848 was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised by monarchic constitutionalism. This argument is repeated \(for example, p. 9, pp. 181?5\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflects an earlier argument by Martin Kirsch.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 254.288 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 254.288 542.979 m 268.280 542.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 268.280 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In contrast to the concept of constitutional monarchy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchical constitutionalism emphasises the constitution-creating role of the monarch. The constitution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was implanted as a monarchical instrument. The monarch is guaranteeing the constitution more than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitution is able to qualify his rule. Constitutions were their answer to the new quest for legitimacy. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vienna Final Act of 1820 confirmed the monarchical principal. International relationships and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility for territorial integrity remained the domain of the monarch. This was clear in any case. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Therefore, written constitutions had nothing to say about foreign politics. In the dualism between crown and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parliament the monarch had the final say.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Looking at constitutional realities, rather than simply whether there was a written constitution or not, Werner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daum offers a very useful typology \(pp. 75?94\). It starts with regimes without constitutions, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autocracies like Russia. Absolutistic regimes consisted of three subcategories: authoritarian like Oldenburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or Greece \(1833?44\), administrative monarchies like Austria, and consultative monarchies like Prussia or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Denmark \(from 1834\), with the Ottoman Empire and the Papal States sharing a bit of everything. Two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intermediate types between absolutism and constitutionalism were corporate monarchies as in Tirol or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hanover and oligarchic-patrician regimes like Hamburg and some Swiss cantons. The last category is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutionalism. It can also be divided into three subcategories: a dual system with the primacy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarch like in France \(1814?1830\); with primacy of parliament like France from 1830 and Belgium; or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lastly parliamentary constitutionalism as represented only in Great Britain from 1835. A handy chart \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(76?9\) illustrates this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Beyond such typologies the social and cultural constitutional realities differ while having many traits in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common. Only 0.3 per cent of the French population \(1814?30\) had the right to vote, 1.8 per cent in Bavaria )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were able to ? compared to 17 per cent in Baden since 1819 \(p. 98, 293, 836f.\). It was a time when the wave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of democratisation and egalitarian suffrage, starting around 1800, experienced a rollback to liberal suffrage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with high census-based restrictions, corruption and manipulation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Influences and transfers ? jurists say reception, ethnologists talk about diffusion ? are followed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophical ideas, practices and written constitutions. The contemporary European views and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misperceptions of North America are discussed, including the influence of European constitutionalism on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hispanic America in the 1820s, and the example of how the Belgian constitution, adopted in 1831, served as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a model for the constitutions of Serbia. Spain, and Portugal in the mid-1830s, and for Greece, Luxemburg, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Netherlands, and some Italian states in the 1840s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charts and maps enrich the volume, while the obviously computer-generated index enriches nobody. It has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too few keywords and the reader finds those which were chosen like Adel \(gentry\) or ffentlichkeit \(the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 254.2877 543.2935 268.2797 555.1735 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8949 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public\) on every other page anyway. An index of persons is badly missed. The selected bibliography is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helpful but why do authors have a first name and editors not? Some authors tend to write too long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentences, putting every national exception of the general rule they are proposing into the same sentence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alongside with the book a CD-Rom is available. As with other collections )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 394.328 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 394.328 740.307 m 408.320 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 408.320 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( it contains the constitutions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the time, but beyond that plenty of relevant laws, decrees and memoranda, many of them hard to find, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selected reflections of contemporaries like Madame de Stael, Henry Hallam, Thomas B. Macaulay, Wilhelm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(von Humboldt, Alexis de Toqueville and many others, even some crucial parliamentary debates like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benjamin Disraeli?s 1839 speech in the House of Commons on civil rights. The 965 texts are left in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original language, and some of them have been scanned and left in the Cyrillic or Arabic original. Important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key sources are both in the original language and in German \(Charte 1814\). The organisational principal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the CD-ROM follows the book, country after country, but the sources within each country are segmented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to the 12 constitutional dimensions. The search tools are provided in German, English and French.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A parallel reading of the second volume of 2012 and of the contemporary historian Karl Heinrich Ludwig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plitz on )] TJ ET BT 80.024 587.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Forms and Conditions of Constitutional Life \(Das constitutionelle Leben, nach seinen Formen und )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Bedingungen)] TJ ET BT 97.340 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), published in 1831 and covering the previous 40 years, produces some surprises.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 490.280 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 490.280 571.491 m 504.272 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 504.272 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( There has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been much progress in the study of constitutions in the last 180 years. Archival sources uncover the interests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the politicians negotiating the constitutions, statistics about suffrage tell about the broken constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realities and the lack of participation in early 19th century. Social historical questions and cultural studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enrich the field. Nevertheless, some things haven?t cchanged. Plitz was already concerned with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international comparisons. From the beginning until now constitutional history, especially comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional history, has been obsessed with building types. The once entered path is broader today, but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is still the same path. Plitz distinguishes monarchies from republics, the modern typologies are slightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more subtle. Plitz contrasts imposed \()] TJ ET BT 220.676 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(oktroyierte)] TJ ET BT 273.332 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) constitutions, constitutions negotiated with corporations, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and those negotiated with representatives of the people. The threefold approach in the latest handbook about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the motives and origins of constitutions is quite similar \(p. 93 f.\). Plitz was already concerned with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of suffrage rights and with voting-mechanisms, while today we are more informed about social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backgrounds. As early as 1831 Plitz reflected on the American influence, and about transfers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparisons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All in all, the handbook, though not the first to compare constitutions in Europe )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.336 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.336 359.907 m 433.328 359.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 433.328 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is able as a co-operative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(project to cover more than single scholars could usually achieve. A solid survey of tendencies all over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe is a challenging task. The authors were disciplined in following using the 12 dimensions approach, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which makes the book an indispensable source from which to learn about and to compare European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional history. The book includes the latest scholarly discussions, taking into consideration gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and cultural studies, endeavouring to consider transnational and transfer perspectives, which are hardly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explored in constitutional historiography, and integrating even the latest trend of global history. Again and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again the authors concede how much transnational and global research still needs to be done, but )] TJ ET BT 501.596 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Handbuch der europ)] TJ ET BT 134.000 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 140.000 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ischen Verfassungsgeschichte im 19. Jahrhundert)] TJ ET BT 378.308 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( lays a great foundation for this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research, and has set the standard for modern constitutional historiography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.099 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 167.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Handbuch der europ)] TJ ET BT 164.000 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 170.000 167.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ischen Verfassungsgeschichte im 19. Jahrhundert. Institutionen und )] TJ ET BT 64.016 153.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rechtspraxis im gesellschaftlichen Wandel, vol. 1: Um 1800)] TJ ET BT 353.648 153.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Peter Brandt et. al., \(Bonn 2006\). )] TJ ET BT 64.016 138.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Results, schedules and tables of content of the project can be seen at <)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.fernuni-hagen.de/dtiev/handbuch_verfassungsgeschichte)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 123.315 m 393.956 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 396.956 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 410.948 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(> [accessed 7 March 2013] .)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 109.059 m 118.004 109.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 96.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Kirsch, )] TJ ET BT 137.672 96.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monarch und Parlament im 19. Jahrhundert. Der monarchische Konstitutionalismus )] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(als europ)] TJ ET BT 109.016 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 115.016 81.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ischer Verfassungstyp ? Frankreich im Vergleich)] TJ ET BT 351.320 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Gttingen 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.312 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.312 80.547 m 494.300 80.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 67.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, )] TJ ET BT 130.340 67.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Constitutions of the World from the late 18th Century to the Middle of the 19th Century / )] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sources on the Rise of Modern Constitutionalism)] TJ ET BT 300.020 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Horst Dippel; )] TJ ET BT 392.012 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rechtshistorische Texte: Europ)] TJ ET BT 542.660 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET BT 64.016 39.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ische Verfassungsgeschichte)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 394.3277 740.6215 408.3197 752.5015 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 490.2797 571.8055 504.2717 583.6855 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 419.3357 360.2215 433.3277 372.1015 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 123.6295 393.9557 135.5095 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.fernuni-hagen.de/dtiev/handbuch_verfassungsgeschichte) >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 109.3735 118.0037 121.2535 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 440.3117 80.8615 494.2997 92.7415 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 2013 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, ed. Dietmar Willoweit / Ulrike Seif \(Mnchen, 2003\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 332.312 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 332.312 795.075 m 386.300 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karl Heinrich Ludwig Plitz, )] TJ ET BT 207.668 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Das Constitutionelle Leben, nach seinen Formen und Bedingungen)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Leipzig 1931\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 138.668 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 138.668 766.563 m 192.656 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Particularly Wolfgang Reinhard, )] TJ ET BT 223.988 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Geschichte der Staatsgewalt. 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